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1.
Chest ; 162(4):A1773, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060858

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Drug-Induced Lung Injury Pathology Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Daptomycin is an antibiotic that exerts its bactericidal effect by disrupting multiple aspects of bacterial cell membrane function. It has notable adverse effects including myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, eosinophilic pneumonitis, and anaphylactic hypersensitivity reactions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old male with a history of type 2 diabetes presented with a 1-week history of dyspnea and productive cough. 2 weeks prior, he was started on vancomycin for MRSA osteomyelitis of the right foot, but was switched to daptomycin due to vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity. On presentation he was afebrile, tachycardic 100, hypertensive 183/109, tachypneic to 26, hypoxemic 84% on room air, which improved to 94% on nasal cannula. Chest exam noted coarse breath sounds in all fields and pitting edema of lower extremities were present. Labs showed leukocytosis of 15.2/L, Na of 132 mmol/L, and creatinine 3.20mg/dL (normal 1 month prior). COVID-19 testing was negative. Chest X-ray noted new bilateral asymmetric opacifications. Daptomycin was discontinued on day 1 of admission, he was started on IV diuretics and ceftaroline. Further study noted peripheral eosinophilia. Computed tomography of the chest showed bilateral centrally predominant ground-glass infiltrates with air bronchograms and subcarinal and paratracheal lymphadenopathy. On day 4, he underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. Cytology noted 4% eosinophil with 43% lymphocytes. Eventually, oxygen requirements and kidney function returned to baseline. He was discharged on ceftaroline for osteomyelitis DISCUSSION: Daptomycin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonitis (AEP) often results in respiratory failure in the setting of exposure to doses of daptomycin >6mg/kg/day. It is characterized by the infiltration of pulmonary parenchyma with eosinophils and is often associated with peripheral eosinophilia. AEP has been associated with certain chemicals, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and antibiotics including daptomycin. Renal dysfunction is associated with an increased risk for developing AEP. The mechanism for daptomycin-induced lung injury is unknown but is believed to be related to daptomycin binding to pulmonary surfactant culminating in epithelial injury. Diagnostic criteria include recent daptomycin exposure, fever, dyspnea with hypoxemic respiratory failure, new infiltrates on chest radiography, BAL with > 25% eosinophils, and clinical improvement following daptomycin discontinuation. Our patient met four out of six criteria;we believe that BAL results were due to discontinuing daptomycin days before the procedure was performed. Sometimes stopping daptomycin is enough for recovery, however, steroids may be beneficial and were used in some of the cases reported in the literature CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider AEP in a patient on Daptomycin presenting with respiratory failure, as timely discontinuation favors a good prognosis Reference #1: Uppal P, LaPlante KL, Gaitanis MM, Jankowich MD, Ward KE. Daptomycin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia - a systematic review. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2016;5:55. Published 2016 Dec 12. doi:10.1186/s13756-016-0158-8 Reference #2: Kumar S, Acosta-Sanchez I, Rajagopalan N. Daptomycin-induced Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Cureus. 2018;10(6):e2899. Published 2018 Jun 30. doi:10.7759/cureus.2899 Reference #3: Bartal C, Sagy I, Barski L. Drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia: A review of 196 case reports. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(4):e9688. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000009688 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Chika Winifred Akabusi No relevant relationships by Shazia Choudry No relevant relationships by Hector Ojeda-Martinez No relevant relationships by Mario Torres

2.
Chest ; 162(4):A423-A424, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060593

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenging Cases of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of excessive immune activation in response to a variety of insults including malignant, autoimmune and infectious processes. The most common infectious trigger is a viral infection, but other pathogens have also been implicated including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) CASE PRESENTATION: 62-year-old male from Bangladesh presented due to lethargy, weakness, and anorexia for several weeks. He also reported fevers, diarrhea, and unintentional weight loss. On examination, he appeared acutely ill with diffuse bibasilar crackles on lung exam. Labs showed platelets of 132, ESR 45 mm/hr, CRP 9.6mg/dL, ferritin 1,765ng/mL and transaminitis. A viral panel was positive for Rhinovirus. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and he was started on antibiotics for pneumonia. On day 3, his respiratory status worsened and he was emergently intubated. He underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and started on high-dose steroids for possible hypersensitivity pneumonitis. On day 5, he was extubated to nasal cannula, however, his condition worsened despite treatment. Extensive infectious workup, including HIV, Covid and P jirovecii PCR, sputum, and blood cultures, and preliminary AFB smear were negative. Subsequent labs noted rising ferritin levels (4,164 ng/mL), high triglycerides, pancytopenia and transaminitis. Calculated H score was 211 which gave a 93-96% probability of HLH. Initiation of Etoposide was discussed but family deferred. He was later transferred to another facility. On follow-up, IL-2 receptor antibodies were elevated, bone marrow biopsy showed hemophagocytosis and necrotizing granulomas. He was intubated for worsening hypoxemia. Repeat bronchoscopy and BAL analysis showed many acid-fast bacilli. Anti TB treatment (ATT) was deferred due to his critical state. He further declined and eventually expired. DISCUSSION: The exact mechanism for which MTB triggers HLH is unclear, however, it is thought that MTB serves as an obligate intracellular pathogen after phagocytosis by phagocytic cells to induce TH1-mediated cytotoxicity, activating macrophages and NK cells, further releasing a large quantity of cytokines and chemokines. The lack of specific clinical signs, low sensitivity for acid-fast staining, and time-consuming culture make the diagnosis of TB-HLH difficult. However, the use of NAATs has improved the yield of sputum testing. Exceedingly high ferritin levels should serve as a red flag in cases of undetermined diagnosis. Moreso, Cytopenias, elevated LFTs, and coagulation dysfunction are other clues that a diagnosis of HLH should be on the differential. It is believed that early and effective ATT is the key to preventing HLH in TB patients. CONCLUSIONS: It is paramount to both recognize the features of TB as well as HLH as early diagnosis and treatment favor better outcomes. Reference #1: Padhi S, Ravichandran K, Sahoo J, Varghese RG, Basheer A. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: An Unusual Complication in Disseminated Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Lung India (2015) 32(6):593–601. doi: 10.4103/0970-2113.168100 Reference #2: Dalugama, C., Gawarammana, I.B. Fever with pancytopenia: unusual presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a case report. J Med Case Reports 12, 58 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13256-018-1596-0 Reference #3: O M P Jolobe, Timely recognition of hematophagocytosis attributable to coexistence of lymphoma and tuberculosis, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Volume 112, Issue 4, April 2019, Page 315, https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcy198 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Katherine Acosta No relevant relationships by Chika Winifred Akabusi No relevant relationships by Uma Medapati No relevant relationships by Hector Ojeda-Martinez No relevant relationships by Busala Oke No relevant relationships by Mar o Torres

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