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1.
Kidney360 ; 2(6): 924-936, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776841

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection has, as of April 2021, affected >133 million people worldwide, causing >2.5 million deaths. Because the large majority of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 are asymptomatic, major concerns have been raised about possible long-term consequences of the infection. Methods: Wedeveloped an antigen capture assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in urine samples from patients with COVID-19whose diagnosis was confirmed by positive PCR results from nasopharyngeal swabs (NP-PCR+) forSARS-CoV-2. We used a collection of 233 urine samples from 132 participants from Yale New Haven Hospital and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia that were obtained during the pandemic (106 NP-PCR+ and 26 NP-PCR-), and a collection of 20 urine samples from 20 individuals collected before the pandemic. Results: Our analysis identified 23 out of 91 (25%) NP-PCR+ adult participants with SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein in urine (Ur-S+). Interestingly, although all NP-PCR+ children were Ur-S-, one child who was NP-PCR- was found to be positive for spike protein in their urine. Of the 23 adults who were Ur-S+, only one individual showed detectable viral RNA in urine. Our analysis further showed that 24% and 21% of adults who were NP-PCR+ had high levels of albumin and cystatin C, respectively, in their urine. Among individuals with albuminuria (>0.3 mg/mg of creatinine), statistical correlation could be found between albumin and spike protein in urine. Conclusions: Together, our data showed that one of four individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop renal abnormalities, such as albuminuria. Awareness about the long-term effect of these findings is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the cumulative seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among employees of a large pediatric healthcare system. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational cohort study open to adult employees at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, conducted April 20-December 17, 2020. METHODS: Employees were recruited starting with high-risk exposure groups, utilizing e-mails, flyers, and announcements at virtual town hall meetings. At baseline, 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months, participants reported occupational and community exposures and gave a blood sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A post hoc Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to identify factors associated with increased risk for seropositivity. RESULTS: In total, 1,740 employees were enrolled. At 6 months, the cumulative seroprevalence was 5.3%, which was below estimated community point seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among employees who provided direct care and was 3.4% among employees who did not perform direct patient care. Most participants who were seropositive at baseline remained positive at follow-up assessments. In a post hoc analysis, direct patient care (hazard ratio [HR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.68), Black race (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.24-5.87), and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 2.71-6.88) were associated with statistically significant increased risk for seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: Employee SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rates remained below the point-prevalence rates of the surrounding community. Provision of direct patient care, Black race, and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting conferred increased risk. These data can inform occupational protection measures to maximize protection of employees within the workplace during future COVID-19 waves or other epidemics.

3.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(9): 2596-2603, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328835

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is diagnosed through detection of specific viral nucleic acid or antigens from respiratory samples. These techniques are relatively expensive, slow, and susceptible to false-negative results. A rapid noninvasive method to detect infection would be highly advantageous. Compelling evidence from canine biosensors and studies of adults with COVID-19 suggests that infection reproducibly alters human volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles. To determine whether pediatric infection is associated with VOC changes, we enrolled SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected children admitted to a major pediatric academic medical center. Breath samples were collected from children and analyzed through state-of-the-art GCxGC-ToFMS. Isolated features included 84 targeted VOCs. Candidate biomarkers that were correlated with infection status were subsequently validated in a second, independent cohort of children. We thus find that six volatile organic compounds are significantly and reproducibly increased in the breath of SARS-CoV-2 infected children. Three aldehydes (octanal, nonanal, and heptanal) drew special attention, as aldehydes are also elevated in the breath of adults with COVID-19. Together, these biomarkers demonstrate high accuracy for distinguishing pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and support the ongoing development of novel breath-based diagnostics.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250158, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183679

ABSTRACT

While the world awaits a widely available COVID-19 vaccine, availability of testing is limited in many regions and can be further compounded by shortages of reagents, prolonged processing time and delayed results. One approach to rapid testing is to leverage the volatile organic compound (VOC) signature of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Detection dogs, a biological sensor of VOCs, were utilized to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 positive urine and saliva patient samples had a unique odor signature. The virus was inactivated in all training samples with either detergent or heat treatment. Using detergent-inactivated urine samples, dogs were initially trained to find samples collected from hospitalized patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, while ignoring samples collected from controls. Dogs were then tested on their ability to spontaneously recognize heat-treated urine samples as well as heat-treated saliva from hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Dogs successfully discriminated between infected and uninfected urine samples, regardless of the inactivation protocol, as well as heat-treated saliva samples. Generalization to novel samples was limited, particularly after intensive training with a restricted sample set. A unique odor associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection present in human urine as well as saliva, provides impetus for the development of odor-based screening, either by electronic, chemical, or biological sensing methods. The use of dogs for screening in an operational setting will require training with a large number of novel SARS-CoV-2 positive and confirmed negative samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Working Dogs/psychology , Animals , COVID-19/urine , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/chemistry , Specimen Handling/methods , Volatile Organic Compounds/chemistry
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