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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335196

ABSTRACT

Summary The detailed mechanisms of COVID-19 infection pathology remain poorly understood. To improve our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathology, we performed a multi-omics analysis of an immunologically naïve SARS-CoV-2 clinical cohort from the plasma of uninfected controls, mild, and severe infections. A comparison of healthy controls and patient samples showed activation of neutrophil degranulation pathways and formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) complexes that were activated in a subset of the mild infections and more prevalent in severe infections (containing multiple NET proteins in individual patient samples). As a potential mechanism to suppress NET formation, multiple redox enzymes were elevated in the mild and severe symptom population. Analysis of metabolites from the same cohort showed a 24- and 60-fold elevation in plasma L-cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, which is a substrate of the powerful antioxidant glutathione, in mild and severe patients, respectively. Unique to patients with mild infections, the carnosine dipeptidase modifying enzyme (CNDP1) was up-regulated. The strong protein and metabolite oxidation signatures suggest multiple compensatory pathways working to suppress oxidation and NET formation in SARS-CoV-2 infections.

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100734, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop an effective vaccine against a novel viral pathogen, it is important to understand the longitudinal antibody responses against its first infection. Here we performed a longitudinal study of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients. METHODS: Sequential blood samples were collected from 39 individuals at various timepoints between 0 and 154 days after onset. IgG or IgM titers to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein were determined by using an ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured by using a plaque reduction assay. FINDINGS: The IgG titers to the RBD of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein peaked at about 20 days after onset, gradually decreased thereafter, and were maintained for several months after onset. Extrapolation modeling analysis suggested that the IgG antibodies were maintained for this amount of time because the rate of reduction slowed after 30 days post-onset. IgM titers to the RBD decreased rapidly and disappeared in some individuals after 90 days post-onset. All patients, except one, possessed neutralizing antibodies against authentic SARS-CoV-2, which they retained at 90 days after onset. The highest antibody titers in patients with severe infections were higher than those in patients with mild or moderate infections, but the decrease in antibody titer in the severe infection cohort was more remarkable than that in the mild or moderate infection cohort. INTERPRETATION: Although the number of patients is limited, our results show that the antibody response against the first SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic patients is typical of that observed in an acute viral infection. FUNDING: The Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276013

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays a key role in viral infectivity. It is also the major antigen stimulating the host's protective immune response, specifically, the production of neutralizing antibodies. Recently, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 possessing multiple mutations in the S protein, designated P.1, emerged in Brazil. Here, we characterized a P.1 variant isolated in Japan by using Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal model for the study of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). In hamsters, the variant showed replicative abilities and pathogenicity similar to those of early and contemporary strains (i.e., SARS-CoV-2 bearing aspartic acid [D] or glycine [G] at position 614 of the S protein). Sera and/or plasma from convalescent patients and BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccinees showed comparable neutralization titers across the P.1 variant, S-614D, and S-614G strains. In contrast, the S-614D and S-614G strains were less well recognized than the P.1 variant by serum from a P.1-infected patient. Prior infection with S-614D or S-614G strains efficiently prevented the replication of the P.1 variant in the lower respiratory tract of hamsters upon reinfection. In addition, passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies to hamsters infected with the P.1 variant or the S-614G strain led to reduced virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. However, the effect was less pronounced against the P.1 variant than the S-614G strain. These findings suggest that the P.1 variant may be somewhat antigenically different from the early and contemporary strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography
4.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(6): e47-e50, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174606

ABSTRACT

The Diamond Princess cruise ship, carrying 3711 passengers and crew members, docked at Yokohama Port in Japan on February 3, 2020. A quarantine was immediately instituted because 1 passenger who had disembarked in Hong Kong was confirmed to have tested positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). After the quarantine began, all passengers and crew were tested using the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction assay on the ship, 696 of whom tested positive. In total, 769 patients, including 696 with COVID-19, required transport to a hospital. The Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) successfully picked up and safely transported the COVID-19 patients using a novel classification system to prioritize patients. The Japan DMAT transported 203 patients to hospitals in Kanagawa and another 566 patients to hospitals in 15 different prefectures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Transportation of Patients/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Humans , Japan , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Ships
5.
Sci Adv ; 7(10)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119272

ABSTRACT

Limited knowledge exists on immune markers associated with disease severity or recovery in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we elucidated longitudinal evolution of SARS-CoV-2 antibody repertoire in patients with acute COVID-19. Differential kinetics was observed for immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG/IgA epitope diversity, antibody binding, and affinity maturation in "severe" versus "mild" COVID-19 patients. IgG profile demonstrated immunodominant antigenic sequences encompassing fusion peptide and receptor binding domain (RBD) in patients with mild COVID-19 who recovered early compared with "fatal" COVID-19 patients. In patients with severe COVID-19, high-titer IgA were observed, primarily against RBD, especially in patients who succumbed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patients with mild COVID-19 showed marked increase in antibody affinity maturation to prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike that associated with faster recovery from COVID-19. This study revealed antibody markers associated with disease severity and resolution of clinical disease that could inform development and evaluation of effective immune-based countermeasures against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , HEK293 Cells , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Kinetics , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
7.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970091

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)-based tests are widely used to diagnose coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As a result that these tests cannot be done in local clinics where RT-qPCR testing capability is lacking, rapid antigen tests (RATs) for COVID-19 based on lateral flow immunoassays are used for rapid diagnosis. However, their sensitivity compared with each other and with RT-qPCR and infectious virus isolation has not been examined. Here, we compared the sensitivity among four RATs by using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolates and several types of COVID-19 patient specimens and compared their sensitivity with that of RT-qPCR and infectious virus isolation. Although the RATs read the samples containing large amounts of virus as positive, even the most sensitive RAT read the samples containing small amounts of virus as negative. Moreover, all RATs tested failed to detect viral antigens in several specimens from which the virus was isolated. The current RATs will likely miss some COVID-19 patients who are shedding infectious SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Immunoassay , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
8.
Kansenshogaku Zasshi ; 94(4):490-494, 2020.
Article in Japanese | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-694660

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus infection in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019, has spread rapidly around the world, and the number of cases with no apparent route of transmission (cases of community transmission) is increasing in Japan. We have encountered 45 cases of COVID-19 infection, including 33 male and 12 female patients. The average age of the patients was 50.6 years. The symptoms were fever in 39 (86.7%) cases, cough in 33 (73.3%) cases, malaise in 24 (53.3%) cases, and diarrhea in 5 (11.1%) cases. In addition, according to the Kanagawa-model severity classification constructed by Kanagawa Prefecture to avoid collapse of the medical infrastructure caused by a sudden increase in patients, 30 cases were classified as having mild disease, 14 as having moderately severe disease, and 1 as having severe disease. Of the 30 patients with mild disease, 1 (3.3%) showed deterioration to moderately severe disease during the clinical course, and of the 14 patients with moderately severe disease, 6 (42.9%) showed deterioration to severe disease. The findings in respect of the subsequent clinical course of the patients suggest that the Kanagawa-model severity classification is a reasonable classification for satisfactory triage of patients.

9.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(8): 865-869, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245541

ABSTRACT

We investigated the clinical course of individuals with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who were transferred from the Diamond Princess cruise ship to 12 local hospitals. The conditions and clinical courses of patients with pneumonia were compared with those of patients without pneumonia. Among 70 patients (median age: 67 years) analyzed, the major symptoms were fever (64.3%), cough (54.3%), and general fatigue (24.3%). Forty-three patients (61.4%) had pneumonia. Higher body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate as well as higher of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lower serum albumin level and lymphocyte count were associated with the presence of pneumonia. Ground-glass opacity was found in 97.7% of the patients with pneumonia. Patients were administered neuraminidase inhibitors (20%), lopinavir/ritonavir (32.9%), and ciclesonide inhalation (11.4%). Mechanical ventilation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed on 14 (20%) and 2 (2.9%) patients, respectively; two patients died. The median duration of intubation was 12 days. The patients with COVID-19 transferred to local hospitals during the outbreak had severe conditions and needed close monitoring. The severity of COVID-19 depends on the presence of pneumonia. High serum LDH, AST and CRP levels and low serum albumin level and lymphocyte count were found to be predictors of pneumonia. It was challenging for local hospitals to admit and treat these patients during the outbreak of COVID-19. Assessment of severity was crucial to manage a large number of patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/complications , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ships
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