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1.
BMC Infectious Diseases ; 22(1):932, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy amongst pregnant women has been found to be a concern during past epidemics. This study aimed to (1) estimate COVID-19 vaccination rates among pregnant women in Wales and their association with age, ethnicity, and area of deprivation, using electronic health record (EHR) data linkage, and (2) explore pregnant women's views on receiving the COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy using data from a survey recruiting via social media (Facebook, Twitter), through midwives, and posters in hospitals (Born-In-Wales Cohort).

3.
Age & Ageing ; 51(12):05, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: dementia may increase care home residents' risk of COVID-19, but there is a lack of evidence on this effect and on interactions with individual and care home-level factors.

4.
BMJ Open ; 12(9) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2078962

ABSTRACT

Introduction Shielding aimed to protect those predicted to be at highest risk from COVID-19 and was uniquely implemented in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinically extremely vulnerable people identified through algorithms and screening of routine National Health Service (NHS) data were individually and strongly advised to stay at home and strictly self-isolate even from others in their household. This study will generate a logic model of the intervention and evaluate the effects and costs of shielding to inform policy development and delivery during future pandemics. Methods and analysis This is a quasiexperimental study undertaken in Wales where records for people who were identified for shielding were already anonymously linked into integrated data systems for public health decision-making. We will: interview policy-makers to understand rationale for shielding advice to inform analysis and interpretation of results;use anonymised individual-level data to select people identified for shielding advice in March 2020 and a matched cohort, from routine electronic health data sources, to compare outcomes;survey a stratified random sample of each group about activities and quality of life at 12 months;use routine and newly collected blood data to assess immunity;interview people who were identified for shielding and their carers and NHS staff who delivered healthcare during shielding, to explore compliance and experiences;collect healthcare resource use data to calculate implementation costs and cost-consequences. Our team includes people who were shielding, who used their experience to help design and deliver this study. Ethics and dissemination The study has received approval from the Newcastle North Tyneside 2 Research Ethics Committee (IRAS 295050). We will disseminate results directly to UK government policy-makers, publish in peer-reviewed journals, present at scientific and policy conferences and share accessible summaries of results online and through public and patient networks. Copyright ©

6.
BMJ Open ; 12(9), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053212

ABSTRACT

Objectives Examine if pre-COVID-19 pandemic (prior March 2020) health-related behaviours during primary school are associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive between 1 March 2020 and 31 August 2021. Design Retrospective cohort study using an online cohort survey (January 2018 to February 2020) linked with routine PCR SARS-CoV-2 test results. Setting Children attending primary schools in Wales (2018-2020), UK, who were part of the Health and Attainment of Pupils in a Primary Education Network (HAPPEN)_school network. Participants Complete linked records of eligible participants were obtained for n=7062 individuals. 39.1% (n=2764) were tested (age 10.6±0.9;48.9% girls) and 8.1% (n=569) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (age 10.6±1.0;54.5% girls). Main outcome measures Logistic regression of health-related behaviours and demographics were used to determine the ORs of factors associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Results Consuming sugary snacks (1-2 days/week OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.49;5-6 days/week OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.61;reference 0 days), can swim 25 m (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.39) and age (OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.35) were associated with an increased likelihood of being tested for SARS-CoV-2. Eating breakfast (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.27), weekly physical activity ≥60 min (1-2 days OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.74;3-4 days OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.82;reference 0 days), out-of-school club participation (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10), can ride a bike (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.93), age (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.28) and girls (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.46) were associated with an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Living in least deprived areas (quintile 4 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.90;quintile 5 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.89) compared with the most deprived (quintile 1) was associated with a decreased likelihood. Conclusions Associations may be related to parental health literacy and monitoring behaviours. Physically active behaviours may include coparticipation with others and exposure to SARS-CoV-2. A risk-versus-benefit approach must be considered in relation to promoting these health behaviours, given the importance of health-related behaviours such as childhood physical activity for development. © 2022 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

7.
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry ; 93(9), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005420
9.
Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry ; 26(2):29-32, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848330

ABSTRACT

The link and association between COVID-19 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial. This study aims to investigate whether COVID-19 was associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness (eg intubation and death) in people with AD in this study cohort.

10.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817487

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Reduced rates of help seeking by those who self-harmed during the COVID-19 pandemic have been reported. OBJECTIVES: To understand changes in healthcare service contacts for self-harm during the COVID-19 pandemic across primary, emergency and secondary care. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used routine electronic healthcare data for Wales, United Kingdom, from 2016 to March 14, 2021. Population-based data from primary care, emergency departments and hospital admissions were linked at individual-level. All Welsh residents aged ≥10 years over the study period were included in the study. Primary, emergency and secondary care contacts with self-harm at any time between 2016 and March 14, 2021 were identified. Outcomes were counts, incidence, prevalence and proportion of self-harm contacts relative to all contacts in each and all settings, as well as the proportion of people contacting one or more settings with self-harm. Weekly trends were modelled using generalised estimated equations, with differences between 2020 (to March 2021) and comparison years 2016-2018 (to March 2017-2019) quantified using difference in differences, from which mean rate of odds ratios (µROR) across years was reported. RESULTS: The study included 3,552,210 individuals over the study period. Self-harm contacts reduced across services in March and December 2020 compared to previous years. Primary care contacts with self-harm reduced disproportionately compared to non-self-harm contacts (µROR = 0.7, p<0.05), while their proportion increased in emergency departments during April 2020 (µROR = 1.3, p<0.05 in 2/3 comparison years) and hospital admissions during April-May 2020 (µROR = 1.2, p<0.05 in 2/3 comparison years). Despite this, those who self-harmed in April 2020 were more likely to be seen in primary care than other settings compared to previous years (µROR = 1.2, p<0.05). A lower proportion of those with self-harm contacts in emergency departments were subsequently admitted to hospital in December 2020 compared to previous years (µROR = 0.5, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that those who self-harmed during the COVID-19 pandemic may have been less likely to seek help, and those who did so faced more stringent criteria for admission. Communications encouraging those who self-harm to seek help during pandemics may be beneficial. However, this needs to be supported by maintained provision of mental health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wales/epidemiology
11.
Mediterranean Journal of Infection, Microbes and Antimicrobials ; 11(2), 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1761006

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Using the rapid antigen test (RAT) before exhausting the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test's capacity is crucial to enhance suitable detection of patients and timely reception of results. Therefore, this study was done to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of RAT and compare it with the RT-PCR method in the diagnosis of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 634 individuals referred to public sampling centers performing the COVID-19 test in Shiraz City, Fars Province, Southern Iran. The sampling process was done following a multi-stage stratified protocol. The COVITECH.. one-step real-time RT-PCR kit method as the reference standard test was compared with the RAT using E-Health Barakat Company.. rapid antigen kit in the pharyngeal specimens. The trained personnel collected the data. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and the accuracy of the RAT were calculated using the MedCalc software. Moreover, the Kappa value was used to assess the level of agreement between RT-PCR and RAT.

12.
Public Health ; 203: 110-115, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: At the end of 2020, many countries commenced a vaccination programme against SARS-CoV-2. Public health authorities aim to prevent and interrupt outbreaks of infectious disease in social care settings. We aimed to investigate the association between the introduction of the vaccination programme and the frequency and duration of COVID-19 outbreaks in Northern Ireland (NI). STUDY DESIGN: We undertook an ecological study using routinely available national data. METHODS: We used Poisson regression to measure the relationship between the number of RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 outbreaks in care homes, and as a measure of community COVID-19 prevalence, the Office for National Statistics COVID-19 Infection Survey estimated the number of people testing positive for COVID-19 in NI. We estimated the change in this relationship and estimated the expected number of care home outbreaks in the absence of the vaccination programme. A Cox proportional hazards model estimated the hazard ratio of a confirmed COVID-19 care home outbreak closure. RESULTS: Care home outbreaks reduced by two-thirds compared to expected following the introduction of the vaccination programme, from a projected 1625 COVID-19 outbreaks (95% prediction interval 1553-1694) between 7 December 2020 and 28 October 2021 to an observed 501. We estimated an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.53 of the outbreak closure assuming a 21-day lag for immunity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings describe the association of the vaccination with a reduction in outbreak frequency and duration across NI care homes. This indicates probable reduced harm and disruption from COVID-19 in social care settings following vaccination. Future research using individual level data from care home residents will be needed to investigate the effectiveness of the vaccines and the duration of their effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ; 48(SUPPL 1):S504-S504, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1610275
14.
Iranian Journal of Public Health ; 51(1):172-177, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1601942

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying effective biomarkers plays a critical role on screening;rapid diagnosis;proper managements and therapeutic options, which is helpful in preventing serious complications. The present study aimed to compare the liver laboratory tests between alive and dead hospitalized cases for prediction and proper management of the patients. Methods: This retrospective, cross sectional study consists of all deceased patients admitted in one center in Shiraz, Iran during 19 Feb 2020 to 22 Aug 2021. For further comparison, we selected a 1:2 ratios alive group randomly. Results: Overall, 875 hospitalized cases died due to COVID-19. We selected 1750 alive group randomly. The median age was significantly higher in died group (65.96 vs 51.20). Regarding the laboratory findings during the hospitalization ALT, AST, Bili.D were significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors but Albumin was less in deceased patients. It was revealed elevated levels of Albumin, AST, Bili.T and Bili.D were associated with increasing the risk of in hospital death. Moreover, the predictive effect of ALP and Bili.D had significantly more than others with high sensitivity and specify. Conclusion: We found patients with COVID-19 have reduced serum albumin level, and increase ALT and AST. The current results revealed abnormal liver chemistries is associated with poor outcome, which highlight-ed the importance of monitoring these patients more carefully and should be given more caution. © 2022 Emami et al.

15.
Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism ; 14(4):401-416, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1559639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, medicinal plants have attracted great interest in treatment of human diseases. Rosemary is a well-known medicinal plant which has been widely used for different therapeutic purposes. METHODS: This is a narrative reviewusing databases including PubMed, ISI, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, and google scholar, the most authoritative articles were searched, screened, and analyzed. RESULTS: Rosemary is a natural antioxidant which removes reactive oxygen species from tissues and increases expression on Nrf2 gene. Rosemary and its metabolites reduce inflammation by inhibiting production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreasing expression of NF-kappa B, inhibiting infiltration of immune cells to inflamed sites, and affecting gut microbiome. Besides, rosmarinic acid in rosemary extract has positive effects on renin-angiotensin-system. Rosemary affects respiratory system by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, muscle spasm, and also through anti-fibrotic properties. Carnosic acid is able to penetrate blood-brain-barrier and act against free radicals, ischemia and neurodegeneration in brain. Cardioprotective effects include correcting lipid profile, controlling blood pressure by inhibition of ACE, prevention of atherosclerosis, and reduction of cardiac muscle hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Accordingly, rosemary supplementation has potential protective effects against COVID-19 and other cytokine storm associated infections, a conclusion that needs more evaluations in the next clinical trials.

16.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal ; 27(2 SUPPL):730, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1496031

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is little information on the symptoms, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who have the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness, especially for those admitted to the hospital. Objectives: Very little is currently known about the effects of COVID-19 on people with MS and vice versa. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the symptoms, clinical characteristics, and hospital outcomes of MS patients admitted to the hospital due to COVID-19. Methods: The current study is a multicenter case-control study that took place in Fars Province, Iran, from February 19 to November 20, 2020. All consecutive patients with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were included, and all individuals with a history of MS were selected from the database. We also included two control groups with matching age and sex (patients with no history of an underlying disease and patients with a history of underlying disease). Results: From 38000 hospital admitted COVID-19 patients in the database, 25 had MS. Diabetes was the most common underlying disease in both MS patients and control groups, 11.5 % and 39.7 %, respectively. Fever and cough were the most common symptoms in MS patients. However, respiratory distress and low arterial oxygen saturation (<93%) were the most common symptoms in both control groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the risk of loss of smell in MS patients was approximately 5 times (OR: 4.95 CI: 1.04-23.58 P=.04) and loss of taste 13 times (OR: 12.9 CI: 1.12-147.9 P=.04) higher than total control groups. There is no statistically significant difference in clinical outcome between MS patients and control groups, including ICU admission, the need for intubation, and in-hospital death. Conclusions: While the risk of loss of smell and loss of taste was higher in MS patients, hospital outcomes indices were not different.

17.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(2): 205-214, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has heavily impacted elective and emergency surgery around the world. We aimed to confirm the incidence of perioperative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and associated mortality after surgery. METHODS: Analysis of routine electronic health record data from NHS hospitals in England. We extracted data from Hospital Episode Statistics in England describing adult patients undergoing surgery between January 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021. The exposure was SARS-CoV-2 infection defined by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes. The primary outcome measure was 90 day in-hospital mortality. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Index of Multiple Deprivation, presence of cancer, surgical procedure type and admission acuity. Results are presented as n (%) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We identified 2 666 978 patients undergoing surgery of whom 28 777 (1.1%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection. In total, 26 364 (1.0%) patients died in hospital. SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a much greater risk of death (SARS-CoV-2: 6153/28 777 [21.4%] vs no SARS-CoV-2: 20 211/2 638 201 [0.8%]; OR=5.7 [95% CI, 5.5-5.9]; P<0.001). Amongst patients undergoing elective surgery, 2412/1 857 586 (0.1%) had SARS-CoV-2, of whom 172/2412 (7.1%) died, compared with 1414/1 857 586 (0.1%) patients without SARS-CoV-2 (OR=25.8 [95% CI, 21.7-30.9]; P<0.001). Amongst patients undergoing emergency surgery, 22 918/582 292 (3.9%) patients had SARS-CoV-2, of whom 5752/22 918 (25.1%) died, compared with 18 060/559 374 (3.4%) patients without SARS-CoV-2 (OR=5.5 [95% CI, 5.3-5.7]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The low incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHS surgical pathways suggests current infection prevention and control policies are highly effective. However, the high mortality amongst patients with SARS-CoV-2 suggests these precautions cannot be safely relaxed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures/mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Population Surveillance , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , England/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance/methods
18.
Nat Med ; 27(7): 1290-1297, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263501

ABSTRACT

Reports of ChAdOx1 vaccine-associated thrombocytopenia and vascular adverse events have led to some countries restricting its use. Using a national prospective cohort, we estimated associations between exposure to first-dose ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccination and hematological and vascular adverse events using a nested incident-matched case-control study and a confirmatory self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis. An association was found between ChAdOx1 vaccination and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (0-27 d after vaccination; adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 5.77, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.41-13.83), with an estimated incidence of 1.13 (0.62-1.63) cases per 100,000 doses. An SCCS analysis confirmed that this was unlikely due to bias (RR = 1.98 (1.29-3.02)). There was also an increased risk for arterial thromboembolic events (aRR = 1.22, 1.12-1.34) 0-27 d after vaccination, with an SCCS RR of 0.97 (0.93-1.02). For hemorrhagic events 0-27 d after vaccination, the aRR was 1.48 (1.12-1.96), with an SCCS RR of 0.95 (0.82-1.11). A first dose of ChAdOx1 was found to be associated with small increased risks of ITP, with suggestive evidence of an increased risk of arterial thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events. The attenuation of effect found in the SCCS analysis means that there is the potential for overestimation of the reported results, which might indicate the presence of some residual confounding or confounding by indication. Public health authorities should inform their jurisdictions of these relatively small increased risks associated with ChAdOx1. No positive associations were seen between BNT162b2 and thrombocytopenic, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Health Education and Health Promotion ; 8(3):107-113, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1136804

ABSTRACT

Aims Due to the terrible effects of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) on health systems and the global economy, the necessity to study future trends of the virus outbreaks around the world is seriously felt. Since geographical mobility is a risk factor of the disease, it has spread to most of the countries recently. It, therefore, necessitates to design a decision support model to 1) identify the spread pattern of coronavirus and, 2) provide reliable information for the detection of future trends of the virus outbreaks. Materials & Methods The present study adopts a computational intelligence approach to detect the possible trends in the spread of 2019-nCoV in China for a one-month period. Then, a validated model for detecting future trends in the spread of the virus in France is proposed. It uses ANN (Artificial Neural Network) and a combination of ANN and GA (Genetic Algorithm), PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization), and ICA (Imperialist Competitive Algorithm) as predictive models. Findings The models work on the basis of data released from the past and the present days from WHO (World Health Organization). By comparing four proposed models, ANN and GA-ANN achieve a high degree of accuracy in terms of performance indicators. Conclusion The models proposed in the present study can be used as decision support tools for managing and controlling of 2019-nCoV outbreaks. © 2020, TMU Press.

20.
Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine ; 8(1):1-14, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1041873

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the beginning of 2020, an unexpected outbreak due to a new corona virus made the headlines all over the world. Exponential growth in the number of those affected makes this virus such a threat. The current meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of underlying disorders in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, and Google scholar, to find articles published until 15 February 2020. All relevant articles that reported clinical characteristics and epidemiological information of hospitalized COVID-19 patients were included in the analysis. Results: The data of 76993 patients presented in 10 articles were included in this study. According to the meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, smoking history and diabetes in people infected with SARS-CoV-2 were estimated as 16.37% (95%CI: 10.15%-23.65%), 12.11% (95%CI 4.40%-22.75%), 7.63% (95%CI 3.83%-12.43%) and 7.87% (95%CI 6.57%-9.28%), respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, and chronic kidney disease were among the most prevalent underlying diseases among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, respectively.

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