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1.
Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry ; 26(2):29-32, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1826101

ABSTRACT

The link and association between COVID‐19 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial. This study aims to investigate whether COVID‐19 was associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness (eg intubation and death) in people with AD in this study cohort.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718362

ABSTRACT

We investigated the frequency of brain fog in a large cohort of patients with documented coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who have survived the illness. We also scrutinized the potential risk factors associated with the development of brain fog. Adult patients (18-55 years of age), who were referred to the healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province from February 19, 2020 to November 20, 2020 were included. All patients had a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. In a phone call, at least 3 months after their discharge from the hospital, we obtained their current information. A questionnaire was specifically designed for data collection. In total, 2696 patients had the inclusion criteria; 1680 (62.3%) people reported long COVID syndrome (LCS). LCS-associated brain fog was reported by 194 (7.2%) patients. Female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 1.4), respiratory problems at the onset (OR: 1.9), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR: 1.7) were significantly associated with reporting chronic post-COVID "brain fog" by the patients. In this large population-based study, we report that chronic post-COVID "brain fog" has significant associations with sex (female), respiratory symptoms at the onset, and the severity of the illness (ICU admission).

3.
Iran J Public Health ; 51(1): 172-177, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716270

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying effective biomarkers plays a critical role on screening; rapid diagnosis; proper managements and therapeutic options, which is helpful in preventing serious complications. The present study aimed to compare the liver laboratory tests between alive and dead hospitalized cases for prediction and proper management of the patients. Methods: This retrospective, cross sectional study consists of all deceased patients admitted in one center in Shiraz, Iran during 19 Feb 2020 to 22 Aug 2021. For further comparison, we selected a 1:2 ratios alive group randomly. Results: Overall, 875 hospitalized cases died due to COVID-19. We selected 1750 alive group randomly. The median age was significantly higher in died group (65.96 vs 51.20). Regarding the laboratory findings during the hospitalization ALT, AST, Bili.D were significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors but Albumin was less in deceased patients. It was revealed elevated levels of Albumin, AST, Bili.T and Bili.D were associated with increasing the risk of in hospital death. Moreover, the predictive effect of ALP and Bili.D had significantly more than others with high sensitivity and specify. Conclusion: We found patients with COVID-19 have reduced serum albumin level, and increase ALT and AST. The current results revealed abnormal liver chemistries is associated with poor outcome, which highlighted the importance of monitoring these patients more carefully and should be given more caution.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305054

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the whole world’s effort for controlling, an ongoing global outbreak of lower respiratory tract disease, caused by new corona virus;led to a major public health issue. Current study aims to evaluate the characteristics of infected case in Fars, Iran Methods: : According to the referral of suspicious patients during one month, 2538 samples were evaluated and extracted for Viral RNA nucleic acids by using the Invitrogen ChargeSwitch® Total RNA Cell Kit (Invitrogen Co.). Data were recorded based on the standardized data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium. Results: : By 19 March 2020, 440 admitted patients had been identified with CoVID-19 confirmation. More than 50% of cases were men. Mean age were estimated 48.15 ±18.07. Of all the patients, 30 (6.81%) had a history of travel to Qom city, which was the first infected zone in Iran, also 92(20.90%) had close contact with contaminated or suspected individuals. The mortality rate was estimated 2. 95% (13 cases). Cardiovascular disease (25, 5.68%), diabetes (33, 7.5%), and hypertension (35, 7.95%) were the most common co-existing disorders. Patients with underlying disease are more in danger of death [OR: 11.64, (95%CI 3.14 – 43.18), p= 0.0002]. Conclusion: Human to human transmission of SARS-CoV-II causes Fars province in southwest of Iran become infected and 440 cases identified during one month. The SARS-Cov-2 is more likely to affect male sex and individuals with old age and underlying disorders.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310003

ABSTRACT

Purpose: According to the possible role of other comorbidities in increase the risk of mortality in diabetes patient, recent study was designed to manage complications and mortality rate in this group of patients. Methods: : In this cross-sectional study (25 February to 10 July 2020) total of 458 diabetic patients were enrolled based on their characteristics, symptoms and signs, and presence of underlying diseases. Multiple logistic regression and χ2 test analysis used to check the effectiveness of comorbidities on the mortality outcome among diabetic patients. Results: : Of 458 diabetic patients, 306 (67%) were with underlying diseases (200 (65.4%) hypertension, 103 (33.7%) cardiovascular diseases and 29 (9.5%) kidney diseases). The rate of fatality was significantly high in patients with chronic kidney and liver diseases. The odds of mortality outcome increase 3.1 fold for patients over 55 years as compared to under 55 years (P =0.011), and the odds of mortality outcome was more than 5.1 folds for those who had chronic kidney disease (P <0.001). Conclusions: : The presentation of SARS-CoV-2 in older diabetic patients with comorbidities (chronic kidney and liver diseases) is more severe in risk of mortality.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325704

ABSTRACT

We conducted a systematic literature review on the ethical considerations of the use of contact tracing app technology, which was extensively implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapid and extensive use of this technology during the COVID-19 pandemic, while benefiting the public well-being by providing information about people's mobility and movements to control the spread of the virus, raised several ethical concerns for the post-COVID-19 era. To investigate these concerns for the post-pandemic situation and provide direction for future events, we analyzed the current ethical frameworks, research, and case studies about the ethical usage of tracing app technology. The results suggest there are seven essential ethical considerations, namely privacy, security, acceptability, government surveillance, transparency, justice, and voluntariness in the ethical use of contact tracing technology. In this paper, we explain and discuss these considerations and how they are needed for the ethical usage of this technology. The findings also highlight the importance of developing integrated guidelines and frameworks for implementation of such technology in the post-COVID-19 world.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294028

ABSTRACT

We conducted a systematic literature review on the ethical considerations of the use of contact tracing app technology, which was extensively implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapid and extensive use of this technology during the COVID-19 pandemic, while benefiting the public well-being by providing information about people's mobility and movements to control the spread of the virus, raised several ethical concerns for the post-COVID-19 era. To investigate these concerns for the post-pandemic situation and provide direction for future events, we analyzed the current ethical frameworks, research, and case studies about the ethical usage of tracing app technology. The results suggest there are seven essential ethical considerations, namely privacy, security, acceptability, government surveillance, transparency, justice, and voluntariness in the ethical use of contact tracing technology. In this paper, we explain and discuss these considerations and how they are needed for the ethical usage of this technology. The findings also highlight the importance of developing integrated guidelines and frameworks for implementation of such technology in the post-COVID-19 world.

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112353, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544808

ABSTRACT

Almost 80% of people confronting COVID-19 recover from COVID-19 disease without any particular treatments. They experience heterogeneous symptoms; a wide range of respiratory symptoms, cough, dyspnea, fever, and viral pneumonia. However, some others need urgent intervention and special treatment to get rid of this widespread disease. So far, there isn't any unique drug for the potential treatment of COVID 19. However, some available therapeutic drugs used for other diseases seem beneficial for the COVID-19 treatment. On the other hand, there is a robust global concern for developing an efficient COVID-19 vaccine to control the COVID-19 pandemic sustainably. According to the WHO report, since 8 October 2021, 320 vaccines have been in progress. 194 vaccines are in the pre-clinical development stage that 126 of them are in clinical progression. Here, in this paper, we have comprehensively reviewed the most recent and updated information about coronavirus and its mutations, all the potential therapeutic approaches for treating COVID-19, developed diagnostic systems for COVID- 19 and the available COVID-19 vaccines and their mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , World Health Organization
9.
Iran J Med Sci ; 46(6): 428-436, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513428

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, people have recognized the post-acute phase symptoms of the COVID-19. We investigated the long-term symptoms associated with COVID-19, (Long COVID Syndrome), and the risk factors associated with it. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. All the consecutive adult patients referred to the healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province from 19 February 2020 until 20 November 2020 were included. All the patients had a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. In a phone call to the patients, at least three months after their discharge from the hospital, we obtained their current information. The IBM SPSS Statistics (version 25.0) was used. Pearson Chi square, Fisher's exact test, t test, and binary logistic regression analysis model were employed. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: In total, 4,681 patients were studied, 2915 of whom (62.3%) reported symptoms. The most common symptoms of long COVID syndrome were fatigue, exercise intolerance, walking intolerance, muscle pain, and shortness of breath. Women were more likely to experience long-term COVID syndrome than men (Odds Ratio: 1,268; 95% Confidence Interval: 1,122-1,432; P=0.0001), which was significant. Presentation with respiratory problems at the onset of illness was also significantly associated with long COVID syndrome (Odds Ratio: 1.425; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.177-1.724; P=0.0001). A shorter length of hospital stay was inversely associated with long COVID syndrome (Odds Ratio: 0.953; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.941-0.965; P=0.0001). Conclusion: Long COVID syndrome is a frequent and disabling condition and has significant associations with sex (female), respiratory symptoms at the onset, and the severity of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406172

ABSTRACT

This study proposes a sustainable closed-loop supply chain under uncertainty to create a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, a novel stochastic optimization model integrating strategic and tactical decision-making is presented for the sustainable closed-loop supply chain network design problem. This paper for the first time implements the concept of sustainable closed-loop supply chain for the application of ventilators using a stochastic optimization model. To make the problem more realistic, most of the parameters are considered to be uncertain along with the normal probability distribution. Since the proposed model is more complex than majority of previous studies, a hybrid whale optimization algorithm as an enhanced metaheuristic is proposed to solve the proposed model. The efficiency of the proposed model is tested in an Iranian medical ventilator production and distribution network in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results confirm the performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison with two other similar algorithms based on different multi-objective criteria. To show the impact of sustainability dimensions and COVID-19 pandemic for our proposed model, some sensitivity analyses are done. Generally, the findings confirm the performance of the proposed sustainable closed-loop supply chain for the pandemic cases like COVID-19.

11.
World J Pediatr ; 17(5): 495-499, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify the prevalence and also the full spectrum of symptoms/complaints of children and adolescents who are suffering from long COVID. Furthermore, we investigated the risk factors of long COVID in children and adolescents. METHODS: All consecutive children and adolescents who were referred to the hospitals anywhere in Fars province, Iran, from 19 February 2020 until 20 November 2020 were included. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. In a phone call to patients/parents, at least 3 months after their discharge from the hospital, we obtained their current status and information if their parents agreed to participate. RESULTS: In total, 58 children and adolescents fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six (44·8%) children/adolescents reported symptoms/complaints of long COVID. These symptoms included fatigue in 12 (21%), shortness of breath in 7 (12%), exercise intolerance in 7 (12%), weakness in 6 (10%), and walking intolerance in 5 (9%) individuals. Older age, muscle pain on admission, and intensive care unit admission were significantly associated with long COVID. CONCLUSIONS: Long COVID is a frequent condition in children and adolescents. The scientific community should investigate and explore the pathophysiology of long COVID to ensure that these patients receive appropriate treatments for their condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors
12.
Obes Med ; 25: 100352, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are one of the most high-risk group to become infected with SARS-CoV-2. Current study was designed to evaluate the risk of other complications in COVID-19 patients with diabetes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study (25 February to July 10, 2020), 458 patients with diabetes were enrolled based on their characteristics, symptoms and signs, laboratory data and presence of other underlying diseases. Multiple logistic regression and Chi-square test analysis were used to check the effectiveness of other comorbidities on the mortality outcome among patients with diabetes. RESULTS: Of 458 patients with diabetes, 306 (67%) had other underlying diseases, such as 200 (65.4%) hypertension, 103 (33.7%) cardiovascular diseases and 29 (9.5%) kidney diseases. The rate of fatality was significantly high in patients with chronic kidney and liver diseases. The odds of mortality were increased 3.1-fold for patients over 55 years as compared to those under 55 years (P = 0.011), and the odds of mortality outcome were more than 5.1-fold for those who had chronic kidney disease (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presentation of SARS-CoV-2 in older patients with diabetes with other comorbidities such as chronic kidney and liver diseases is more severe in risk of mortality.

13.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-3, 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211232

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether COVID-19 is associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness in people with a past history of chemical war injury. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective study in Fars Province, Iran, from August 22 to October 4, 2020. People with a past history of chemical war injury and COVID-19 were studied. Two age- and sex-matched control groups, double the size of the patient group each, from the same database of patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized at the same time (ie, healthy controls and pseudocontrols). RESULTS: A total of 46 people with a past history of chemical war injury, 92 healthy controls, and 92 pseudocontrols were studied. People with COVID-19 and a past history of chemical war injury had a significantly higher rate of chest pain compared with others. There were no other clinical differences between the groups. Mortality rate was 17.39%, 15.21%, and 27.17% in people with a past history of chemical war injury, the control group, and the pseudocontrol group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A past history of a chemical war injury does not add to the risk of COVID-19 and does not significantly modify its clinical picture either.

14.
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica ; 143(6):624-628, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1208836

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo determine whether patients with epilepsy (PWE) are particularly over‐represented in a very large cohort of patients with COVID‐19. We also investigated whether COVID‐19 is associated with a different clinical picture or a more severe course of illness in PWE (compared with others).MethodsAll consecutive patients who referred to and admitted at healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province (located in the south of Iran with a population of 4,851,000 people) from February 19, 2020 until November 20, 2020 were included.ResultsA total of 37,968 patients were studied. Eighty‐two patients (0.2%) had pre‐existing epilepsy. Seizures were significantly more frequent among PWE as a presenting manifestation of COVID‐19 compared with that in people without epilepsy (Odds Ratio = 27;p = 0.0001). Furthermore, PWE less often reported cough (significantly) and more often had gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting and anorexia;as trends) compared with those in people without epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy were not differently likely to be intubated or admitted at ICUs. Case fatality rates were not different between the two groups [9.8% in PWE and 8.5% in people without epilepsy;p = 0.690].ConclusionPatients with epilepsy are not susceptible to contracting COVID‐19 more than other individuals. Furthermore, COVID‐19 in PWE is not associated with a more severe illness or a poorer prognosis. However, PWE and COVID‐19 may present somewhat differently than others with such an illness. Why PWE less often present with cough and more often present with gastrointestinal symptoms is not clear yet and should be investigated and clarified in the future studies.

15.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-4, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169326

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A year after the emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as a new crisis in respiratory infections, there remain many uncertainties and unknowns about SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes, called coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Although COVID-19 is known as a respiratory disease, some atypical manifestations have been seen, different from those seen in other types of viral respiratory infections. This paper aims to describe designing, launching, and implementing a data collection system for all respiratory diseases, with a focus on SARS-CoV-2 from the onset of this pandemic. METHOD: The current registry is designed in compliance with the standard Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines, along with the declaration of Helsinki principles. RESULTS: A respiratory disease registry, with an emphasis on COVID-19 and other co-infections, was developed. Data consisted of demographic, clinical, and supporting information about SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viral diseases. CONCLUSION: It is hoped that the current data registry will facilitate patient evaluation and improve the outcomes of cases of respiratory infection defined by a particular condition, disease, or exposure. Moreover, the registry can harmonize data about the treatment, outcomes, and well-being of patients who receive care over time, and identify best practices.

16.
Neurol Sci ; 42(5): 1649-1652, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056021

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to determine whether COVID-19 is associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness in people with Down syndrome (DS). METHODS: All consecutive patients who were admitted at healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province (located in the south of Iran with a population of 4,851,000 people) from 19 February 2020 to 20 November 2020 were included. For every patient with DS, three age- and sex-matched patients with COVID-19 and without any underlying medical conditions were selected as controls. RESULTS: During the study period, 37,968 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Eighteen patients had DS. Patients with DS were significantly more likely to be intubated [7 patients (39%)] compared with those without DS [3 patients (6%)]; p = 0.002. Patients with DS significantly more often died of COVID-19 compared with the controls [8 (44.4%) vs. 1 (1.9%); odds ratio: 24.37; 95% confidence interval 2.39-247.94; p = 0.007]. CONCLUSION: Patients with DS are among the high-risk populations with respect to severe COVID-19 and should receive the vaccine as soon as possible. Furthermore, they should receive more intensive care if they get hospitalized with the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Down Syndrome , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 39(1): 29-34, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976966

ABSTRACT

Today, tremendous attention has been devoted to a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV), due to severe effects on the global public in all over the world. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of 2019-nCoV are important for early treatment and cutting off epidemic transmission. In this regard, laboratory detection protocols, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and computed tomography (CT) examination, have been utilized broadly for 2019-nCoV detection. Recently, nano-based methods for 2019-nCoV diagnoses are rapidly expanding and declaring comparable results with PCR and CT. In this review, recent advances in nano-based techniques have been highlighted and compared briefly with PCR and CT as well-known methods for 2019-nCoV detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nanotechnology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241265, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890196

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Underlying disease have a critical role in vulnerability of populations for a greater morbidity and mortality when they suffer from COVID-19. The aim of current study is evaluating the prevalence of underlying disease in died people with COVID-19. METHODS: The current study have been conducted according to PRISMA guideline. International database including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane and google scholar were searched for relevant studies up to 1 June. All relevant articles that reported underlying disease in died cases of COVID-19 were included in the analysis. RESULTS: After screening and excluding duplicated and irrelevant studies, 32 articles included in the analysis. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, lung disease, malignancy, cerebrovascular disease, COPD and asthma. Among all reported underlying disease, highest and lowest prevalence was related to hypertension and asthma which were estimated 46% (37% - 55%) and 3% (2%- 6%), respectively. CONCLUSION: In summary, underlying disease have a critical role in poor outcomes, severity of disease and high mortality rate of COVID-19 cases. Patients with hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes should be carefully monitored and be aware of health protocols.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Neurol Sci ; 41(11): 3057-3061, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to collect the data on the occurrence of seizures in patients with COVID-19 and to clarify the circumstances of the occurrence of seizures in these patients. METHODS: All consecutive patients who referred to healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province (located in South Iran with a population of 4.851 million people) from February 19 until June 2, 2020, and had confirmed COVID-19 by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing and seizure were included. RESULTS: During the study period, 6,147 people had confirmed COVID-19 in Fars province, Iran; 110 people died from the illness (case fatality rate 1.79%). During this time period, five people had seizures (seizure rate 0.08%). In four patients, seizure was one of the presenting manifestations, and in one person, it happened during the course of hospital admission. Two patients had status epilepticus. All patients experienced hypoxemia and four of them needed respirator. Two patients had related metabolic derangements and one had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytic pleocytosis. Brain imaging was abnormal in three patients. Four patients died. CONCLUSION: New-onset seizures in critically ill patients with COVID-19 should be considered as acute symptomatic seizures and the treating physician should try to determine the etiology of the seizure and manage the cause immediately and appropriately. Detailed clinical, neurological, imaging, and electrophysiological investigations and attempts to isolate SARS-CoV-2 from CSF may clarify the role played by this virus in causing seizures in these patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Seizures/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology
20.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(3): 345-357, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759815

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has the characteristics of high transmission, diverse clinical manifestations, and a long incubation period. In addition to infecting the respiratory system, COVID-19 also has adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 causes acute myocardial injuries, as well as chronic damage to the cardiovascular system. AREAS COVERED: The present review is aimed at providing current information on COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, and Google Scholar were searched. EXPERT OPINION: It is suggested that heart injury caused by COVID-19 infection might be an important cause of severe clinical phenotypes or adverse events in affected patients. Myocardial damage is closely related to the severity of the disease and even the prognosis in patients with COVID-19. In addition to disorders that are caused by COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system, more protection should be employed for patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hence, it is very important that once relevant symptoms appear, patients with COVID-19 be rapidly treated to reduce mortality. Thus, early measurements of cardiac damage via biomarkers following hospitalization for COVID-19 infections in a patient with preexisting CVD are recommended, together with careful monitoring of any myocardial injury that might be caused by the infection.Abbreviations: ICU: An intensive care unit; 2019-nCoV: 2019 novel coronavirus; ACEI: ACE inhibitor; ACS: Acute coronary syndrome; ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome; AT1R: Ang II type 1 receptor; ATP: Adenosine triphosphate; ACC: American College of Cardiology; ACE: Angiotensin converting enzyme; Ang II: Angiotensin II; ARB: Angiotensin II receptor blocker; AV block: Atrioventricular block; CAD: Coronary artery disease; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; CT: Computerized tomography; CHF: Congestive heart failure; CHD: Coronary heart disease; CK-MB: Creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB; CRP: C-reactive protein; cTnI: Cardiac troponin I; EAT: Epicardial adipose tissue; ECMO: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; G-CSF: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; HFrEF: HF with a reduced ejection fraction; synhACE2: Human isoform of ACE2; IL: Interleukin; IABP: Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation; IP10: Interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa; LPC: Lysophosphatidylcholine; Mas: Mitochondrial assembly receptor; MCP1: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MERS: Middle East respiratory syndrome; MIP1a: macrophage inflammatory protein 1a: MOF: Multiple organ failure; MI: Myocardial infarction; MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging; MYO: Myohe-moglobin; NT-proBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; PCPS: Percutaneous cardiopulmonary assistance; rhACE2: Recombinant human ACE2; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; Th: T helper; RAS: Renin-angiotensin system; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; WHO: World Health Organization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Heart Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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