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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288899

ABSTRACT

Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and vaccines against viral infections. Besides the specific physiological properties of the respiratory system, there is a significant demand for utilizing nano-designs in the production of vaccines or antiviral agents for airway-localized administration. SARS-CoV-2, as an immediate example of respiratory viruses, is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, similarly to other members of the coronaviridae. Hence, reviewing the current and past emerging nanotechnology-based medications on similar respiratory viral diseases can identify pathways towards generating novel SARS-CoV-2 nanotherapeutics and/or nano-vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanomedicine , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Virus Diseases/pathology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/therapy
2.
Biomater Sci ; 9(4): 1217-1226, 2021 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997953

ABSTRACT

Over the past century, viral respiratory pandemics have been a leading cause of infectious disease worldwide. A deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the viral interactions with host cells at the target sites is necessary for a rapid response to such pandemics. To meet this aim, various testing platforms are required to recapitulate the pathophysiological behavior of the virus within the respiratory tract. These bioengineered platforms can effectively be used for the development of different therapeutics and vaccines. This paper briefly reviews the progress in the areas of biomaterial use for pulmonary tissue regeneration and integration with current bioengineered platforms including engineered tissues, organoids, and organs-on-a-chip platforms for viral respiratory disease studies. Finally, a brief overview of the opportunities presented by organ-on-a-chip systems for studying COVID-19 and subsequent drug development is introduced.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tissue Engineering , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans
3.
Adv Ther (Weinh) ; : 2000173, 2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978110

ABSTRACT

Following the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, the world is now combating a third large-scale outbreak caused by a coronavirus, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). After the rapid spread of SARS-coronavirus (CoV)-2 (the virus causing COVID-19) from its origin in China, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020. From the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant number of studies have been conducted to better understand the biology and pathogenesis of the novel coronavirus, and to aid in developing effective treatment regimens, therapeutics, and vaccines. This review focuses on the recent advancements in the rapidly evolving areas of clinical care and management of COVID-19. The emerging strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease are explored, and the development of effective vaccines is reviewed.

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