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1.
Iranian Journal of Epidemiology ; 18(3):177-186, 2022.
Article in Persian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243173

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: COVID-19 pandemic caused a lot of severe problems in the world. This study investigated the epidemiology of the disease in Tehran in the first quarter of the epidemic's beginning. Method(s): The available information recorded for patients from 20 February 2020 to 20 May 2020 in Tehran was used. To prepare disease-related distribution maps, the addresses of patients' residences in Google Earth were called to ARC-GIS version 10-4. The methods used in GIS include IDW, Hotspot and also software development. Result(s): Overall, 3699 individuals whose PCR results were positive in Tehran were included in the study. Out of the total number of them, 550 people died and the fatality rate of the disease in hospitalized patients was 14.9%. One thousand five hundred thirty patients (41.4%) have recovered, and the remaining 1619 patients were under treatment until data collection. Of the total, 1479 confirmed cases were women (40%). The average age was 57.4 years (SD=16.5). The density of cases in areas 4, 8 and 13, and the existence of some cluster diseases in neighborhoods such as Tehran Pars, Ayat and Pirouzi streets are noteworthy points. Conclusion(s): The trend of the COVID-19 epidemic is dire and requires long-term measures. Nevertheless, to control this disease, the health system, the policy of isolating patients and suspicious people, wear masks especially in densely populated areas, are the most important controlling factors.Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

2.
GeoJournal ; 87(4): 3291-3305, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317589

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been distinguished as a zoonotic coronavirus, like SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus. Tehran metropolis, as the capital of Iran, has a high density of residents that experienced a high incidence and mortality rates which daily increase the number of death and cases. In this study, the IDW (Inverse Distance Weight), Hotspots, and GWR (Geography Weighted Regression) Model are used as methods for analyzing big data COVID-19 in Tehran. The results showed that the majority of patients and deaths were men, but the death rate was higher in women than in men; also was observed a direct relationship between the area of the houses, and the infected rate, to COVID-19. Also, the results showed a disproportionate distribution of patients in Tehran, although in the eastern regions the number of infected people is higher than in other districts; the eastern areas have a high population density as well as residential land use, and there is a high relationship between population density in residential districts and administrative-commercial and the number of COVID-19 cases in all regions. The outputs of local R2 were interesting among patients and underlying disorders; the local R2 between hypertension and neurological diseases was 0.91 and 0.79, respectively, which was higher than other disorders. The highest rates of local R2 for diabetes and heart disease were 0.67 and 0.55, respectively. From this study, it can be concluded the restrictions must be considered especially, in areas densely populated for all people.

4.
Iranian Journal of Epidemiology ; 16(5 Special Issue):60-69, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1787169

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Reports indicates a higher mortality rate of Covid-19 in the elderly. A limited number of studies have been performed on elderly patients in Iran. In the present study, we investigated the clinical features and survival of elderly patients with Covid-19 in Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on the data of elderly patients with Covid-19 admitted to Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The data of the hospitalized patients were followed until discharge or death. Finally, survival-related factors were analyzed using Cox regression. Results: A total of 522 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 53.8% were male and 101 died. The mean age of the deceased was 76.3 years, with a standard deviation of 8.6 years. The most common clinical symptoms at the time of admission were respiratory distress (69.5%), cough (61.1%), and fever (51.1%). Cox regression results showed that the risk of death increased by 5% for each one-year increase in age. In addition, calcium supplementation reduced the risk of death by 35%. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that calcium supplementation could be associated with increased survival of the elderly and reduced mortality. Due to calcium insufficiency in the Iranian population and the protective role of calcium in Covid-19, this issue is essential in the elderly patients warranting further investigation in the future. © 2021, Iranian Epidemiological Association. All rights reserved.

5.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 60(1):32-39, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1727069

ABSTRACT

Several months have passed since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiple characteristics have been proposed as prognostic factors so far. This study aims to provide evidence on the association of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at the hospitalization time and three desired outcomes (mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and intensive care unit [ICU] admission). We designed a single-centre retrospective observational study in Baharloo Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from 20 February to 19 April 2020. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis via rt-PCR or chest CT imaging were included. Demographic and clinical data were obtained. The sample was divided into three groups, using tertile boundaries of initial NLR. The differences in mortality, comorbidities, hospitalization duration, drug administration, and ICU admission between these three groups were investigated. The identified confounding factors were adjusted to calculate the odds ratio of death, ICU admission, and prolonged hospitalization. Nine hundred sixty-three patients were included. In total, 151 and 212 participants experienced mortality and ICU admission, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression models, the adjusted odds ratio for mortality event in the second and third tertile of initial NLR after full adjustment were 1.89 (95% CI:1.07-3.32) and 2.57 (95% CI:1.48-4.43) and for ICU admission were 1.85 (95% CI:1.14-3.01) and 2.88 (95% CI:1.79-4.61), respectively. The optimal cut-off value of the initial NLR for predicting mortality was 4.27. Initial NLR can predict mortality and ICU admission in COVID-19 patients. Further investigations for curating the calculated cut-off can propose initial NLR as an indicator of poor prognosis for COVID-19 patients.

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