Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 58
Filter
1.
Allergy ; 78(3): 639-662, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233683

ABSTRACT

The current monkeypox disease (MPX) outbreak constitutes a new threat and challenge for our society. With more than 55,000 confirmed cases in 103 countries, World Health Organization declared the ongoing MPX outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on July 23, 2022. The current MPX outbreak is the largest, most widespread, and most serious since the diagnosis of the first case of MPX in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a country where MPX is an endemic disease. Throughout history, there have only been sporadic and self-limiting outbreaks of MPX outside Africa, with a total of 58 cases described from 2003 to 2021. This figure contrasts with the current outbreak of 2022, in which more than 55,000 cases have been confirmed in just 4 months. MPX is, in most cases, self-limiting; however, severe clinical manifestations and complications have been reported. Complications are usually related to the extent of virus exposure and patient health status, generally affecting children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised patients. The expansive nature of the current outbreak leaves many questions that the scientific community should investigate and answer in order to understand this phenomenon better and prevent new threats in the future. In this review, 50 questions regarding monkeypox virus (MPXV) and the current MPX outbreak were answered in order to provide the most updated scientific information and to explore the potential causes and consequences of this new health threat.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Disease Outbreaks , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology
4.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2329, 2023 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302201

ABSTRACT

Rhinoviruses and allergens, such as house dust mite are major agents responsible for asthma exacerbations. The influence of pre-existing airway inflammation on the infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is largely unknown. We analyse mechanisms of response to viral infection in experimental in vivo rhinovirus infection in healthy controls and patients with asthma, and in in vitro experiments with house dust mite, rhinovirus and SARS-CoV-2 in human primary airway epithelium. Here, we show that rhinovirus infection in patients with asthma leads to an excessive RIG-I inflammasome activation, which diminishes its accessibility for type I/III interferon responses, leading to their early functional impairment, delayed resolution, prolonged viral clearance and unresolved inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Pre-exposure to house dust mite augments this phenomenon by inflammasome priming and auxiliary inhibition of early type I/III interferon responses. Prior infection with rhinovirus followed by SARS-CoV-2 infection augments RIG-I inflammasome activation and epithelial inflammation. Timely inhibition of the epithelial RIG-I inflammasome may lead to more efficient viral clearance and lower the burden of rhinovirus and SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Restriction Factors , Asthma , COVID-19 , DEAD Box Protein 58 , Inflammasomes , Rhinovirus , Humans , Antiviral Restriction Factors/genetics , Antiviral Restriction Factors/metabolism , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Enterovirus Infections/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/immunology , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation , Interferon Type I , Picornaviridae Infections/genetics , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Rhinovirus/metabolism , Rhinovirus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Mucosal Immunol ; 16(1): 5-16, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282634

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters human cells through its main receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which constitutes a limiting factor of infection. Recent findings demonstrating novel ACE2 isoforms implicate that this receptor is regulated in a more complex way than previously anticipated. However, it remains unknown how various inflammatory conditions influence the abundance of these ACE2 variants. Hence, we studied expression of ACE2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein isoforms, together with its glycosylation and spatial localization in primary human airway epithelium upon allergic inflammation and viral infection. We found that interleukin-13, the main type 2 cytokine, decreased expression of long ACE2 mRNA and reduced glycosylation of full-length ACE2 protein via alteration of N-linked glycosylation process, limiting its availability on the apical side of ciliated cells. House dust mite allergen did not affect the expression of ACE2. Rhinovirus infection increased short ACE2 mRNA, but it did not influence its protein expression. In addition, by screening other SARS-CoV-2 related host molecules, we found that interleukin-13 and rhinovirus significantly regulated mRNA, but not protein of transmembrane serine protease 2 and neuropilin 1. Regulation of ACE2 and other host proteins was comparable in healthy and asthmatic epithelium, underlining the lack of intrinsic differences but dependence on the inflammatory milieu in the airways.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Interleukin-13 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Inflammation , Epithelium/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Protein Isoforms
7.
Allergy ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237479

ABSTRACT

There has been an important change in the clinical characteristics and immune profile of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during the pandemic thanks to the extensive vaccination programs. Here, we highlight recent studies on COVID-19, from the clinical and immunological characteristics to the protective and risk factors for severity and mortality of COVID-19. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines and potential allergic reactions after administration are also discussed. The occurrence of new variants of concerns such as Omicron BA.2, BA.4, and BA.5 and the global administration of COVID-19 vaccines have changed the clinical scenario of COVID-19. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may cause severe and heterogeneous disease but with a lower mortality rate. Perturbations in immunity of T cells, B cells, and mast cells, as well as autoantibodies and metabolic reprogramming may contribute to the long-term symptoms of COVID-19. There is conflicting evidence about whether atopic diseases, such as allergic asthma and rhinitis, are associated with a lower susceptibility and better outcomes of COVID-19. At the beginning of pandemic, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) developed guidelines that provided timely information for the management of allergic diseases and preventive measures to reduce transmission in the allergic clinics. The global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines and emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with reduced pathogenic potential dramatically decreased the morbidity, severity, and mortality of COVID-19. Nevertheless, breakthrough infection remains a challenge for disease control. Hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to COVID-19 vaccines are low compared to other vaccines, and these were addressed in EAACI statements that provided indications for the management of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines. We have gained a depth knowledge and experience in the over 2 years since the start of the pandemic, and yet a full eradication of SARS-CoV-2 is not on the horizon. Novel strategies are warranted to prevent severe disease in high-risk groups, the development of MIS-C and long COVID-19.

9.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 22(11): 651-652, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113877
10.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046908

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (mesenchymal stromal cells;MSC)-based therapies remain a promising approach to treat degenerative and inflammatory diseases. Their beneficial effects were confirmed in numerous experimental models and clinical trials. However, safety issues concerning MSCs’ stability and their long-term effects limit their implementation in clinical practice, including treatment of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and COVID-19. Here, we aimed to investigate the safety of intranasal application of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs in a preclinical experimental mice model and elucidate their effects on the lungs. We assessed short-term (two days) and long-term (nine days) effects of MSCs administration on lung morphology, immune responses, epithelial barrier function, and transcriptomic profiles. We observed an increased frequency of IFNγ- producing T cells and a decrease in occludin and claudin 3 as a long-term effect of MSCs administration. We also found changes in the lung transcriptomic profiles, reflecting redox imbalance and hypoxia signaling pathway. Additionally, we found dysregulation in genes clustered in pattern recognition receptors, macrophage activation, oxidative stress, and phagocytosis. Our results suggest that i.n. MSCs administration to noninflamed healthy lungs induces, in the late stages, low-grade inflammatory responses aiming at the clearance of MSCs graft.

11.
Allergy ; 77(12): 3648-3662, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and SARS-CoV-2 belong to different genera of the Coronaviridae family, exposure to IBV may result in the development of cross-reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 due to homologous epitopes. We aimed to investigate whether antibody responses to IBV cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 in poultry farm personnel who are occupationally exposed to aerosolized IBV vaccines. METHODS: We analyzed sera from poultry farm personnel, COVID-19 patients, and pre-pandemic controls. IgG levels against the SARS-CoV-2 antigens S1, RBD, S2, and N and peptides corresponding to the SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, N, and S proteins as well as whole virus antigens of the four major S1-genotypes 4/91, IS/1494/06, M41, and D274 of IBV were investigated by in-house ELISAs. Moreover, live-virus neutralization test (VNT) was performed. RESULTS: A subgroup of poultry farm personnel showed elevated levels of specific IgG for all tested SARS-CoV-2 antigens compared with pre-pandemic controls. Moreover, poultry farm personnel, COVID-19 patients, and pre-pandemic controls showed specific IgG antibodies against IBV strains. These antibody titers were higher in long-term vaccine implementers. We observed a strong correlation between IBV-specific IgG and SARS-CoV-2 S1-, RBD-, S2-, and N-specific IgG in poultry farm personnel compared with pre-pandemic controls and COVID-19 patients. However, no neutralization was observed for these cross-reactive antibodies from poultry farm personnel using the VNT. CONCLUSION: We report here for the first time the detection of cross-reactive IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 antigens in humans exposed to IBV vaccines. These findings may be useful for further studies on the adaptive immunity against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Farmers , Infectious bronchitis virus , Humans , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Cross Reactions , Poultry , Animals
13.
Allergy ; 77(8): 2337-2354, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691634

ABSTRACT

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other eicosanoid pathway modifiers are among the most ubiquitously used medications in the general population. Their broad anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects are applied against symptoms of respiratory infections, including SARS-CoV-2, as well as in other acute and chronic inflammatory diseases that often coexist with allergy and asthma. However, the current pandemic of COVID-19 also revealed the gaps in our understanding of their mechanism of action, selectivity, and interactions not only during viral infections and inflammation, but also in asthma exacerbations, uncontrolled allergic inflammation, and NSAIDs-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD). In this context, the consensus report summarizes currently available knowledge, novel discoveries, and controversies regarding the use of NSAIDs in COVID-19, and the role of NSAIDs in asthma and viral asthma exacerbations. We also describe here novel mechanisms of action of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs), outline how to predict responses to LTRA therapy and discuss a potential role of LTRA therapy in COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, we discuss interactions of novel T2 biologicals and other eicosanoid pathway modifiers on the horizon, such as prostaglandin D2 antagonists and cannabinoids, with eicosanoid pathways, in context of viral infections and exacerbations of asthma and allergic diseases. Finally, we identify and summarize the major knowledge gaps and unmet needs in current eicosanoid research.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hypersensitivity , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Consensus , Eicosanoids/metabolism , Humans , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Allergy ; 77(8): 2313-2336, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685186

ABSTRACT

Immune modulation is a key therapeutic approach for allergic diseases, asthma and autoimmunity. It can be achieved in an antigen-specific manner via allergen immunotherapy (AIT) or in an endotype-driven approach using biologicals that target the major pathways of the type 2 (T2) immune response: immunoglobulin (Ig)E, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-4/IL-13 or non-type 2 response: anti-cytokine antibodies and B-cell depletion via anti-CD20. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination provides an excellent opportunity to tackle the global pandemics and is currently being applied in an accelerated rhythm worldwide. The vaccine exerts its effects through immune modulation, induces and amplifies the response against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Thus, as there may be a discernible interference between these treatment modalities, recommendations on how they should be applied in sequence are expected. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) assembled an expert panel under its Research and Outreach Committee (ROC). This expert panel evaluated the evidence and have formulated recommendations on the administration of COVID-19 vaccine in patients with allergic diseases and asthma receiving AIT or biologicals. The panel also formulated recommendations for COVID-19 vaccine in association with biologicals targeting the type 1 or type 3 immune response. In formulating recommendations, the panel evaluated the mechanisms of COVID-19 infection, of COVID-19 vaccine, of AIT and of biologicals and considered the data published for other anti-infectious vaccines administered concurrently with AIT or biologicals.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Biological Products , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Allergens , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Allergy ; 77(5): 1408-1417, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662233

ABSTRACT

The high incidence and increased mortality of COVID-19 make Italy among the most impacted countries by SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. In the beginning of the pandemic, Northern regions accounted for 40% of cases and 45% of deaths from COVID-19 in Italy. Several factors have been suggested to explain the higher incidence and excess mortality from COVID-19 in these regions. It is noticed that Northern Italian regions, and particularly the cities in Po Valley, are the areas with the highest air pollution due to commercial vehicle traffic, industry and a stagnant meteorological condition, with one of the highest levels in Italy and Europe of fine particulate matter 2.5 micron or smaller in size (PM2.5). PM2.5, the major environmental pollutant deriving mainly by factory and automobile exhaust emissions and coal combustion, increases the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the epithelial cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and thus increase the susceptibility to this virus. The epithelial barrier hypothesis proposes that many diverse diseases may rise from the disruption of epithelial barrier of skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal system, including allergic diseases, metabolic and autoimmune diseases, and chronic neuropsychiatric conditions. There is evidence of a close correlation between air pollution and airway epithelial barrier dysfunction. Air pollution, causing lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, may contribute to local chronic inflammation, microbiome dysbiosis and impaired antiviral immune response against SARS-CoV-2, all of which contribute to the high incidence and excess mortality from COVID-19. In addition, air pollution and epithelial barrier dysfunction contribute also to the higher prevalence of several comorbidities of COVID-19, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity, which have been identified as risk factors for mortality of COVID-19. In this article, on the basis of epidemiological and environmental monitoring data in Northern Italy, it is suggested that epithelial barrier hypothesis may help to understand the excess burden and mortality from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int Immunol ; 34(4): 177-188, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522225

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic causes an overwhelming number of hospitalization and deaths with a significant socioeconomic impact. The vast majority of studies indicate that asthma and allergic diseases do not represent a risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility nor cause a more severe course of disease. This raises the opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the interaction between an allergic background and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The majority of patients with asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, food allergies and drug allergies exhibit an over-expression of type 2 immune and inflammatory pathways with the contribution of epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, dendritic cells, T cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-31. The potential impact of type 2 inflammation-related allergic diseases on susceptibility to COVID-19 and severity of its course have been reported. In this review, the prevalence of asthma and other common allergic diseases in COVID-19 patients is addressed. Moreover, the impact of allergic and non-allergic asthma with different severity and control status, currently available asthma treatments such as inhaled and oral corticosteroids, short- and long-acting ß2 agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists and biologicals on the outcome of COVID-19 patients is reviewed. In addition, possible protective mechanisms of asthma and type 2 inflammation on COVID-19 infection, such as the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, antiviral activity of eosinophils and cross-reactive T-cell epitopes, are discussed. Potential interactions of other allergic diseases with COVID-19 are postulated, including recommendations for their management.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Rhinitis, Allergic , Asthma/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(7): e12065, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first reports of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, there have been 198 million confirmed cases worldwide as of August 2021. The scientific community has joined efforts to gain knowledge of the newly emerged virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the immunopathological mechanisms leading to COVID-19, and its significance for patients with allergies and asthma. METHODS: Based on the current literature, recent advances and developments in COVID-19 in the context of allergic diseases were reviewed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we discuss the prevalence of COVID-19 in subjects with asthma, attacks of hereditary angioedema, and other allergic diseases during COVID-19. Underlying mechanisms suggest a protective role of allergy in COVID-19, involving eosinophilia, SARS-CoV-2 receptors expression, interferon responses, and other immunological events, but further studies are needed to fully understand those associations. There has been significant progress in disease evaluation and management of COVID-19, and allergy care should continue during the COVID-19 pandemic. The European Academy of Allergy & Clinical Immunology (EAACI) launched a series of statements and position papers providing recommendations on the organization of the allergy clinic, handling of allergen immunotherapy, asthma, drug hypersensitivity, allergic rhinitis, and other allergic diseases. Treatment of allergies using biologics during the COVID-19 pandemic has also been discussed. Allergic reactions to the COVID-19 vaccines, including severe anaphylaxis, have been reported. Vaccination is a prophylactic strategy that can lead to a significant reduction in the mortality and morbidity associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and in this review, we discuss the proposed culprit components causing rare adverse reactions and recommendations to mitigate the risk of anaphylactic events during the administration of the vaccines.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125524, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414844

ABSTRACT

Importance: As of May 2021, more than 32 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the United States, resulting in more than 615 000 deaths. Anaphylactic reactions associated with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Objective: To characterize the immunologic mechanisms underlying allergic reactions to these vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 22 patients with suspected allergic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines between December 18, 2020, and January 27, 2021, at a large regional health care network. Participants were individuals who received at least 1 of the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision anaphylaxis codes: T78.2XXA, T80.52XA, T78.2XXD, or E949.9, with documentation of COVID-19 vaccination. Suspected allergy cases were identified and invited for follow-up allergy testing. Exposures: FDA-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Allergic reactions were graded using standard definitions, including Brighton criteria. Skin prick testing was conducted to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate 80 (P80). Histamine (1 mg/mL) and filtered saline (negative control) were used for internal validation. Basophil activation testing after stimulation for 30 minutes at 37 °C was also conducted. Concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgE antibodies to PEG were obtained to determine possible mechanisms. Results: Of 22 patients (20 [91%] women; mean [SD] age, 40.9 [10.3] years; 15 [68%] with clinical allergy history), 17 (77%) met Brighton anaphylaxis criteria. All reactions fully resolved. Of patients who underwent skin prick tests, 0 of 11 tested positive to PEG, 0 of 11 tested positive to P80, and 1 of 10 (10%) tested positive to the same brand of mRNA vaccine used to vaccinate that individual. Among these same participants, 10 of 11 (91%) had positive basophil activation test results to PEG and 11 of 11 (100%) had positive basophil activation test results to their administered mRNA vaccine. No PEG IgE was detected; instead, PEG IgG was found in tested individuals who had an allergy to the vaccine. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on this case series, women and those with a history of allergic reactions appear at have an elevated risk of mRNA vaccine allergy. Immunological testing suggests non-IgE-mediated immune responses to PEG may be responsible in most individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/adverse effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL