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1.
SN social sciences ; 2(10), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073416

ABSTRACT

This paper has two broad objectives;the first is to examine the challenges of e-learning faced by the students keeping in view their place of residence and gender in India, particularly during the second-wave of Covid-19. The second objective is to examine the role of place of residence and gender of students in the acceptance and satisfaction towards e-learning. The data has been obtained through an online survey of the students of University of Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India, in which a total of 490 students participated. Selection of students has been done through stratified sampling technique. Initially the obtained data was analysed and discussed through simple statistical analysis. Later, a chi-square test of independence was applied to find out the dependency of psychological stress, level of acceptance and level of satisfaction towards e-learning on the place of residence and the gender. The major finding of the paper reveals that the gender and the place of residence of the students is significantly associated with their psychological stress, acceptance and satisfaction towards e-learning. Extra money spent on the purchase of online learning resources was greater in case of rural students.

2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(12): e32203, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 became a pandemic rapidly after its emergence in December 2019. It belongs to the coronavirus family of viruses, which have struck a few times before in history. Data based on previous research regarding etiology and epidemiology of other viruses from this family helped played a vital role in formulating prevention and precaution strategies during the initial stages of this pandemic. Data related to COVID-19 in Pakistan were not initially documented on a large scale. In addition, due to a weak health care system and low economic conditions, Pakistan's population, in general, already suffers from many comorbidities, which can severely affect the outcome of patients infected with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infections are coupled with a manifestation of various notable outcomes that can be documented and characterized clinically. The aim of this study was to examine these clinical manifestations, which can serve as indicators for early detection as well as severity prognosis for COVID-19 infections, especially in high-risk groups. METHODS: A retrospective observational study involving abstraction of demographic features, presenting symptoms, and adverse clinical outcomes for 1812 patients with COVID-19 was conducted. Patients were admitted to the four major hospitals in the Rawalpindi-Islamabad region of Pakistan, and the study was conducted from February to August 2020. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out to identify significant indicators of COVID-19 severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ventilator aid, and mortality. The study not only relates COVID-19 infection with comorbidities, but also examines other related factors, such as age and gender. RESULTS: This study identified fever (1592/1812, 87.9%), cough (1433/1812, 79.1%), and shortness of breath (998/1812, 55.1%) at the time of hospital admission as the most prevalent symptoms for patients with COVID-19. These symptoms were common but not conclusive of the outcome of infection. Out of 1812 patients, 24.4% (n=443) required ICU admission and 21.5% (n=390) required ventilator aid at some point of disease progression during their stay at the hospital; 25.9% (n=469) of the patients died. Further analysis revealed the relationship of the presented symptoms and comorbidities with the progression of disease severity in these patients. Older adult patients with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and asthma, were significantly affected in higher proportions, resulting in requirement of ICU admission and ventilator aid in some cases and, in many cases, even mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Older adult patients with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and chronic kidney disease, are at increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 infections, with an increased likelihood of adverse clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(Suppl 3): iii43-iii48, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inadvertent delays in access to appropriate therapeutic interventions in high-risk group coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients contribute to mortality in patients with severe/critical disease presentation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of timely admission to the hospital on mortality of patients with severe/critical COVID-19. Another secondary aspect of this study was to observe the efficacy of time-dependent use of corticosteroids on mortality of critical/severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Clinical data of 659 patients with severe/critical COVID-19, admitted to four major tertiary care hospitals from the Islamabad-Rawalpindi region of Pakistan was retrospectively collected from a period February-August 2020. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of mortality in severe/critical COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Out of a total of 659 patients, 469 (71.2%) patients died. Age > 60 years, presence of hypertension, heart disease and kidney disease along with late admission (>5 days) were significant predictors of mortality in patients with severe/critical COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the importance of well-timed provision of appropriate medical interventions control COVID-19-associated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(5): e28594, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first reports of COVID-19 infection, the foremost requirement has been to identify a treatment regimen that not only fights the causative agent but also controls the associated complications of the infection. Due to the time-consuming process of drug discovery, physicians have used readily available drugs and therapies for treatment of infections to minimize the death toll. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to provide a snapshot analysis of the major drugs used in a cohort of 1562 Pakistani patients during the period from May to July 2020, when the first wave of COVID-19 peaked in Pakistan. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed to provide an overview of the major drugs used in a cohort of 1562 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the four major tertiary-care hospitals in the Rawalpindi-Islamabad region of Pakistan during the peak of the first wave of COVID-19 in the country (May-July 2020). RESULTS: Antibiotics were the most common choice out of all the therapies employed, and they were used as first line of treatment for COVID-19. Azithromycin was the most prescribed drug for treatment. No monthly trend was observed in the choice of antibiotics, and these drugs appeared to be a random but favored choice throughout the months of the study. It was also noted that even antibiotics used for multidrug resistant infections were prescribed irrespective of the severity or progression of the infection. The results of the analysis are alarming, as this approach may lead to antibiotic resistance and complications in immunocompromised patients with COVID-19. A total of 1562 patients (1064 male, 68.1%, and 498 female, 31.9%) with a mean age of 47.35 years (SD 17.03) were included in the study. The highest frequency of patient hospitalizations occurred in June (846/1562, 54.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines for a targeted treatment regime are needed to control related complications and to limit the misuse of antibiotics in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S88-S90, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: All countries impacted by COVID-19 have had to change routine health service delivery. Although this has reversed some of the progress made in reducing the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) disease, there is an opportunity to incorporate lessons learned to improve TB programmes going forward. APPROACH: We use Pakistan as a case study to discuss three important adaptations in light of COVID-19: bringing care closer to patients; strengthening primary health care systems; and proactively addressing stigma and fear. FINDINGS: COVID-19 control in Pakistan has restricted people's ability to travel and this has forced the TB programme to reduce the need for in-person health facility visits and bring care closer to patients' homes. Strategies that may be useful for providing more convenient care to patients in the future include: : remote treatment support using telemedicine; collaborating with private healthcare providers; and establishing community medicine collection points. As part of the response to COVID-19 in Pakistan, the out-patient departments of major tertiary and secondary care hospitals were closed, and this highlighted the importance of strengthening primary healthcare for both better pandemic and TB control. Finally, stigma associated with COVID-19 and TB can be addressed using trusted community-based health workers, such as Lady Health Workers in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Community Health Workers , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
6.
Advances in Fuzzy Systems ; 2020, 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-807870

ABSTRACT

In recent months, the world has experienced the outbreak and spread of a new infectious disease, COVID-19. The spread of this disease has been so severe, and even many developed countries have struggled to manage this situation. However, some countries, such as China and Australia, have shown success in taking effective steps towards tackling the crisis. So far, some preventive measures to contain the spread of infection have emerged. Numerous studies have been undertaken worldwide in parallel in order to develop strategies to contain the virus, as well as to determine climatic or atmospheric conditions favoring COVID-19 spread. In this research, an artificial intelligence (AI) system has been adopted to assess the effective role of various environmental conditions in the spread of COVID-19. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and UV index (UVI) of some affected countries were considered as input parameters while the total number of infected people is taken as the output variable. After plotting all available data as linguistic variables, a relationship is established between temperature, RH, UVI, and the number of infected people. From the surface graph, it can be stated that in addition to UVI, temperature and RH have a significant impact on the number of affected people. The maximum and minimum temperatures as well as other parameters are considered on the basis of mean values.

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