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1.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786073

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: It is well-established that coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is highly pro-inflammatory, leading to activation of the coagulation cascade. COVID-19-induced hypercoagulability is associated with adverse outcomes and mortality. Current guidelines recommend that hospitalized COVID-19 patients should receive pharmacological prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE). (2) INTERACT is a retrospective, phase IV, observational cohort study aiming to evaluate the overall clinical effectiveness and safety of a higher than conventionally used prophylactic dose of anticoagulation with tinzaparin administered for VTE prevention in non-critically ill COVID-19 patients with moderate disease severity. (3) Results: A total of 705 patients from 13 hospitals in Greece participated in the study (55% men, median age 62 years). Anticoagulation with tinzaparin was initiated immediately after admission. A full therapeutic dose was received by 36.3% of the participants (mean ± SD 166 ± 33 IU/Kgr/day) and the remaining patients (63.9%) received an intermediate dose (mean ± SD 114 ± 22 IU/Kgr/day). The median treatment duration was 13 days (Q1-Q3: 8-20 days). During the study (April 2020 to November 2021), 14 thrombotic events (2.0%) were diagnosed (i.e., three cases of pulmonary embolism (PE) and 11 cases of deep venous thrombosis, DVT). Four bleeding events were recorded (0.6%). In-hospital death occurred in 12 patients (1.7%). Thrombosis was associated with increasing age (median: 74.5 years, Q1-Q3: 62-79, for patients with thrombosis vs. 61.9 years, Q1-Q3: 49-72, p = 0.0149), increased D-dimer levels for all three evaluation time points (at admission: 2490, Q1-Q3: 1580-6480 vs. 700, Q1-Q3: 400-1475, p < 0.0001), one week ± two days after admission (3510, Q1-Q3: 1458-9500 vs. 619, Q1-Q3: 352-1054.5, p < 0.0001), as well as upon discharge (1618.5, Q1-Q3: 1010-2255 vs. 500, Q1-Q3: 294-918, p < 0.0001). Clinical and laboratory improvement was affirmed by decreasing D-dimer and CRP levels, increasing platelet numbers and oxygen saturation measurements, and a drop in the World Health Organization (WHO) progression scale. (4) Conclusions: The findings of our study are in favor of prophylactic anticoagulation with an intermediate to full therapeutic dose of tinzaparin among non-critically ill patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tinzaparin , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
2.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100560, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706398

ABSTRACT

Most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) experience mild, non-specific symptoms, but many develop severe symptoms associated with an excessive inflammatory response. Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) provide early warning of progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death, but access to suPAR testing may be limited. The Severe COvid Prediction Estimate (SCOPE) score, derived from circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, D- dimers, interleukin-6, and ferritin among patients not receiving non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation during the SAVE-MORE study, offers predictive accuracy for progression to SRF or death within 14 days comparable to that of a suPAR concentration of ≥6 ng/mL (area under receiver operator characteristic curve 0.81 for both). The SCOPE score is validated in two similar independent cohorts. A SCOPE score of 6 or more is an alternative to suPAR for predicting progression to SRF or death within 14 days of hospital admission for pneumonia, and it can be used to guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313802

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on the safety and efficacy profile of tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be enriched. Methods: : In this open label, prospective study, we evaluated clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with COVID-19 and PaO 2 /FiO 2 <200 receiving tocilizumab plus usual care versus usual care alone. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included time to discharge, change in PaO 2 /FiO2 at day 5 and change in WHO progression scale at day 10. Findings: Overall, 114 patients were included in the analysis (tocilizumab plus usual care: 56, usual care: 58). Allocation to usual care was associated with significant increase in 28-day mortality compared to tocilizumab plus usual care [Cox proportional-hazards model: HR: 3.34, (95%CI: 1.21 to 9.30), (p=0.02)]. There was not a statistically significant difference with regards to hospital discharge over the 28-day period for patients receiving tocilizumab compared to usual care [11.0 days (95%CI: 9.0 to 16.0) vs 14.0 days (95%CI: 10.0 to 24.0), HR: 1.32 (95%CI: 0.84 to 2.08), p=0.21]. ΔPaO 2 /FiO 2 at day 5 was significantly higher in the tocilizumab group compared to the usual care group [42.0 (95%CI: 23.0 to 84.7) vs 15.8 (95%CI: -19.4 to 50.3), p=0.03]. ΔWHO scale at day 10 was significantly lower in the tocilizumab group compared to the usual care group (-0.5±2.1 vs 0.6±2.6, p=0.005). Conclusion: This is the first study administrating tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19 based on PaO 2 /FiO 2 . Tocilizumab improved survival and other clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and PaO 2 /FiO 2 <200 irrespective of systemic inflammatory markers levels.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311148

ABSTRACT

Early recognition of risk and start of treatment may improve unfavorable outcome of COVID-19. In the SAVE-MORE double-blind randomized trial, 594 patients with pneumonia without respiratory dysfunction at risk as defined by plasma suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) ≥ 6 ng/ml were 1:2 randomized to subcutaneous placebo or 100 mg anakinra once daily for 10 days;85.9% were co-administered dexamethasone. After 28 days, anakinra-treated patients were distributed to lower strata of the 11-point World Health Organization ordinal Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) (adjusted odds ratio-OR 0.36;95%CI 0.26–0.50;P < 0.001);anakinra protected from severe disease or death (≥ 6 points of WHO-CPS) (OR: 0.46;P: 0.010). The median WHO-CPS decrease in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points (OR 0.40;P < 0.0001);the median decrease of SOFA score was 0 and 1 points (OR 0.63;P: 0.004). 28-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio: 0.45;P: 0.045) and hospital stay was shorter. (Sponsored by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT04680949)

5.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 317, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the safety and efficacy profile of tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be enriched. METHODS: In this open label, prospective study, we evaluated clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with COVID-19 and PaO2/FiO2 < 200 receiving tocilizumab plus usual care versus usual care alone. Tocilizumab was administered at the time point that PaO2/FiO2 < 200 was observed. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included time to discharge, change in PaO2/FiO2 at day 5 and change in WHO progression scale at day 10. FINDINGS: Overall, 114 patients were included in the analysis (tocilizumab plus usual care: 56, usual care: 58). Allocation to usual care was associated with significant increase in 28-day mortality compared to tocilizumab plus usual care [Cox proportional-hazards model: HR: 3.34, (95% CI: 1.21-9.30), (p = 0.02)]. There was not a statistically significant difference with regards to hospital discharge over the 28 day period for patients receiving tocilizumab compared to usual care [11.0 days (95% CI: 9.0 to 16.0) vs 14.0 days (95% CI: 10.0-24.0), HR: 1.32 (95% CI: 0.84-2.08), p = 0.21]. ΔPaO2/FiO2 at day 5 was significantly higher in the tocilizumab group compared to the usual care group [42.0 (95% CI: 23.0-84.7) vs 15.8 (95% CI: - 19.4-50.3), p = 0.03]. ΔWHO scale at day 10 was significantly lower in the tocilizumab group compared to the usual care group (-0.5 ± 2.1 vs 0.6 ± 2.6, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Administration of tocilizumab, at the time point that PaO2/FiO2 < 200 was observed, improved survival and other clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 irrespective of systemic inflammatory markers levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/trends , Patient Acuity , Administration, Intravenous , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294791

ABSTRACT

Most patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) experience mild, non-specific symptoms, but several develop severe symptoms associated with an excessive inflammatory response. Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) provide early warning of progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death, but access to suPAR testing may be limited. The Severe COvid Prediction Estimate (SCOPE) score, derived from C-reactive protein, D-dimer, interleukin-6, and ferritin circulating concentrations at hospitalization during the SAVE-MORE study, offers comparable predictive accuracy for progression to SRF or death within 14 days as suPAR ≥6 ng/ml (area under receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.81 for both). SCOPE score was validated against an independent dataset from the SAVE study. The SCOPE score is an alternative to suPAR for predicting progression to SRF or death within 14 days of hospital admission for pneumonia, and it can be used to guide treatment decisions.<br><br>Funding: The study was funded in part by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis and by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum. The Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis is the Sponsor of the SAVE and SAVE-MORE studies.<br><br>Declaration of Interests:E. J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis has received honoraria from Abbott CH, bioMérieux, Brahms GmbH, GSK, InflaRx GmbH, Sobi and XBiotech Inc;independent educational grants from Abbott CH, AxisShield, bioMérieux Inc, InflaRx GmbH, Johnson & Johnson, MSD, Sobi and XBiotech Inc.;and funding from the Horizon2020 Marie-Curie Project European Sepsis Academy (granted to the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens), and the Horizon 2020 European Grants ImmunoSep and RISKinCOVID (granted to the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis). G. Poulakou has received independent educational grants from Pfizer, MSD, Angelini, and Biorad. H. Milionis reports receiving honoraria, consulting fees and non-financial support from healthcare companies, including Amgen, Angelini, Bayer, Mylan, MSD, Pfizer, and Servier. L. Dagna had received consultation honoraria from SOBI. M. Bassetti has received funds for research grants and/or advisor/consultant and/or speaker/chairman from Angelini, Astellas, Bayer, Biomerieux, Cidara, Cipla, Gilead, Menarini, MSD, Pfizer, Roche, Shionogi and Nabriva. P. Panagopoulos has received honoraria from GILEAD Sciences, Janssen, and MSD. G. N. Dalekos is an advisor or lecturer for Ipsen, Pfizer, Genkyotex, Novartis, Sobi, received research grants from Abbvie, Gilead and has served as PI in studies for Abbvie, Novartis, Gilead, Novo Nordisk, Genkyotex, Regulus Therapeutics Inc, Tiziana Life Sciences, Bayer, Astellas, Pfizer, Amyndas Pharmaceuticals, CymaBay Therapeutics Inc., Sobi and Intercept Pharmaceuticals. M. G. Netea is supported by an ERC Advanced Grant (#833247) and a Spinoza grant of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. Hes is a scientific founder of TTxD and he has received independent educational grants from TTxD, GSK, Ono Pharma and ViiV HealthCare. The other authors do not have any competing interest to declare.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: The SAVE protocol was approved by the National Ethics Committee of Greece (approval 38/20) and National Organization for Medicines approval (ISO 28/20). The SAVE-MORE protocol was approved by the National Ethics Committee of Greece (approval 161/20) and by the Ethics Committee of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, IRCCS, in Rome (1 February 2021).<br><br>Trial Registration: The SAVE study was prospectively registered prior to enrolling the first patient (EudraCT number 2020-001466-11;ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04357366). The SAVE-MORE study was prospectively registered (EudraCT no. 2020-005828-11;ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04680949). Written informed consent was provided by all patients prior to enrollment.

7.
J Innate Immun ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS) and complex immune dysregulation (CID) often underlie acute respiratory distress (ARDS) in COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the effect of personalized immunotherapy on clinical improvement of critical COVID-19. METHODS: In this open-label prospective trial, 102 patients with ARDS by SARS-CoV-2 were screened for MALS (ferritin >4,420 ng/mL) and CID (ferritin ≤4,420 ng/mL and low human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression on CD14-monocytes). Patients with MALS or CID with increased aminotransferases received intravenous anakinra; those with CID and normal aminotransferases received tocilizumab. The primary outcome was ≥25% decrease in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and/or 50% increase in the respiratory ratio by day 8; 28-day mortality, change of SOFA score by day 28, serum biomarkers, and cytokine production by mononuclear cells were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The primary study endpoint was met in 58.3% of anakinra-treated patients and in 33.3% of tocilizumab-treated patients (p: 0.01). Most patients in both groups received dexamethasone as standard of care. No differences were found in secondary outcomes, mortality, and SOFA score changes. Ferritin decreased among anakinra-treated patients; interleukin-6, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and HLA-DR expression increased among tocilizumab-treated patients. Survivors by day 28 who received anakinra were distributed to lower severity levels of the WHO clinical progression scale. Greater incidence of secondary infections was found with tocilizumab treatment. CONCLUSION: Immune assessment resulted in favorable anakinra responses among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and features of MALS.

8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14672, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476203
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409704

ABSTRACT

Autotaxin (ATX; ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D catalyzing the extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pleiotropic signaling phospholipid. Genetic and pharmacologic studies have previously established a pathologic role for ATX and LPA signaling in pulmonary injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. Here, increased ENPP2 mRNA levels were detected in immune cells from nasopharyngeal swab samples of COVID-19 patients, and increased ATX serum levels were found in severe COVID-19 patients. ATX serum levels correlated with the corresponding increased serum levels of IL-6 and endothelial damage biomarkers, suggesting an interplay of the ATX/LPA axis with hyperinflammation and the associated vascular dysfunction in COVID-19. Accordingly, dexamethasone (Dex) treatment of mechanically ventilated patients reduced ATX levels, as shown in two independent cohorts, indicating that the therapeutic benefits of Dex include the suppression of ATX. Moreover, large scale analysis of multiple single cell RNA sequencing datasets revealed the expression landscape of ENPP2 in COVID-19 and further suggested a role for ATX in the homeostasis of dendritic cells, which exhibit both numerical and functional deficits in COVID-19. Therefore, ATX has likely a multifunctional role in COVID-19 pathogenesis, suggesting that its pharmacological targeting might represent an additional therapeutic option, both during and after hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Datasets as Topic , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis
10.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(4): 378-385, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399543

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological data from patients with COVID-19 has been recently published in several countries. Nationwide data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Greece remain scarce. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective study from 6 reference centers between February 26 and May 15, 2020. RESULTS: The patients were mostly males (65.7%) and never smokers (57.2%) of median age 60 (95% CI: 57.6-64) years. The majority of the subjects (98%) were treated with the standard-of-care therapeutic regimen at that time, including hydroxychlo-roquine and azithromycin. Median time of hospitalization was 10 days (95% CI: 10-12). Twenty-five (13.3%) individuals were intubated and 8 died (4.2%). The patients with high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ( > 3.58) exhibited more severe disease as indicated by significantly increased World Health Organization (WHO) R&D ordinal scale (4; 95% CI: 4-4 vs 3; 95% CI: 3-4, p = 0.0001) and MaxFiO2% (50; 95% CI: 38.2-50 vs 29.5; 95% CI: 21-31, p < 0.0001). The patients with increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels ( > 270 IU/ml) also exhibited more advanced disease compared to the low LDH group ( < 270 IU/ml) as indicated by both WHO R&D ordinal scale (4; 95% CI: 4-4 vs 4; 95% CI: 3-4, p = 0.0001) and MaxFiO2% (50; 95% CI: 35-60 vs 28; 95% CI: 21-31, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We present the first epidemiological report from a low-incidence and mortality COVID-19 country. NLR and LDH may represent reliable disease prognosticators leading to timely treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Female , Greece , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 404-406, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377591

ABSTRACT

The presence of a complex immune dysregulation syndrome has been established in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to assess Th1/Th2 response in COVID-19 patients and its association with disease severity by performing a prospective cohort study in a tertiary hospital COVID-19 referral center. We report no difference between Th1/Th2 responses between patients with severe and mild disease, except for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Future larger studies should examine lung-specific versus systemic inflammatory responses, as well as, diverse immunotypes driving poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Female , Greece , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6614, 2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147848

ABSTRACT

There is a plethora of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological tests based either on nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), S1-subunit of spike glycoprotein (S1) or receptor binding domain (RBD). Although these single-antigen based tests demonstrate high clinical performance, there is growing evidence regarding their limitations in epidemiological serosurveys. To address this, we developed a Luminex-based multiplex immunoassay that detects total antibodies (IgG/IgM/IgA) against the N, S1 and RBD antigens and used it to compare antibody responses in 1225 blood donors across Greece. Seroprevalence based on single-antigen readouts was strongly influenced by both the antigen type and cut-off value and ranged widely [0.8% (95% CI 0.4-1.5%)-7.5% (95% CI 6.0-8.9%)]. A multi-antigen approach requiring partial agreement between RBD and N or S1 readouts (RBD&N|S1 rule) was less affected by cut-off selection, resulting in robust seroprevalence estimation [0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.1%)-1.2% (95% CI 0.7-2.0%)] and accurate identification of seroconverted individuals.


Subject(s)
Antigens/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
15.
Elife ; 102021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121691

ABSTRACT

Background: It was studied if early suPAR-guided anakinra treatment can prevent severe respiratory failure (SRF) of COVID-19. Methods: A total of 130 patients with suPAR ≥6 ng/ml were assigned to subcutaneous anakinra 100 mg once daily for 10 days. Primary outcome was SRF incidence by day 14 defined as any respiratory ratio below 150 mmHg necessitating mechanical or non-invasive ventilation. Main secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and inflammatory mediators; 28-day WHO-CPS was explored. Propensity-matched standard-of care comparators were studied. Results: 22.3% with anakinra treatment and 59.2% comparators (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.20-0.46) progressed into SRF; 30-day mortality was 11.5% and 22.3% respectively (hazard ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.25-0.97). Anakinra was associated with decrease in circulating interleukin (IL)-6, sCD163 and sIL2-R; IL-10/IL-6 ratio on day 7 was inversely associated with SOFA score; patients were allocated to less severe WHO-CPS strata. Conclusions: Early suPAR-guided anakinra decreased SRF and restored the pro-/anti-inflammatory balance. Funding: This study was funded by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis, Technomar Shipping Inc, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum, and the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. Clinical trial number: NCT04357366.


People infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, can develop severe respiratory failure and require a ventilator to keep breathing, but this does not happen to every infected individual. Measuring a blood protein called suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) may help identify patients at the greatest risk of developing severe respiratory failure and requiring a ventilator. Previous investigations have suggested that measuring suPAR can identify pneumonia patients at highest risk for developing respiratory failure. The protein can be measured by taking a blood sample, and its levels provide a snapshot of how the body's immune system is reacting to infection, and of how it may respond to treatment. Anakinra is a drug that forms part of a class of medications called interleukin antagonists. It is commonly prescribed alone or in combination with other medications to reduce pain and swelling associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Kyriazopoulou et al. investigated whether treating COVID-19 patients who had developed pneumonia with anakinra could prevent the use of a ventilator and lower the risk of death. The findings show that treating COVID-19 patients with an injection of 100 milligrams of anakinra for ten days may be an effective approach because the drug combats inflammation. Kyriazopoulou et al. examined various markers of the immune response and discovered that anakinra was able to improve immune function, protecting a significant number of patients from going on a ventilator. The drug was also found to be safe and cause no significant adverse side effects. Administering anakinra decreased of the risk of progression into severe respiratory failure by 70%, and reduced death rates significantly. These results suggest that it may be beneficial to use suPAR as an early biomarker for identifying those individuals at highest risk for severe respiratory failure, and then treat them with anakinra. While the findings are promising, they must be validated in larger studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 616292, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000109

ABSTRACT

Background: There is an amenable need for clinically applicable biomarkers in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) has been recently suggested as a prognostic biomarker for COVID-19. Methods: This was an observational study enrolling patients between February 26 and May 15 2020. We aimed to validate the association of the previously published RDW threshold of 14.5% with markers of disease progression and mortality. Results: A total number of 193 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled and analyzed. Median age was 61 years (95% CI: 58-64). Patients with baseline RDW ≥14.5% (n = 41, 19.2%) presented with more progressive disease compared to patients with baseline RDW <14.5% (n = 156, 80.8%) as indicated by significant differences in maximum FiO2% during hospitalization (median: 100, 95% CI: 45.2-100, vs. 35, 95% CI: 31-40, p = 0.0001, respectively). Values of RDW ≥14.5% were also strongly associated with increased risk of mortality (HR: 4.1, 95% CI: 0.88-19.23), (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Our study provides evidence to support reproducibility and validity of a specified cut-off threshold of RDW as biomarker of disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19.

19.
Shock ; 54(5): 633-637, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pneumonia of COVID-19 illness has often a subtle initial presentation making mandatory the use of biomarkers for evaluation of severity and prediction of final patient disposition. We evaluated the use of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) for the outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 74 patients with COVID-19. Clinical data were collected, and survival predictors were calculated. Blood was collected within 24 h after admission (day 1) and on day 7. H2S was measured in sera by monobromobimane derivation followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and correlated to other markers like procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP). Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 were also measured in serum. RESULTS: Survivors had significantly higher H2S levels on days 1 and 7 after admission. A cut-off point of 150.44 µM could discriminate survivors from non-survivors with 80% sensitivity, 73.4% specificity, and negative predictive value 95.9%. Mortality after 28 days was 32% with admission levels lower than or equal to 150.44 µM and 4.1% with levels above 150.44 µM (P: 0.0008). Mortality was significantly greater among patients with a decrease of H2S levels from day 1 to day 7 greater than or equal to 36% (p: 0.0005). Serum H2S on day 1 was negatively correlated with IL-6 and CRP and positively correlated with the absolute lymphocyte count in peripheral blood. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that H2S is a potential marker for severity and final outcome of pneumonia by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Its correlation with IL-6 suggests anti-inflammatory properties.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Hydrogen Sulfide/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Greece , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Up-Regulation
20.
Respirology ; 25(11): 1209, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781016
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