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1.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820345

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Natural constituents are still a preferred route for counteracting the outbreak of COVID-19. Essentially, flavonoids have been found to be among the most promising molecules identified as coronavirus inhibitors. Recently, a new SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant has spread in many countries, which has raised awareness of the role of natural constituents in attempts to contribute to therapeutic protocols. (2) Methods: Using various chromatographic techniques, triterpenes (1-7), phenolics (8-11), and flavonoids (12-17) were isolated from Euphorbia dendroides and computationally screened against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. As a first step, molecular docking calculations were performed for all investigated compounds. Promising compounds were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations (MD) for 200 ns, in addition to molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations (MM/PBSA) to determine binding energy. (3) Results: MM/PBSA binding energy calculations showed that compound 14 (quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucuronopyranoside) and compound 15 (quercetin-3-O-glucuronide 6″-O-methyl ester) exhibited strong inhibition of Omicron, with ΔGbinding of -41.0 and -32.4 kcal/mol, respectively. Finally, drug likeness evaluations based on Lipinski's rule of five also showed that the discovered compounds exhibited good oral bioavailability. (4) Conclusions: It is foreseeable that these results provide a novel intellectual contribution in light of the decreasing prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 and could be a good addition to the therapeutic protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Euphorbia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Euphorbia/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycoproteins , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(3): 896-903, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753773

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health disaster imposing a nationwide lockdown. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of COVID-19 quarantine on physical, nutritional, psychosocial life, and work aspects on the population of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data collection was based on the fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and was analyzed by the Likert-type scale. A total of 2828 individuals participated during their COVID-19 quarantine. The data were collected during June 10-17, 2020 using the psychosocial FCV-19S. Results: COVID-19 quarantine was negatively correlated with the physical, nutritional, psychosocial life and work aspects of the Saudi Arabia's population (P < 0.05). As a result of the correlation analysis, gender, sociodemographic status and having a family member dying of COVID-19, marital status (single), monthly income (<3000) and occupation (student), and lost a job or businesses were significantly associated with fear of COVID-19 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the participants reported a reduction in their physical activity by 59%, whereas 26.5% of participants showed an increase of body weight. Moreover, 23% of participants lost their jobs during the pandemic. Conclusions: The lockdown period was associated with an increase in the COVID-19 fear score. The degree FCV-19S was varied in different categories in several aspects. Low levels of physical activity and weight gained were observed during the lockdown period.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After recovery from acute infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), many patients experience long-term symptoms in different body systems. The aim of the present study was to identify these symptoms, their severity, and their duration as a first step in building a system to classify post-recovery long-term symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: An online-based cross-sectional survey was administered between September and October 2020. Data regarding the severity of post-recovery symptoms and their duration were collected using an Arabic questionnaire divided into six categories encompassing the 20 most prevalent symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 979 patients recovered from COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia in the study period, of whom 53% were male and 47% were female. The most common symptoms included general fatigue and weakness (73% each), with moderate severity of neurological symptoms including mood changes (41%) and insomnia (39%). Among the special senses, loss of smell and taste of marked severity were reported by 64% and 55% among respiratory symptoms, cough of mild severity (47%), and dyspnea of moderate severity (43%). Loss of appetite of moderate severity was reported in 42%, and diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea of mild severity were reported by 53%, 50%, and 44% of respondents, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term symptoms after recovery from COVID-19 warrant patient follow-up. The authors propose a classification system as a starting point to guide the identification and follow-up of long-term symptoms post-recovery, and recommend larger-scale studies to broaden the definition of recovery from COVID-19, which appears to have two phases, acute and chronic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1650-1657, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged in 2019 and caused a global pandemic in 2020, manifesting in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The majority of patients exhibit a mild form of the disease with no major complications; however, moderate to severe and fatal cases are of public health concerns. Predicting the potential prognosis of COVID-19 could assist healthcare workers in managing cases and controlling the pandemic in an effective way. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to search for biomarkers associated with COVID-19 mortality and predictors of the overall survival (OS). METHODS: Here, clinical data of 6026 adult COVID-19 patients admitted to two large centers in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Hafar Al-Batin cities) between April and June 2020 were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: More than 23% of the study subjects with available data have died, enabling the prediction of mortality in our cohort. Markers that were significantly associated with mortality in this study were older age, increased d-dimer in the blood, higher counts of WBCs, higher percentage of neutrophil, and a higher chest X-ray (CXR) score. The CXR scores were also positively associated with age, d-dimer, WBC count, and percentage of neutrophil. This supports the utility of CXR scores in the absence of blood testing. Predicting mortality based on Ct values of RT-PCR was not successful, necessitating a more quantitative RT-PCR to determine virus quantity in samples. Our work has also identified age, d-dimer concentration, leukocyte parameters and CXR score to be prognostic markers of the OS of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Overall, this retrospective study on hospitalised cohort of COVID-19 patients presents that age, haematological, and radiological data at the time of diagnosis are of value and could be used to guide better clinical management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(5): 561-569, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDː: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), within few months of being declared as a global pandemic by WHO, the number of confirmed cases has been over 75 million and over 1.6 million deaths since the start of the Pandemic and still counting, there is no consensus on factors that predict COVID-19 case progression despite the diversity of studies that reported sporadic laboratory predictive values predicting severe progression. We review different biomarkers to systematically analyzed these values to evaluate whether are they are correlated with the severity of COVID-19 disease and so their ability to be a predictor for progression. METHODS: The current meta-analysis was carried out to identify relevant articles using eight different databases regarding the values of biomarkers and risk factors of significance that predict progression of mild or moderate cases into severe and critical cases. We defined the eligibility criteria using a PICO model. RESULTS: Twenty-two relevant articles were selected for meta-analysis the following biomarkers C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, LDH, neutrophil, %PD-1 expression, D-dimer, creatinine, AST and Cortisol all recorded high cut-off values linked to severe and critical cases while low lymphocyte count, and low Albumin level were recorded. Also, we meta- analyzed age and comorbidities as a risk factors of progression as hypertension, Diabetes and chronic obstructive lung diseases which significantly correlated with cases progression (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ː The current meta-analysis is the first step for analysing and getting cut-off references values of significance for prediction COVID-19 case progression. More studies are needed on patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and on a larger scale to establish clearer threshold values that predict progression from mild to severe cases. In addition, more biomarkers testing also help in building a scoring system for the prediction and guiding for proper timely treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , C-Reactive Protein , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 15(6): 456-462, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, academic institutions are promptly shifting all educational activities to the e-learning format. The present work describes concurrent procedures for online teaching and assessment performed at the College of Medicine, Qassim University, KSA. We also explored the impact of e-learning and assessment on the performance of students and faculty, and the challenges to their sustainability. METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we recorded the number and duration of different online educational activities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Training sessions for various procedures of virtual classrooms and online assessments were organised for teachers and students. A newly established e-assessment committee arranged different online assessments. A comparison between the mean problem-based learning (PBL) grades of the same students was conducted either face-to-face or online. A student satisfaction survey and online staff focus group about the online learning experiences were conducted, and weekly staff perception reports were prepared. The results obtained were then analysed. RESULTS: A total of 620 virtual classrooms were successfully implemented over 994 h including theoretical lectures, PBL sessions, seminars, and tutorials. A significant increase in the mean PBL grades was observed for female students during the online sessions. Out of the basic year students and staff, 58.82% reflected their high satisfaction towards virtual classrooms, online assessment, and online workshops. CONCLUSION: The present study elaborates on the benefits of e-learning and assessment. We observed higher student achievements and promising staff perceptions with obvious improvement in their technological skills. These findings support the shift towards future implementation of more online medical courses.

7.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 20: 100432, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has enhanced the adoption of virtual learning after the urgent suspension of traditional teaching. Different online learning strategies were established to face this learning crisis. The present descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to reveal the different digital procedures implemented by the College of Medicine at Qassim University for better student performance and achievement. METHODS: The switch into distance-based learning was managed by the digitalization committee. Multiple online workshops were conducted to the staff and students about the value and procedures of such a shift. New procedures for online problem-based learning (PBL) sessions were designed. Students' satisfaction was recorded regarding the efficiency of live streaming educational activities and online assessment. RESULTS: The students were satisfied with the overall shift into this collaborative e-learning environment and the new successful procedures of virtual PBL sessions. The digital learning tools facilitated the performance of the students and their peer sharing of knowledge. The role of informatics computer technologies was evident in promoting the students, research skills, and technical competencies. CONCLUSIONS: The present work elaborated on the procedures and privileges of the transformation into digitalized learning, particularly the PBL sessions, which were appreciated by the students and staff. It recommended the adoption of future online theoretical courses as well as the development of informatics computer technologies.

8.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 20: 100418, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now been declared a global public health disaster with no currently available vaccine. This study was undertaken to analyse the effect of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed on the spread of ongoing COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The COVID-19 dashboard for five major cities of Saudi Arabia - Riyadh, Makah, Jeddah, Medina and Dammam was used for data collection. The data on weather were collected from the Weather Underground Company (IBM business GA, USA, 2020). The data were analysed by Spearman's rank correlations using JASP statistical software in two main sections. In the first section the data on COVID-19 from cities were combined to analyse the overall picture of COVID-19 and in the second section, different meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity and wind speed were analysed. RESULTS: Novel data revealed interesting facts on the spreading of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, the data showed that the number of COVID-19 positive cases increases due to the decrease of temperature or humidity, whereas an average decrease in the wind speed was also found to be associated with an elevation of the number of positive cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study determined the impact meteorological factors on the infectivity rate of COVID-19. An inverse association was found between the meteorological parameters with the spreading of COIVD-19. Therefore, this study directs the health authorities to implement specific measures against the spreading of this global pandemic based on weather patterns.

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