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1.
Oman Med J ; 37(2): e348, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771520
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312039

ABSTRACT

Background: With the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pervading the world, little has been published regarding the hospitalized cases of COVID-19 (confirmed) in the Arabian Gulf countries. This paper describes the socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, treatment and clinical outcomes of these cases in Al-Nahdha hospital, Oman. Additionally, factors associated with requiring critical care were identified. Methods: : Data of all the positive cases in Al-Nahdha hospital were retrieved from the electronic health information system retrospectively from 3 rd of March to 9 th May 2020. Required information was recorded in a bespoke sheet and exported to SPSS for further analysis. The primary outcome was defined as requiring vs not requiring critical care. Results: : Out of 102 total admissions, 19 cases required critical care (18.6%). Compared to the non-critical cases, majority of the severe cases requiring critical care were older [54.1(13.4) years vs 48.9(14.9) years], males [89.5% vs 74.7%] and non-nationals [63.2 vs 55.4%]. Significant factors associated with requiring critical care were symptoms of shortness of breath (89.5% vs 65.1%, P=0.03), diabetes (68.4% vs 32.5%, OR=1.5, P=0.004), chronic artery disease (15.8% vs 3.6%, OR=1.7, P=0.04), diagnosis of ARDS (63.2% vs 6.0%, P<0.001). Additionally, the mean ferritin levels was significantly higher in cases requiring critical care compared to their counter cases (2350.4(423.8) vs 795.7(554.3), P=0.005). Depending on disease severity, treatment included anti-bacterial, anti-viral, heparin and steroids. The utilization of steroids was significantly higher in the cases requiring critical care (63.2% vs 26.5%, P=0.001). Out of cases who required critical care (n=19), nine died (death rate= 47.4%). Conclusions: : Results from this study provides fundamental information about the non-clinical and clinical characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Oman. The information obtained can be utilized to follow up the clinical progress of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the Arabic speaking countries where such reports are limited.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 269-277, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654549

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Oman and longitudinal changes in antibody levels over time within the first 11 months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted as a four-cycle serosurvey using a multi-stage stratified sampling method from July to November 2020. A questionnaire was used and included demographics, history of acute respiratory infection and list of symptoms, COVID-19 contact, previous diagnosis or admission, travel history and risk factors. RESULTS: In total, 17,457 participants were surveyed. Thirty percent were female and 66.3% were Omani. There was a significant increase in seroprevalence throughout the study cycles, from 5.5% (4.8-6.2%) in Cycle 1 to 22% (19.6-24.6%) in Cycle 4. There was no difference in seroprevalence between genders, but significant differences were found between age groups. There was a transition of seroprevalence from being higher in non-Omanis than Omanis in Cycle 1 [9.1% (7.6-10.9%) vs 3.2% (2.6-3.9%)] to being higher in Omanis than non-Omanis in Cycle 4 [24.3% (21.0-27.9%) vs 16.8% (14.9-18.9%)]. There was remarkable variation in the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 according to governorate. Close contacts of people with COVID-19 had a 96% higher risk of having the disease [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.64-2.34]. Labourers had 58% higher risk of infection compared with office workers (AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.35). CONCLUSION: This study showed a wide variation in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 across governorates in Oman, with higher estimated seroprevalence in migrants in the first two cycles. Prevalence estimates remain low and are insufficient to provide herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e62, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the unprecedented spread of the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, primary healthcare workers (PHCWs) are having to shoulder the increasing weight of this ongoing pandemic. AIMS: This study explored the rate and covariates of depressive symptoms among PHCWs in the Muscat governorate. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from 10 May to 10 June 2020 among PHCWs working in all primary healthcares across the Muscat governorate. Data on sociodemographic and risk factors of having at least one underlying physical health condition, a psychiatric history, family history of psychiatric disorders, and direct involvement with COVID-19 positive patients were sought. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was then used to solicit the presence of depressive symptoms. Those with a cutoff point ≥10 were considered as showing depressive symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with depressive symptoms in PHCWs after adjusting for all sociodemographic factors. FINDINGS: A total of 432 (72%) out of 600 PHCWs with an average age of 39.2 years (SD = 7.8 years) ranging between 25.0 and 75.0 years responded to the survey. There were more females (n = 281, 65.3%) than males, and more than 45% (n = 195) of them were physicians. Additionally, more than 78% (n = 338) had been in contact with COVID-19 patients. There was a significant association between different age groups and profession (P < .001), having at least one underlying physical health condition (P = 0.001) and depressive symptom status (P = 0.038). A total of 78 out of the 423 subjects (18.1%) were considered to have depressive symptoms. After adjusting for all factors, the logistic regression model showed that an age of 34 years or below (OR = 2.079, P = 0.021) and having at least one underlying physical health condition (OR = 2.216, P = 0.007) were factors contributing significantly to depressive symptoms among the PHCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Oman , Pandemics
5.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211051930, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has led to health service modification and temporary disruption of the routine care provided to patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in primary care. This was done to minimize outpatient visits, permit physical distancing, and ensure patients' and healthcare providers safety. There is no evidence that explored or measured the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on diabetes services and patients' glycemic outcome in Oman. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the accessibility of DM services in primary care after COVID-19 pandemic announcement, and measure patients' glycemic outcome. METHODS: Before and after, retrospective cohort study using Al-Shifa healthcare database in primary care. One thousand adult patients with diabetes who attended DM clinic before pandemic announcement in 2019 were randomly selected and followed up until end of 2020. Patients aged ≥18 years and had at least 2 visits in 2019 were included. Access to DM services was identified by number of patients received care, frequency of consultations, mode of consultation, and type of intervention given to patients. Patients' glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and other glycemic parameters after pandemic announcement in 2020 were determined and compared with the same parameters before pandemic in 2019. Association between patients' HbA1c and mode of consultation was measured using multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 937 patients continued to follow and received DM care after pandemic announcement. Median number of consultations was 2 with interquartile range (IQR): 3-2. 57.4% had face-to-face alone, 32.4% had combined face to face and telephone consultation, and 10% had telephone consultation alone. Mean difference in HbA1c (%) before and after pandemic announcement was 0.2 ± 1.4 (95% CI: 0.1 to 0.3), P = .002. With multivariable linear regression, the mean difference in HbA1c was -0.3 (-2.3 to 1.5), P = .734 for telephone consultation alone, -0.5 (-2.4 to 1.4), P = .613 for face-to-face alone, and -0.5 (-2.4 to 1.3), P = .636 for combined consultations, compared to those who did not receive any formal consultation. CONCLUSION: Despite service modification and disruption of comprehensive care in primary care after COVID-19 pandemic announcement, DM services were accessible as majority of patients maintained follow up. There was an overall increase in mean glycated hemoglobin, however, it was a less than 1 unit increase. After adjusting for multivariable, glycated hemoglobin was reduced among those who received consultation including telephone consultation compared to those who did not, however evidence was unconvincing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adolescent , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Oman , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
6.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17343, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380087

ABSTRACT

Background and objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency of international concern. Several characteristics of hospitalised cases, including variations in symptoms as well as radiological and laboratory findings, have been described. However, the exact clinical spectrum of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in Oman is currently unclear. The objective of this paper was to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, as well as the treatment and clinical outcomes of the confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Al Nahdha Hospital, Oman. Additionally, factors associated with the severity of the disease were identified. Methodology This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of hospitalised COVID-19 patients. The required data were retrieved from the electronic health information system for the period from 3rd March to 9th May 2020. Information was recorded in a bespoke sheet and exported to SPSS Statistics (IBM, Armonk, NY) for analysis. Results A total of 102 admissions were included in this study. The mean age of the cohort was 49.9 (14.7) years. The majority were males (77.5%), and more than half were expatriates (56.9%). Diabetes and hypertension were found in 39.2% and 36.3% of the study population, respectively. Common symptoms encountered were dry cough (78.3%), fever (76.5%), and shortness of breath (SOB) (69.6%). Radiologically, bilateral infiltrations were present in 73.5% of the patients. Only 19 cases required critical care (18.6%), and those were mostly older [54.1 (13.4) years], males (89.5%), and non-nationals (63.2%). Significant factors associated with requiring critical care were symptoms of SOB (89.5% vs 65.1%, p=0.03), diabetes (68.4% vs 32.5%, OR=1.5, p=0.004), chronic artery disease (15.8% vs 3.6%, OR=1.7, p=0.04), and diagnosis of acute respiratory distress symptoms (63.2% vs 6.0%, p<0.001). Additionally, the mean ferritin levels were significantly higher in cases requiring critical care [2350.4 (423.8) vs 795.7 (554.3), p=0.005]. Depending on disease severity, the treatment included antibacterials, antivirals, heparin, and steroids. The utilisation of steroids was significantly higher in the cases requiring critical care (63.2% vs 26.5%, p=0.001). Among cases that required critical care (n=19), nine died (death rate=47.4%). Conclusions This study has provided fundamental information about the clinical characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Oman, including factors associated with the disease's severity. Results from this study can be utilised to update the COVID-19 management guidelines for hospitalised patients.

7.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17055, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365830

ABSTRACT

Introduction Vaccinations against COVID-19 were licensed with limited testing assurances to the public triggering a widespread hesitancy around expected adverse reactions. Limited data was reported from Arabian Gulf countries on vaccine adverse effects. Objectives This study looked at the rate of reporting at least one side effect post-COVID-19 vaccination and its associated factors (sociodemographic characteristics, clinical condition, and type of vaccines). Additionally, questions about safety and willingness to recommend them were included. Study design Phone interviews on post-COVID-19 vaccination adverse effects were utilized to record responses related to reporting at least one side effect post vaccinations across the studied variables. Data collection continued for two months (from 1st March to 30th April 2021). Methodology Participants were adults (Omani citizens and non-citizens) who received AstraZeneca (AZ) or Pfizer (PF) vaccines from primary care facilities in Muscat and were randomly selected from the health information system. Responses were saved in a bespoke Google form/questionnaire. Chi-squared tests were utilized to determine potential factors associated with the dependent variable. Results A total of 753 participants completed the phone interviews. The mean age was 52 (3.5), males (54.1%), and 65.1% were Omanis. Hypertension (39.7%), diabetes (34.1%), and asthma (16.7%) were the commonest comorbidities. AZ and PF were administered to 78% and 22% of the participants. Of them, 49.8% reported at least one adverse effect post-COVID-19 vaccination. The proportion of participants with at least one adverse effect was significantly more in individuals who were younger, females, with more than secondary education, and employed (p value < 0.001, 0.01, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). There was no severe reaction (anaphylactic shock) to the vaccines, and most adverse effects were mild-moderate. The proportion of individuals who reported adverse effects were higher with AZ vs PF (53% vs 38.6, p = 0.001). The most common reported localized adverse effects were pain and tenderness (28.3% and 12.1%). Fever and body aches were the commonly reported systemic adverse effects (33.5% and 29.2%). The safety of COVID-19 vaccines was well perceived, and most participants were willing to recommend them to others. Conclusions The current study confirms findings from existing literature on the mild to moderate adverse effects of AZ and PF vaccines. Despite the subjective nature of this study, it is reassuring that the studied COVID-19 vaccines can be administered safely. However, more longitudinal studies are needed to test their efficacy in disease prevention.

8.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720967514, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890050

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Predominantly, studies on COVID-19 report quantitative data that often miss the social implications and other determinants of health. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of health care workers (HCWs) in primary health care in the management of COVID-19 with respect to medical response experiences, socio-cultural and religious reforms, psychological impressions, and lessons learned. METHODS: This was a qualitative study using an empirical phenomenological approach. Six focus group discussions were conducted across various stakeholders working frontline in the management of COVID-19 (managerial, public health/field/community and primary care health centers). They participated in semi-structured, in-depth group discussions from 11th to 20th May 2020. All discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Forty participants were involved in this study. Three themes emerged related to the medical response experiences, including the rapid re-structuring of the PHC services, use of technology and challenges of working on COVID-19. Perceptions on the socio-cultural and religious reforms included changes in social and religious norms, and anticipated gaps in accessing health care among the vulnerable groups (elderly, expatriates, and individuals with low economic status). Perceptions on psychological disturbances were themed as consequences of social distancing, management of dead bodies, exhaustion among the health care workers, and risk of exposure. Finally, lessons learned were centered around building on the existing epidemiological and public health capacities, improving access to health care and overcoming resistance to change. Most participants labelled their experience in COVID-19 as an "experience of wisdom" in which learning was a continuous process. CONCLUSION: This qualitative study amongst primary HCWs revealed certain aspects of response to COVID-19 in Muscat, Oman. Results has unfolded various aspects of COVID-19. The situation was perceived by primary HCWs as a new experience that challenged the primary health care; enforced the utilization of public health/epidemiological skills, and linked to unfavorable socio-religious and psychological events.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Focus Groups , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oman/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Qualitative Research
9.
Oman Med J ; 36(1): e216, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was pervading different parts of the world, little has been published regarding responses undertaken within primary health care (PHC) facilities in Arabian Gulf countries. This paper describes such responses from January to mid-April 2020 in PHC, including public health measures in Muscat, Oman. METHODS: This is a descriptive study showing the trends of the confirmed positive cases of COVID-19 and the undertaken responses to the evolving epidemiological scenario. These responses were described utilizing the World Health Organizations' building blocks for health care systems: Leadership and governance, Health workforce, Service delivery, Medical products and technologies, and health information management. RESULTS: In mid-April 2020, cases of COVID-19 increased to 685 (particularly among non-nationals). As the cases were surging, the PHC responded by executing all guidelines and policies from the national medical and public health response committees and integrating innovative approaches. These included adapting comprehensive and multi-sectoral strategies, partnering with private establishments, and strengthening technology use (in tracking, testing, managing the cases, and data management). CONCLUSIONS: Facilities in the Muscat governorate, with the support from national teams, seemed to continuously scale-up their preparedness and responses to meet the epidemiological expectations in the management of COVID-19.

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