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Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020172, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059642


BACKGROUND: Plain chest radiograph (CXR), although less sensitive than chest CT, is usually the first-line imaging modality used for patients with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. The relation between radiological changes in CXR and clinical severity of the disease in symptomatic patients with COVID 19 has not been fully studied and there is no scoring system for the severity of the lung involvement, using the plain CXR. AIM OF THE STUDY: Current COVID-19 radiological literature is dominated by CT and a detailed description CXR appearances in relation to the disease time course is lacking. We propose an easy scoring system (CO X-RADS) to describe the severity of chest involvement in symptomatic COVID 19 patients using CXR and to correlate the radiological changes with the clinical severity of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical manifestations and CXR findings were recorded in 500 symptomatic COVID-19 positive patients who were admitted to Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) COVID-19 designated facility Center from January to June 2020. The severity and outcome of the disease included: intensive care unit admission, need for oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation. and mortality rate. RESULTS: Most of our symptomatic patients (86.8%) had mild and moderate clinical manifestations. The remaining 13.2% had severe manifestations, including: fever, persistent dry cough, shortness of breath, dyspnea, abdominal and generalized body pains. Based on our radiological scoring system (0 to 10) patients were distributed according to their CXR findings into different categories and according to our suggested (CO X-RADS) severity system into five categories (0 to IV). Patients with mild clinical manifestations showed low scoring in CXR (score 0 up to 4) and they represented 72% of our patients. Patients with moderately severe clinical manifestations showed mainly GGO (scoring 5 and 6) and represented about 14.8% of patients. Patients presented with severe clinical manifestations had obvious lung consolidations at the time of presentation with CXR scoring system ≥ 7 and represented about 13.2% of patients. CONCLUSION: We proposed a simple CXR reporting scoring system (CO X-RADS) to categorize COVID-19 patients according to their radiological severity. This radiological score was correlated well with the clinical severity score of patients. We encourage other centers to test this scoring system in correlation with the clinical status of patients.

COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies
Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020165, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059616


BACKGROUND: Eosinophils can be considered as multifunctional leukocytes that contribute to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. There are emerging eosinophil-related considerations concerning COVID-19. Variable eosinophil counts have been reported during COVID-19. Whether these changes are related to the primary disease process or due to immunomodulation induced by the treatment has not yet been elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe changes in the differential leukocyte counts including eosinophils, in a cohort of symptomatic patients with confirmed COVID-19 and to correlate these changes, if any, with the severity of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recorded the clinical data, lab findings, including inflammatory markers and leukocyte and differential count, course of the disease and severity score in 314 confirmed symptomatic cases of COVID-19. RESULTS: Laboratory tests revealed that 28.7 % (n =86) had mild eosinophilia (eosinophil count > 500 <1,500/µL). Thirty-four patients (11.3%) had elevated absolute neutrophil count (ANC) (>8,000/µL), and 7 (2.3%) had decreased ANC (< 1,500/µl). Seven patients (2.3%) had lymphopenia (<1,000/µL) and 4 (4.67%) had lymphocytosis (> 4,000/µL). C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in 83 patients (27.6%). Chest X-Ray changes included: increased broncho vascular markings (38%), ground-glass opacity (GGO) pneumonitis (19.3%), lobar consolidation (5%), bronchopneumonia (8.3%), nodular opacity (1%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (2.3%), pleural effusion (1.0%) and other atypical findings (6.6%). Patients with eosinophilia had significantly lower CRP, and lower % of GGO, lobar and bronchopneumonia and ARDS in their chest images compared to patients without eosinophilia (p: <0.05). They also had a lower requirement for a hospital stay, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen supplementation versus patients without eosinophilia (p: <0.05). The eosinophils count was correlated negatively with the duration of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen supplementation and with CRP level (r: - 0.34, -0.32, -0.61 and - 0.39, respectively) (p: < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports a relatively high prevalence of eosinophilia in symptomatic COVID-19 positive patients. Patients with eosinophilia had a lower level of CRP, milder clinical course and better disease outcomes compared to those without eosinophilia. Our findings indicated a protective role of eosinophils in mitigating the severity of inflammatory diseases through an inhibitory mechanism, as evidenced by lower CRP. This protective role of eosinophils needs to be validated by further prospective studies.

COVID-19/complications , Eosinophilia/complications , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Eosinophilia/blood , Eosinophils , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index