Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1):21487, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2160326

ABSTRACT

The economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global health systems is a major concern. To plan and allocate resources to treat COVID-19 patients and provide insights into the financial sustainability of healthcare systems in fighting the future pandemic, measuring the costs to treat COVID-19 patients is deemed necessary. As such, we conducted a retrospective, real-world observational study to measure the direct medical cost of treating COVID-19 patients at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. The analysis was conducted using primary data and a mixed methodology of micro and macro-costing. Between July 2020 and July 2021, 287 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were admitted and their data were analyzed. COVID-19 infection was confirmed by RT-PCR or serologic tests in all the included patients. There were 60 cases of mild to moderate disease, 148 cases of severe disease, and 79 critically ill patients. The cost per case for mild to moderate disease, severe disease, and critically ill was 2003 USD, 14,545 USD, and 20,188 USD, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the cost between patients with comorbidities and patients without comorbidities (P-value 0.008). Across patients with and without comorbidities, there was a significant difference in the cost of the bed, laboratory work, treatment medications, and non-pharmaceutical equipment. The cost of treating COVID-19 patients is considered a burden for many countries. More studies from different private and governmental hospitals are needed to compare different study findings for better preparation for the current COVID-19 as well as future pandemics.

2.
Pediatric Diabetes ; 23(Supplement 31):137-138, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2137171

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Maturity onset diabetes of young (MODY) is a group of monogenic disorders characterized by AD inherited, accounting for approximately 1% to 6% of all pediatric diabetic patients. Sulfonylurea has been successfully used in MODY type 1 and 3;insulin therapy is needed for other types of MODY, including type 5. GLP-1RAs, Liraglutide daily injection, has been successfully used in one report, after which the patient was off insulin therapy. Objective(s): To present a case of MODY Type 5 that showed a great response to weekly treatment of GLP-1RAs (Semagutide). Method(s): A case report, Consent were obtained. Result(s): In our case report, an 18-years old girl known to have MODY type 5 HNFA1b mutation required both long and short-acting insulin (0.6 units/kg/ day). She had a history of high, low glucose readings and frequent hypoglycemia attacks. Therefore, once weekly, GLP-1RA (Semaglutide) was tried for 3 months. The dose was gradually increased from 0.25 mg to a maximum of 0.5 mg subcutaneously weekly. Insulin therapy was weaned, and then off insulin after the 6th dose;glucose readings were monitored via Dexcom CGM, which confirmed a significant improvement (Figure 1). Moreover, there was a disappearance of hypoglycemic attacks, a reduction of insulin doses approximately to zero, an improvement of time in range (TIR) to about 100%, enhanced glucose variability, and a reduction in the serum HbA1c from 6.1% to 5.6%, which was the lowest record since the diagnosis and finally injections number dropped from 28 per week to only one. However, the medication was stopped as the patient could not tolerate its gastric side effects after she was infected with COVID-19. Conclusion(s): Semaglutide is effective and superior to insulin therapy for MODY type 5 and can be considered to replace insulin therapy. In addition, CGM showed an excellent success that helped safely transfer the patient from intensive insulin therapy to the GLP-1RAs trial. Further studies are needed in MODY type 5.

3.
BioMed Research International ; 2022:3113119, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973955

ABSTRACT

Objective: Internet of Things (IoT) integrates several technologies where devices learn from the experience of each other thereby reducing human-intervened likely errors. Modern technologies like IoT and machine learning enable the conventional to patient-specific approach transition in healthcare. In conventional approach, the biggest challenge faced by healthcare professionals is to predict a disease by observing the symptoms, monitoring the remote area patient, and also attending to the patient all the time after being hospitalised. IoT provides real-time data, makes decision-making smarter, and provides far superior analytics, and all these to help improve the quality of healthcare. The main objective of the work was to create an IoT-based automated system using machine learning models for symptom-based COVID-19 prognosis. Methods: Comparative analysis of predictive microbiology of COVID-19 from case symptoms using various machine learning classifiers like logistics regression, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, random forest, decision trees, Naive Bayes, and gradient booster is reported here. For the sake of the validation and verification of the models, performance of each model based on the retrieved cloud-stored data was measured for accuracy. Results: From the accuracy plot, it was concluded that k-NN was more accurate (97.97%) followed by decision tree (97.79), support vector machine (97.42), logistics regression (96.50), random forest (90.66), gradient boosting classifier (87.77), and Naive Bayes (73.50) in COVID-19 prognosis. Conclusion: The paper presents a health monitoring IoT framework having high clinical significance in real-time and remote healthcare monitoring. The findings reported here and the lessons learnt shall enable the healthcare system worldwide to counter not only this ongoing COVID but many other such global pandemics the humanity may suffer from time to come.

4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5947-5964, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478937

ABSTRACT

The recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has resulted in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, affecting millions of lives. Although vaccines are presently made available, and vaccination drive is in progress to immunize a larger population; still the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality is persistent amid threats of the third wave of the ongoing pandemic. In the scenario of unavailability of robust and efficient treatment modalities, it becomes essential to understand the mechanism of action of the virus and deeply study the molecular mechanisms (both at the virus level and the host level) underlying the infection processes. Recent studies have shown that coronaviruses (CoVs) cause-specific epigenetic changes in the host cells to create a conducive microenvironment for replicating, assembling, and spreading. Epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 multiplication cycle, like expressing cytokine genes, viral receptor ACE2, and implicating different histone modifications. For SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral proteins are physically associated with various host proteins resulting in numerous interactions between epigenetic enzymes (i.e., histone deacetylases, bromodomain-containing proteins). The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the virus life cycle and the host immune responses to control infection result in epigenetic factors recognized as emerging prognostic COVID-19 biomarkers and epigenetic modulators as robust therapeutic targets to curb COVID-19. Therefore, this narrative review aimed to summarize and discuss the various epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and how these mechanisms are altered in the host cells during coronavirus infection. We also discuss the opportunities to exploit these epigenetic changes as therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epigenetic alterations and regulation play a pivotal role at various levels of coronavirus infection: entry, replication/transcription, and the process of maturation of viral proteins. Coronaviruses modulate the host epigenome to escape the host immune mechanisms. Therefore, host epigenetic alterations induced by CoVs can be considered to develop targeted therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Epigenome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
5.
Infez Med ; 29(2):167-180, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1248656

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in a very short span of thirteen months has taken a considerable toll on humanity, resulting in over 3 million deaths with more than 150 million confirmed cases as on May 1, 2021. In the scarcity of a potential antiviral and protective vaccine, COVID-19 has posed high public health concerns, panic, and challenges to limit the spread of this pandemic virus. Only recently have a few vaccine candidates been developed, and vaccination programs have started in some countries. Multiple clinical presentations of COVID-19, animal spillover, cross-species jumping, zoonotic concerns, and emergence of virus variants have altogether created havoc during this ongoing pandemic. Several bodies of research are continuously working to elucidate the exact molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis. To develop a prospective antiviral therapy/vaccine for SARSCoV-2, it is quite essential to gain insight into the immunobiology and molecular virology of SARS-CoV-2. A thorough literature search was conducted up to 28th February 2021 in the PubMed and other databases for the articles describing the immunopathology and immune response of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which were critically evaluated and used to compile this article to present an overall update. Some of the information was drawn from studies on previous MERS and SARS viruses. Innate as well as adaptive immunity responses are elicited by exposure to SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 establishes a successful infection by escaping the host immunity as well as over activating the innate immune mechanisms that result in severe disease outcomes, including cytokine storm. This review summarizes the immunopathology and molecular immune mechanisms elicited during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their similarities with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.

6.
Infezioni in Medicina ; 29(1):10-19, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117873

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic worldwide. On a daily basis the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. The main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is through the air (airborne transmission). This review details the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the aerodynamics, and different modes of transmission (e.g. droplets, droplet nuclei, and aerosol particles). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by an infected person during activities such as expiration, coughing, sneezing, and talking. During such activities and some medical procedures, aerosols and droplets contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 particles are formed. Depending on their sizes and the environmental conditions, such particles stay viable in the air for varying time periods and can cause infection in a susceptible host. Very few studies have been conducted to establish the mechanism or the aerodynamics of virus-loaded particles and droplets in causing infection. In this review we discuss the various forms in which SARS-CoV-2 virus particles can be transmitted in air and cause infections.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL