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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e32559, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All-cause mortality and estimates of excess deaths are commonly used in different countries to estimate the burden of COVID-19 and assess its direct and indirect effects. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan in April-December 2020. METHODS: Official data on deaths in Jordan for 2020 and previous years (2016-2019) were obtained from the Department of Civil Status. We contrasted mortality rates in 2020 with those in each year and the pooled period 2016-2020 using a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) measure. Expected deaths for 2020 were estimated by fitting the overdispersed Poisson generalized linear models to the monthly death counts for the period of 2016-2019. RESULTS: Overall, a 21% increase in standardized mortality (SMR 1.21, 95% CI 1.19-1.22) occurred in April-December 2020 compared with the April-December months in the pooled period 2016-2019. The SMR was more pronounced for men than for women (SMR 1.26, 95% CI 1.24-1.29 vs SMR 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.14), and it was statistically significant for both genders (P<.05). Using overdispersed Poisson generalized linear models, the number of expected deaths in April-December 2020 was 12,845 (7957 for women and 4888 for men). The total number of excess deaths during this period was estimated at 4583 (95% CI 4451-4716), with higher excess deaths in men (3112, 95% CI 3003-3221) than in women (1503, 95% CI 1427-1579). Almost 83.66% of excess deaths were attributed to COVID-19 in the Ministry of Health database. The vast majority of excess deaths occurred in people aged 60 years or older. CONCLUSIONS: The reported COVID-19 death counts underestimated mortality attributable to COVID-19. Excess deaths could reflect the increased deaths secondary to the pandemic and its containment measures. The majority of excess deaths occurred among old age groups. It is, therefore, important to maintain essential services for the elderly during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mortality , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
2.
Clin Drug Investig ; 42(10): 813-827, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), and Sputnik V coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been granted emergency approval in many nations, their safety has never been studied and compared in one community-based study. This study aimed to investigate and compare the incidence, nature, severity, and predictors of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with COVID-19 vaccines. METHOD: This was a prospective observational study conducted in Jordan between 1 January and 21 September 2021. A team of pharmacists and nurses (n = 407) collected the local and systemic AEFIs of four COVID-19 vaccines by prospectively contacting participants registered in the national vaccination program platform. A red-flag technology was inserted to classify and track rare and serious AEFIs. RESULTS: This study included 658,428 participants who were vaccinated with 1,032,430 doses; 610,591, 279,606, 140,843, and 1390 participants received the first and second doses of the BNT162b2, BBIBP-CorV, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and Sputnik V vaccines, respectively. The overall incidence of AEFIs was 28.8%, and the overall rates of systemic, local, and immediate hypersensitivity AEFIs were 22.2%, 18.8%, and 0.5%, respectively. The highest proportions of immediate hypersensitivity AEFIs and systemic AEFIs were reported after administration of the Sputnik V vaccine and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 first dose, respectively. The most severe AEFIs were reported after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 first dose and BNT162b2 second dose. The hospitalization and mortality rates after vaccination were 20 in 10,000 and 1 in 10,000, respectively. Based on red-flag tracking, the top three outcome events were lymphadenopathy (157.9/100,000), anxiety disorders (136.6/100,000), and lower respiratory tract infection (100.9/100,000), with Guillain-Barré syndrome (1.8/100,000), vasculitis (3.0/100,000), and myopericarditis (4.8/100,000) being the least common. CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of local, systemic, and immediate hypersensitivity AEFIs of four COVID-19 vaccines occur frequently. High incidence rates of rare and serious AEFIs were reported in this study. Younger participants, females, those who had previously had COVID-19, and smokers were more likely to encounter AEFIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/chemically induced , Jordan/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
3.
Interact J Med Res ; 11(2): e38935, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic have led to unprecedented global research activity. The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) continues to contribute to COVID-19 research driven by the unique challenges of the region, including the protracted conflicts, already stressed health systems, and serious health and social inequalities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide an overview of the publication activities and trends in COVID-19 research in the EMR from the onset of the disease to early 2022 using bibliometric methods. METHODS: A literature search using Scopus was conducted from December 1, 2019, to January 31, 2022, using keywords relevant to COVID-19 and the World Health Organization (WHO) EMR country list. Data were exported and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and the Citation Overview function on Scopus. The quality of journals was determined using SCImago Journal Rank and CiteScore. VOSviewer software was used to visualize the relationships between authors, countries, and key terms used in the retrieved documents. RESULTS: A total of 6880 documents were retrieved, of which 1805 (26.24%) were from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and 1782 (25.90%) from Iran, followed by Pakistan, Egypt, and Jordan. Most published documents were affiliated with EMR universities, primarily the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran and King Saud University in KSA (396/6880, 5.76%, and 370/6880, 5.4%, respectively), while only 407 (5.92%) of 6880 documents were associated with universities outside the EMR. For most of the identified publications (5020/6880, 72.97%), no funding source was reported, while King Saud University contributed the largest share (282/1860, 15.16%) of funded publications. Retrieved documents were cited 53,516 times, with an average of 7.78 (SD 34.30). Iran was the EMR country with the most links to other countries (77 links and total link strength of 1279). The 5 authors with the most publications were from KSA, Qatar, and Jordan. There were 290 high-frequency keywords that occurred ≥10 times and were linked in 7 different clusters. The cluster with the most linked keywords was related to epidemiology and mortality. Recent topics included vaccines, vaccination, machine learning, and online learning. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show trends in and project future developments of COVID-19 research activity in the EMR. Authors and institutions who led research on COVID-19 in the region were from Iran and KSA. There were multiple regional collaborative efforts; however, international collaboration was limited. Recently, interest has been shifting toward topics related to vaccination, machine learning, and online learning. Understanding the current state of research is instrumental to future research production, and our study will inform regional research initiatives on emerging concepts, as well as opportunities for collaboration and funding.

4.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(Suppl 3): iii1-iii11, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding COVID-19 between public health workers (PHWs) attended field epidemiology training program (FETP-trained) and those who did not attend FETP (non-FETP trained). METHODS: Multi-country cross-sectional survey was conducted among PHWs who participated in COVID-19 pandemic in 10 countries at EMR. Online questionnaire that included demographic information, KAP regarding COVID-19 pandemic was distributed among HCWs. Scoring system was used to quantify the answers, bivariate and Multivariate analysis performed to compare FETP-trained with non-FETP trained PHWs. RESULTS: Overall, 1337 PHWs participated, with 835 (62.4%) < 40 years of age, and 851 (63.6%) males. Of them, 423 (31.6%) had FETP, including that 189 (44.7%) had advanced level, 155 (36.6%) intermediate and 79 (18.7%) basic level training. Compared with non-FETP trained, FETP trained were older, having higher KAP scores. FETP participation was low in infection control, and PH laboratories. KAP mean scores for intermediate level attendees are comparable to advanced level. CONCLUSIONS: FETP-trained are having better KAP than non-FETP PHWs. Expanding the intermediate level, maintain the Rapid Response training and introduce the laboratory component are recommended to maximize the benefit from FETP. Infection control, antimicrobial resistance and coordination are areas where training should include.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(Suppl 3): iii34-iii42, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic are under incredible pressure, which puts them at risk of developing mental health problems. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among HCWs responding to COVID-19 and its associated factors. METHODS: A multi-country cross-sectional study was conducted during July-August 2020 among HCWs responding to COVID-19 in nine Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries. Data were collected using an online questionnaire administered using KoBo Toolbox. Mental problems were assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: A total of 1448 HCWs from nine EMR countries participated in this study. About 51.2% were male and 52.7% aged ≤ 30 years. Of all HCWs, 57.5% had depression, 42.0% had stress, and 59.1% had anxiety. Considering the severity, 19.2%, 16.1%, 26.6% of patients had severe to extremely severe depression, stress, and anxiety, respectively. Depression, stress, anxiety, and distress scores were significantly associated with participants' residency, having children, preexisting psychiatric illness, and being isolated for COVID-19. Furthermore, females, those working in a teaching hospital, and specialists had significantly higher depression and stress scores. Married status, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, having a friend who died with COVID-19, and high COVID-19 worry scores were significantly associated with higher distress scores. CONCLUSIONS: Mental problems were prevalent among HCWs responding to COVID-19 in EMR. Therefore, special interventions to promote mental well-being among HCWs responding to COVID-19 need to be immediately implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(1): 7-12, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children vaccination is a key intervention for their survival, especially among refugees. Yet, children vaccination registration is done manually in refugees camps and there is no possibility to send reminders to parents to come back on time. We aimed to boost the parental registration of children's vaccination records on a Children Immunization app (CIMA) while also availing the parents with useful parenting skills under COVID-19-related stress. METHODS: We incorporated United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Parenting Skills under COVID-19 information material, through CIMA in Arabic and English languages. We recruited 1100 children in February-March 2021, through a community health promotion dissemination approach. A team of two nurses from the local population and two volunteers (one trained nurse and one trained social worker), from the camp, was formed. They promoted the CIMA app at two clinics and through households visits in Zaatari refugee camp. Qualitative data on impressions and observations of the interactions with the Zaatari camp community were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 1100 children, up to 15 months of age, eligible for vaccination were enrolled in CIMA, whereby the staff explained the content of the app in terms of vaccination schedule, health promotion materials for vaccination and parenting skills to their caregivers. During the household visits, the volunteers identified a total of 70 children that have incomplete history of vaccination records (n = 42/70 girls, 60%). Also, opportunities and challenges for scaling the app were documented. CONCLUSION: The scaling of CIMA as an innovative means of dissemination of risk and health information in challenging context such as refugee camps was feasible. In the context of vaccination needs for children, in refugee settings, such a need is more eminent, particularly in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Refugees , Social Capital , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Vaccination
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 690570, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591006

ABSTRACT

Research is essential for evidence-based decision making. This study aimed to identify research priorities in the areas of field epidemiology and public health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) from the perspectives of public health professionals. A Delphi technique, using online survey, was employed to reach 168 public health professionals who have experience in the EMR countries. The study took place between November 2019 and January 2020. Consensus on the research priorities was reached after two-round online questionnaires. A list of top 10 field epidemiology and public health research priorities in the EMR was developed. Of those priorities, four fell under health in emergency, war and armed conflict, two under communicable diseases, two under immunization, one under digital health, and one under sexual, reproductive, and adolescent health. Availability, adequacy, and quality of health services in crisis settings were scored as a top priority (mean = 4.4, rank 1), followed by use of technology to improve the collection, documentation, and analysis of health data (mean = 4.28, rank 2), and capacity of countries in the region to respond to emergencies (mean = 4.25, rank 3). This study was conducted prior to COVID-19 pandemic and, thus, it did not capture COVID-19 research as a priority area. Nevertheless, identified priorities under communicable diseases including outbreak investigation of infectious diseases, epidemics and challenges related to communicable diseases in the EMR were still notable. In conclusion, the field epidemiology and public health research priorities identified in this study through a systematic inclusive process could be useful to make informed decisions and gear the research efforts to improve the health of people in the EMR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Adolescent , Delphi Technique , Humans , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(3): e32831, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The establishment of empirical evidence in the Eastern Mediterranean Region necessitates the implementation of wide-scale studies to describe the demographic, clinical features, and severity profile of patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the patterns of COVID-19 severity and mortality in seven countries, and to determine the risk factors of COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: This multicountry study was based on a retrospective review of medical records of hospitalized patients confirmed to have COVID-19. This study includes data from Iraq, Pakistan, Sudan, Somalia, Morocco, Egypt, and Yemen. All demographic and clinical data were extracted from hospital records (paper files) by trained data collectors. RESULTS: A total of 4141 patients were included in this study from seven countries. Comorbidities were reported by nearly half of the patients, with hypertension (n=1021, 24.7%) and diabetes (n=939, 22.7%) being the most common. Older age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart diseases were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. Ever smoking and renal diseases were significantly associated with severity but not mortality, while male gender, respiratory diseases, and malignancy were significantly associated with mortality but not severity. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms the role of comorbidities and demographic features on the severity and mortality of COVID-19. Understanding the contributing factors ensures attentive care and informs clinical management of patients with poorer prognoses in the early stages of diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt , Humans , Male , Mediterranean Region , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e32639, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) hosts some of the world's worst humanitarian and health crises. The implementation of health surveillance in this region has faced multiple constraints. New and novel approaches in surveillance are in a constant state of high and immediate demand. Identifying the existing literature on surveillance helps foster an understanding of scientific development and thus potentially supports future development directions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to illustrate the scientific production, quantify the scholarly impact, and highlight the characteristics of publications on public health surveillance in the EMR over the past decade. METHODS: We performed a Scopus search using keywords related to public health surveillance or its disciplines, cross-referenced with EMR countries, from 2011 to July 2021. Data were exported and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Visualization of Similarities Viewer. Quality of journals was determined using SCImago Journal Rank and CiteScore. RESULTS: We retrieved 1987 documents, of which 1927 (96.98%) were articles or reviews. There has been an incremental increase in the number of publications (exponential growth, R2=0.80) over the past decade. Publications were mostly affiliated with Iran (501/1987, 25.21%), the United States (468/1987, 23.55%), Pakistan (243/1987, 12.23%), Egypt (224/1987, 11.27%), and Saudi Arabia (209/1987, 10.52%). However, Iran only had links with 40 other countries (total link strength 164), and the biggest collaborator from the EMR was Egypt, with 67 links (total link strength 402). Within the other EMR countries, only Morocco, Lebanon, and Jordan produced ≥79 publications in the 10-year period. Most publications (1551/1987, 78.06%) were affiliated with EMR universities. Most journals were categorized as medical journals, and the highest number of articles were published in the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (SCImago Journal Rank 0.442; CiteScore 1.5). Retrieved documents had an average of 18.4 (SD 125.5) citations per document and an h-index of 66. The top-3 most cited documents were from the Global Burden of Diseases study. We found 70 high-frequency terms, occurring ≥10 times in author keywords, connected in 3 clusters. COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and pandemic represented the most recent 2020 cluster. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first research study to quantify the published literature on public health surveillance and its disciplines in the EMR. Research productivity has steadily increased over the past decade, and Iran has been the leading country publishing relevant research. Recurrent recent surveillance themes included COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2. This study also sheds light on the gaps in surveillance research in the EMR, including inadequate publications on noncommunicable diseases and injury-related surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health Surveillance , Bibliometrics , Humans , Mediterranean Region , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e26267, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085136

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various public health functions and essential services in different ways and magnitudes. Although all countries have witnessed the effect of COVID-19, the impact differed based on many factors including the integrity and resiliency of the countries' health systems. This paper presents opinions and expectations of the authors about the anticipated changes in the future of public health at the global, regional, and national levels. The viewpoint is based on the current efforts and challenges that various stakeholders have carried out to control COVID-19 and the contribution from the literature on the future of public health. Numerous agencies and actors are involved in the fight against COVID-19 with variations in their effectiveness. The public health services showed weaknesses in most of the countries, in addition to the lack of adequate curative medicine settings. The pandemic highlighted the need for better governance and stronger and more resilient health systems and capacities. The COVID-19 experience has also emphasized the importance of coordination and collaboration among the countries and stakeholders. The COVID-19 pandemic might lead to a wide discussion to improve international and national approaches to prepare for and respond to similar events in terms of preparedness and response mechanisms and tools. Public health will not be the same as before COVID-19. New health priorities, approaches, and new agendas will be on the table of the global platforms and initiatives. More investment in research and technology to meet the demand for new vaccines and medicines, innovative methods like distance learning and working, more respect and remuneration to health professionals, and normalization of the public health and social measures that were induced during the COVID-19 pandemic are expected to be seen in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Forecasting , Global Health/trends , Public Health/trends , Health Priorities/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 68, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948201

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to use the Curve Estimation Procedure to assess the pattern and trend of COVID-19 spread in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) by finding the model best fit for the observed COVID-19 data in each country between 20 February 2020-21 April 2020. METHODS: The number of daily confirmed COVID-19 cases, recovered cases, and during the period 20 February 2020-21 April 2020 in 21 countries in EMR were extracted from the WHO situation reports. The Curve Estimation procedure was used to produce different curve estimation regression models for the observed data in each country. RESULTS: During this observed period, the total number of confirmed cases, recovered cases, and deaths in the region were 138673, 71343, and 6291, respectively. The overall fatality rate in the region was 4.5%. The quadratic model and the cubic model follows the observed data points fairly well during the observed time period in five and nine countries, respectively. The exponential model (Y = b0 * (e**(b1 * t))), the growth model (Y = e**(b0 + (b1 * t))), and the compound model (Y = b0 * (b1**t)) were the best fit for data during the observed time period in two, three, and two countries, respectively. CONCLUSION: The pattern of COVID-19 spread differed between countries in the EMR. This might reflect the variations in testing and implementation of public health measures. The best curve-fitting model was demonstrated for each country and it can be used for very short-term predictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Public Health , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Mediterranean Region/epidemiology , Time Factors
12.
JMIR Med Educ ; 6(1): e19047, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) is a 2-year training program in applied epidemiology. FETP graduates have contributed significantly to improvements in surveillance systems, control of infectious diseases, and outbreak investigations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). OBJECTIVE: Considering the instrumental roles of FETP graduates during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis, this study aimed to assess their awareness and preparedness to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic in three EMR countries. METHODS: An online survey was sent to FETP graduates in the EMR in March 2020. The FETP graduates were contacted by email and requested to fill out an online survey. Sufficient number of responses were received from only three countries-Jordan, Sudan, and Yemen. A few responses were received from other countries, and therefore, they were excluded from the analysis. The questionnaire comprised a series of questions pertaining to sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of the epidemiology of COVID-19, and preparedness to respond to COVID-19. RESULTS: This study included a total of 57 FETP graduates (20 from Jordan, 13 from Sudan, and 24 from Yemen). A total of 31 (54%) graduates had attended training on COVID-19, 29 (51%) were members of a rapid response team against COVID-19, and 54 (95%) had previous experience in response to disease outbreaks or health emergencies. The vast majority were aware of the main symptoms, mode of transmission, high-risk groups, and how to use personal protective equipment. A total of 46 (81%) respondents considered themselves well prepared for the COVID-19 outbreak, and 40 (70%) reported that they currently have a role in supporting the country's efforts in the management of COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The FETP graduates in Jordan, Sudan, and Yemen were fully aware of the epidemiology of COVID-19 and the safety measures required, and they are well positioned to investigate and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, they should be properly and efficiently utilized by the Ministries of Health to investigate and respond to the current COVID-19 crisis where the needs are vastly growing and access to outside experts is becoming limited.

13.
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy ; 12(5):511-514, 2020.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-646333

ABSTRACT

We have presented an overview about the mental health situation in Jordan during the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) in general, and we presented the situation of mental health and the provided support for Syrian refugees at the Zaatari camp. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e20478, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616262

ABSTRACT

In this viewpoint, we present public policies and public health strategies for a gradual lockdown lifting during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis in two country cases, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates. While managing pandemics is critical in terms of preparedness, response, and recovery, it is equally vital to ensure that the measures for a lockdown exit are both efficient and effective. It is critical to learn from first-wave lessons to systematize responses during times of crisis and execute appropriate public policies and public health strategies. This viewpoint highlights the importance of the following during lockdown lifting: pandemic control, health care capacity, training, scaling up of resources and systems, and priority setting of public policies by acknowledging challenges, developing policy insights, and setting the policy direction. The systematic approaches and leadership thinking required for lifting lockdowns during a crisis include the three Rs: Readiness, Responses, and Resilience & Recovery.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , Public Policy , Public Sector/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19 , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19332, 2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-274195

ABSTRACT

As of April 12, 2020, a total of 389 cases of coronavirus disease were confirmed in Jordan. To control this imminent threat, Jordan has enforced public health infection prevention and control measures, called for social distancing, seized all forms of inbound and outbound movement and international travel, and enacted the Defence Law that transferred the authority to the Minister of Defence to work and formulate orders according to the situation. In an effort to support the government in anticipating the requirements of the health system in the upcoming period, an in-depth reflection and examination of different scenarios of the disease spread were developed. This viewpoint suggests different strategies and measures for case detection and contact tracing, clinical management of cases, public health system functioning, and civil society organizations' contribution. It is necessary to accelerate containment of the disease to protect the economy and to maintain the continuity of some activities to mitigate the subsequent social, economic, and financial impacts. This requires finding a coping mechanism for a period that may be prolonged until laboratories develop a vaccine. Specifically, it is strongly recommended to promote community health awareness toward public health prevention and control measures, increase the efficiency and comprehensiveness of the epidemiological investigation and active and passive surveillance, and employ technology and digital health solutions to track cases and contacts. It is also recommended to increase and expand resources of intensive care units including respirators, increase the capacity and the number of trained health staff in the area of public health and epidemiology, ensure continued provision of essential public health programs, and mobilize the resources of nongovernmental sectors and donors to provide services for refugees and vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e18798, 2020 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of prevention guidelines and recommendations on infection control, many dental practices lack the minimum requirements for infection control. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the level of awareness, perception, and attitude regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and infection control among Jordanian dentists. METHODS: The study population consisted of dentists who worked in private clinics, hospitals, and health centers in Jordan. An online questionnaire was sent to a sample of Jordanian dentists in March 2020. The questionnaire was comprised of a series of questions about dentists' demographic characteristics; their awareness of the incubation period, the symptoms of the disease, mode of transmission of COVID-19 and infection control measures for preventing COVID-19; and their attitude toward treating patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: This study included a total of 368 dentists aged 22-73 years (mean 32.9 years, SD 10.6 years). A total of 112 (30.4%) dentists had completed a master or residency program in dentistry, 195 (53.0%) had received training in infection control in dentistry, and 28 (7.6%) had attended training or lectures regarding COVID-19. A total of 133 (36.1%) dentists reported that the incubation period is 1-14 days. The majority of dentists were aware of COVID-19 symptoms and ways of identifying patients at risk of having COVID-19, were able to correctly report known modes of transmission, and were aware of measures for preventing COVID-19 transmission in dental clinics. A total of 275 (74.7%) believed that it was necessary to ask patients to sit far from each other, wear masks while in the waiting room, and wash hands before getting in the dental chair to decrease disease transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Jordanian dentists were aware of COVID-19 symptoms, mode of transmission, and infection controls and measures in dental clinics. However, dentists had limited comprehension of the extra precautionary measures that protect the dental staff and other patients from COVID-19. National and international guidelines should be sent by the regional and national dental associations to all registered dentists during a crisis, including the COVID-19 pandemic, to make sure that dentists are well informed and aware of best practices and recommended disease management approaches.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Dentists/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(1): e18503, 2020 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18717

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020. Countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) have a high vulnerability and variable capacity to respond to outbreaks. Many of these countries addressed the need for increasing capacity in the areas of surveillance and rapid response to public health threats. Moreover, countries addressed the need for communication strategies that direct the public to actions for self- and community protection. This viewpoint article aims to highlight the contribution of the Global Health Development (GHD)/Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET) and the EMR's Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETPs) to prepare for and respond to the current COVID-19 threat. GHD/EMPHNET has the scientific expertise to contribute to elevating the level of country alert and preparedness in the EMR and to provide technical support through health promotion, training and training materials, guidelines, coordination, and communication. The FETPs are currently actively participating in surveillance and screening at the ports of entry, development of communication materials and guidelines, and sharing information to health professionals and the public. However, some countries remain ill-equipped, have poor diagnostic capacity, and are in need of further capacity development in response to public health threats. It is essential that GHD/EMPHNET and FETPs continue building the capacity to respond to COVID-19 and intensify support for preparedness and response to public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Capacity Building , Cooperative Behavior , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemiology/education , Global Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Public Health/education , Social Networking , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Civil Defense , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epidemiology/standards , Health Promotion , Humans , Mediterranean Region , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/standards , Public Health Practice , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce
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