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1.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1146792, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235980

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Internal validation techniques alone do not guarantee the value of a model. This study aims to investigate the external validity of the Parental Attitude toward Childhood Vaccination (PACV) scale for assessing parents' attitude toward seasonal influenza vaccination. Methods: Using a snowball sampling approach, an anonymous online questionnaire was distributed in two languages (English and Arabic) across seven countries. To assess the internal validity of the model, the machine learning technique of "resampling methods" was used to repeatedly select various samples collected from Egypt and refit the model for each sample. The binary logistic regression model was used to identify the main determinants of parental intention to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza. We adopted the original model developed and used its predictors to determine parents' intention to vaccinate their children in Libya, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Palestine, and Sudan. The area under the curve (AUC) indicated the model's ability to distinguish events from non-events. We visually compared the observed and predicted probabilities of parents' intention to vaccinate their children using a calibration plot. Results: A total of 430 parents were recruited from Egypt to internally validate the model, and responses from 2095 parents in the other six countries were used to externally validate the model. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the PACV score, child age (adolescence), and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in children were significantly associated with the intention to receive the vaccination. The AUC of the developed model was 0.845. Most of the predicted points were close to the diagonal line, demonstrating better calibration (the prediction error was 16.82%). The sensitivity and specificity of the externally validated model were 89.64 and 37.89%, respectively (AUC = 0.769). Conclusion: The PACV showed similar calibration and discrimination across the six countries. It is transportable and can be used to assess attitudes towards influenza vaccination among parents in different countries using either the Arabic or English version of the scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination , Parents , Intention
3.
Vaccines ; 11(2), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2272923

ABSTRACT

Globally, the novel corona virus infection has continued to witness a growing number of cases since December 2019 when the outbreak was discovered and noted in China. Despite this has not been well studied for the case of COVID-19, human contact, public moveableness and environmental variables could have an impact onairborne'spropagation and virus continuance, such as influenza virus. This study aimed to determine the seasonal variation and geographical distribution of COVID-19 across Nigeria. An internet based archival research design was employed for this study on the seasonal variation and geographical distribution of COVID-19 across Nigeria. This involved the use of goggle mobility data and world map on Corona Virus Infection (COVID-19). The search strategy for getting information for this research was done electronically. The keywords in the case search using the goggle mobility software was "COVID-19 Update”, "COVID-19 Update in Nigeria”, ‘COVID-19 Winter Report', "COVID-19 Case Fatality March 2020–July 2021”, "COVID-19 Case Fatality in Nigeria”. The data gotten from the goggle motor updates were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) which was used in the analysis of the study. Results from the study, reported that official COVID-19 cases number was significantly higher in the Dry season (October 2020–April 2021) with 59.0% (127,213) compared to 41.0% (85,176) in the wet/rainy season (May–September) it revealed that the dry and rainy seasons had a COVID-19 prevalence of 0.063 and 0.041 respectively. Further results from the study showed that the prevalence of COVID-19 was 0.07% in the North-Central, 0.04% in both the North-East and North-West, 0.03% in the South-West, 0.09% in the South-South, and the highest prevalence of 0.16% in the South-East. Considering the case Fatality rate of COVID-19 during the Dry and Wet Seasons. The study revealed that North-Central had a death toll of 196 (10.4%) out of 9457 confirmed COVID-19 cases hence a fatality of 2.07. Fatality rate of 1.49% in South western Nigeria, South-South Nigeria, 1.49%, South-East accounted to a fatality rate of 1.25%. Nigeria based on the finding of this study records increased fatality in Dry season over wet seasons. The study concluded that prevalence of COVID-19 varies in seasons in Nigeria Hence;further Data and Meteorological analysis on weather variations towards the SARS-CoV-2 Virus spread should be evaluated by future researchers. It is imperative to ensure strict and controlled application of social measures, such as social distancing, mandatory wearing of non-medical masks to prevent droplets from entering the respiratory tract, screening of affected patients along with quarantine is essential to defeat and improve infection control.

4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1118685, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259974

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, physical meetings and continuing medical education (CMEs) are being conducted in virtual mode. Digital sobriety has been advocated as a strategy for controlling the environmental emission from online events. The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of virtual CMEs on the environment and the participants' perception, knowledge, attitude, and practices of digital sobriety during the CMEs. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional Google form-based online study was conducted among the 1,311 registrants of 23 virtual CMEs hosted in India. A pre-tested English questionnaire was used to collect the data. The potential carbon footprint of the significant physical CME activities and the carbon emission (CE) of the virtual CMEs were estimated. Among the registrants contacted, 251 consented and participated in the study. Results: The CE of the virtual CMEs was 0.787 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MT CO2 Eq). If the CMEs were conducted physically, the potential CE was estimated to be 290.094 MT CO2 Eq. The awareness rate of digital sobriety was 35%. Most of the participants (58.7%) from the current study preferred the hybrid mode of CMEs. Conclusions: Virtual, digitally sober CMEs have reduced the potential CE by 99.7% compared to physical CMEs in India. The awareness and knowledge about digital sobriety is low in India. Knowledge, networking, social interactions, and overall satisfaction were relatively lower in the virtual mode of CMEs than in the physical mode.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Continuing , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Footprint , Pandemics , Carbon Dioxide , Public Health , Retrospective Studies
6.
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012) ; 85(1):67-70, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2235133
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217122

ABSTRACT

Globally, the novel corona virus infection has continued to witness a growing number of cases since December 2019 when the outbreak was discovered and noted in China. Despite this has not been well studied for the case of COVID-19, human contact, public moveableness and environmental variables could have an impact onairborne'spropagation and virus continuance, such as influenza virus. This study aimed to determine the seasonal variation and geographical distribution of COVID-19 across Nigeria. An internet based archival research design was employed for this study on the seasonal variation and geographical distribution of COVID-19 across Nigeria. This involved the use of goggle mobility data and world map on Corona Virus Infection (COVID-19). The search strategy for getting information for this research was done electronically. The keywords in the case search using the goggle mobility software was "COVID-19 Update", "COVID-19 Update in Nigeria", 'COVID-19 Winter Report', "COVID-19 Case Fatality March 2020-July 2021", "COVID-19 Case Fatality in Nigeria". The data gotten from the goggle motor updates were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) which was used in the analysis of the study. Results from the study, reported that official COVID-19 cases number was significantly higher in the Dry season (October 2020-April 2021) with 59.0% (127,213) compared to 41.0% (85,176) in the wet/rainy season (May-September) it revealed that the dry and rainy seasons had a COVID-19 prevalence of 0.063 and 0.041 respectively. Further results from the study showed that the prevalence of COVID-19 was 0.07% in the North-Central, 0.04% in both the North-East and North-West, 0.03% in the South-West, 0.09% in the South-South, and the highest prevalence of 0.16% in the South-East. Considering the case Fatality rate of COVID-19 during the Dry and Wet Seasons. The study revealed that North-Central had a death toll of 196 (10.4%) out of 9457 confirmed COVID-19 cases hence a fatality of 2.07. Fatality rate of 1.49% in South western Nigeria, South-South Nigeria, 1.49%, South-East accounted to a fatality rate of 1.25%. Nigeria based on the finding of this study records increased fatality in Dry season over wet seasons. The study concluded that prevalence of COVID-19 varies in seasons in Nigeria Hence; further Data and Meteorological analysis on weather variations towards the SARS-CoV-2 Virus spread should be evaluated by future researchers. It is imperative to ensure strict and controlled application of social measures, such as social distancing, mandatory wearing of non-medical masks to prevent droplets from entering the respiratory tract, screening of affected patients along with quarantine is essential to defeat and improve infection control.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2216, 2022 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global pandemics have occurred with increasing frequency over the past decade reflecting the sub-optimum operationalization of surveillance systems handling human health data. Despite the wide array of current surveillance methods, their effectiveness varies with multiple factors. Here, we perform a systematic review of the effectiveness of alternative infectious diseases Early Warning Systems (EWSs) with a focus on the surveillance data collection methods, and taking into consideration feasibility in different settings. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus databases on 21 October 2022. Articles were included if they covered the implementation of an early warning system and evaluated infectious diseases outbreaks that had potential to become pandemics. Of 1669 studies screened, 68 were included in the final sample. We performed quality assessment using an adapted CASP Checklist. RESULTS: Of the 68 articles included, 42 articles found EWSs successfully functioned independently as surveillance systems for pandemic-wide infectious diseases outbreaks, and 16 studies reported EWSs to have contributing surveillance features through complementary roles. Chief complaints from emergency departments' data is an effective EWS but it requires standardized formats across hospitals. Centralized Public Health records-based EWSs facilitate information sharing; however, they rely on clinicians' reporting of cases. Facilitated reporting by remote health settings and rapid alarm transmission are key advantages of Web-based EWSs. Pharmaceutical sales and laboratory results did not prove solo effectiveness. The EWS design combining surveillance data from both health records and staff was very successful. Also, daily surveillance data notification was the most successful and accepted enhancement strategy especially during mass gathering events. Eventually, in Low Middle Income Countries, working to improve and enhance existing systems was more critical than implementing new Syndromic Surveillance approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Our study was able to evaluate the effectiveness of Early Warning Systems in different contexts and resource settings based on the EWSs' method of data collection. There is consistent evidence that EWSs compiling pre-diagnosis data are more proactive to detect outbreaks. However, the fact that Syndromic Surveillance Systems (SSS) are more proactive than diagnostic disease surveillance should not be taken as an effective clue for outbreaks detection.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Sentinel Surveillance , Humans , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Information Dissemination , Checklist
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200988

ABSTRACT

Background: Ghana ranked 31st worldwide and 3rd in Africa in the number of confirmed cases worldwide. We aimed to assess the intention to receive the monkeypox (MPOX) vaccine and its associated psychological antecedents among the Ghanaian population. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Ghana from November to December 2022. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants via social media platforms, such as WhatsApp, LinkedIn, Telegram, and Facebook. The validated 5C scale was used to assess five psychological factors that influence vaccination behavior and intent: confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation, and collective responsibility. Results: The study drew 605 participants; their mean age was 30.0 ± 6.8; 68.1% were single; 60.8 % were males, and 51.9% were living in Greater Accra (The capital and largest city of Ghana). About 53.9% of the studied Ghanaian population did not intend to receive the MPOX vaccination. Vaccine acceptance among non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) was significantly lower than among HCWs (41.7 vs. 55.3, p < 0.001). The determinants of vaccine acceptance were male gender (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.00-2.18, p = 0.049), urban residence (AOR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.41-0.96, p = 0.033), refusal of coronavirus 2019 vaccine (AOR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16-0.52, p < 0.001), confidence in vaccination ((AOR = 2.45, 95% CI, 1.93-3.15, and p < 0.001), and collective responsibility (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI, 1.02-1.75, p = 0.034)). Conclusions: The participants in this study did not show high levels of intention to accept the MPOX vaccination. Consequently, tailoring the efforts aiming to promote MPOX vaccination is needed especially among non-HCWs through increasing their confidence in vaccine effectiveness and safety and promoting the importance of self-vaccination to protect others.

10.
Infez Med ; 30(4): 480-494, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164886

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) has been the most recent variant of concern (VOC) established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Because of its greater infectivity and immune evasion, this variant quickly became the dominant type of circulating SARS-CoV-2 worldwide. Our literature review thoroughly explains the current state of Omicron emergence, particularly by comparing different omicron subvariants, including BA.2, BA.1, and BA.3. Such elaboration would be based on structural variations, mutations, clinical manifestation, transmissibility, pathogenicity, and vaccination effectiveness. The most notable difference between the three subvariants is the insufficiency of deletion (Δ69-70) in the spike protein, which results in a lower detection rate of the spike (S) gene target known as (S) gene target failure (SGTF). Furthermore, BA.2 had a stronger affinity to the human Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (hACE2) receptor than other Omicron sub-lineages. Regarding the number of mutations, BA.1.1 has the most (40), followed by BA.1, BA.3, and BA.3 with 39, 34, and 31 mutations, respectively. In addition, BA.2 and BA.3 have greater transmissibility than other sub-lineages (BA.1 and BA.1.1). These characteristics are primarily responsible for Omicron's vast geographical spread and high contagiousness rates, particularly BA.2 sub-lineages.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(12)2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123905

ABSTRACT

Little is known about monkeypox public concerns since its widespread emergence in many countries. Tweets in Germany were examined in the first three months of COVID-19 and monkeypox to examine concerns and issues raised by the public. Understanding views and positions of the public could help to shape future public health campaigns. Few qualitative studies reviewed large datasets, and the results provide the first instance of the public thinking comparing COVID-19 and monkeypox. We retrieved 15,936 tweets from Germany using query words related to both epidemics in the first three months of each one. A sequential explanatory mixed methods research joined a machine learning approach with thematic analysis using a novel rapid tweet analysis protocol. In COVID-19 tweets, there was the selfing construct or feeling part of the emerging narrative of the spread and response. In contrast, during monkeypox, the public considered othering after the fatigue of the COVID-19 response, or an impersonal feeling toward the disease. During monkeypox, coherence and reconceptualization of new and competing information produced a customer rather than a consumer/producer model. Public healthcare policy should reconsider a one-size-fits-all model during information campaigns and produce a strategic approach embedded within a customer model to educate the public about preventative measures and updates. A multidisciplinary approach could prevent and minimize mis/disinformation.

12.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 74: 103282, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648982

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In poor countries, due to the limited resources, mostly they prescribe medications without proper diagnosis. The aim of this report is to show diagnostic bias of COVID-19 case. CASE PRESENTATION: A 17-year-old male patient was presented to the Hospital with a fever up to 39 °C associated with rigor, sweating, generalized body pain, myalgia, fatigue, loss of appetite, headache, and multiple joint pain with no swelling and redness. The vital signs were steady on physical examination, except temperature which was 39 °C. The chest was clear, and the pulse rate was 90 beats per minute. The heart rate relative bradycardia and lungs were normal. Both a PCR test for COVID-19, and a viral assay ELISA were negative. After further investigations, the culture findings revealed the strong development of Gram-negative coccobacilli (Salmonella serotype Typhi) bacteria under the microscope, which was confirmed by using VITEK 2 to identify it. and treated with ciprofloxacin tab, two times per day for five days and amikacin ampule 500 mg IV every 24 hours for 10 days. DISCUSSION: Fever is a well-known sign of COVID-19 infection which has been observed in 83%-98% of patients with COVID19. As a result, it may be difficult to tell the difference between COVID-19 and other febrile infections, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment and may blind the physician from considering other febrile illnesses. CONCLUSION: Physicians should construct more comprehensive differential diagnoses for people who experience fever, headache, or myalgia symptoms that are linked to a pandemic. COVID-19.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0258348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, there have been concerns related to the preparedness of healthcare workers (HCWs). This study aimed to describe the level of awareness and preparedness of hospital HCWs at the time of the first wave. METHODS: This multinational, multicenter, cross-sectional survey was conducted among hospital HCWs from February to May 2020. We used a hierarchical logistic regression multivariate analysis to adjust the influence of variables based on awareness and preparedness. We then used association rule mining to identify relationships between HCW confidence in handling suspected COVID-19 patients and prior COVID-19 case-management training. RESULTS: We surveyed 24,653 HCWs from 371 hospitals across 57 countries and received 17,302 responses from 70.2% HCWs overall. The median COVID-19 preparedness score was 11.0 (interquartile range [IQR] = 6.0-14.0) and the median awareness score was 29.6 (IQR = 26.6-32.6). HCWs at COVID-19 designated facilities with previous outbreak experience, or HCWs who were trained for dealing with the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, had significantly higher levels of preparedness and awareness (p<0.001). Association rule mining suggests that nurses and doctors who had a 'great-extent-of-confidence' in handling suspected COVID-19 patients had participated in COVID-19 training courses. Male participants (mean difference = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.46; p<0.001) and nurses (mean difference = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.81; p<0.001) had higher preparedness scores compared to women participants and doctors. INTERPRETATION: There was an unsurprising high level of awareness and preparedness among HCWs who participated in COVID-19 training courses. However, disparity existed along the lines of gender and type of HCW. It is unknown whether the difference in COVID-19 preparedness that we detected early in the pandemic may have translated into disproportionate SARS-CoV-2 burden of disease by gender or HCW type.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Personnel, Hospital , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Medical, Continuing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 580427, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317251

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus (named SARS-CoV-2) has gained attention globally and has been recognized as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to the rapidly increasing number of deaths and confirmed cases. Health care workers (HCWs) are vulnerable to this crisis as they are the first frontline to receive and manage COVID-19 patients. In this multicenter multinational survey, we aim to assess the level of awareness and preparedness of hospital staff regarding COVID-19 all over the world. Methods: From February to March 2020, the web-based or paper-based survey to gather information about the hospital staff's awareness and preparedness in the participants' countries will be carried out using a structured questionnaire based on the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) checklist and delivered to participants by the local collaborators for each hospital. As of March 2020, we recruited 374 hospitals from 58 countries that could adhere to this protocol as approved by their Institutional Review Boards (IRB) or Ethics Committees (EC). Discussion: The awareness and preparedness of HCWs against COVID-19 are of utmost importance not only to protect themselves from infection, but also to control the virus transmission in healthcare facilities and to manage the disease, especially in the context of manpower lacking and hospital overload during the pandemic. The results of this survey can be used to inform hospitals about the awareness and preparedness of their health staff regarding COVID-19, so appropriate policies and practice guidelines can be implemented to improve their capabilities of facing this crisis and other future pandemic-prone diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , United States
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