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Infez Med ; 29(2):167-180, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1248656


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in a very short span of thirteen months has taken a considerable toll on humanity, resulting in over 3 million deaths with more than 150 million confirmed cases as on May 1, 2021. In the scarcity of a potential antiviral and protective vaccine, COVID-19 has posed high public health concerns, panic, and challenges to limit the spread of this pandemic virus. Only recently have a few vaccine candidates been developed, and vaccination programs have started in some countries. Multiple clinical presentations of COVID-19, animal spillover, cross-species jumping, zoonotic concerns, and emergence of virus variants have altogether created havoc during this ongoing pandemic. Several bodies of research are continuously working to elucidate the exact molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis. To develop a prospective antiviral therapy/vaccine for SARSCoV-2, it is quite essential to gain insight into the immunobiology and molecular virology of SARS-CoV-2. A thorough literature search was conducted up to 28th February 2021 in the PubMed and other databases for the articles describing the immunopathology and immune response of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which were critically evaluated and used to compile this article to present an overall update. Some of the information was drawn from studies on previous MERS and SARS viruses. Innate as well as adaptive immunity responses are elicited by exposure to SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 establishes a successful infection by escaping the host immunity as well as over activating the innate immune mechanisms that result in severe disease outcomes, including cytokine storm. This review summarizes the immunopathology and molecular immune mechanisms elicited during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their similarities with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.

Infezioni in Medicina ; 29(1):10-19, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117873


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic worldwide. On a daily basis the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. The main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is through the air (airborne transmission). This review details the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the aerodynamics, and different modes of transmission (e.g. droplets, droplet nuclei, and aerosol particles). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by an infected person during activities such as expiration, coughing, sneezing, and talking. During such activities and some medical procedures, aerosols and droplets contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 particles are formed. Depending on their sizes and the environmental conditions, such particles stay viable in the air for varying time periods and can cause infection in a susceptible host. Very few studies have been conducted to establish the mechanism or the aerodynamics of virus-loaded particles and droplets in causing infection. In this review we discuss the various forms in which SARS-CoV-2 virus particles can be transmitted in air and cause infections.

Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(2):174-184, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-87198


The world has been thrown into pandemonium due to the recent Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Early available clinical data have indicated that geriatric persons cum those with co-morbidity such as cardiovascular, metabolic and immunological disorders suffered severe form of COVID-19. All countries and territories of the world are currently exploring available strategies to control the pandemic with the hope to significantly minimize its morbidity and mortality rate. This present study critically reviewed available and latest research progress of the genetics and ecology of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the influence of climatic factors on the spread of COVID-19, and thus, discussed how these concepts could be harnessed for COVID-19 control and further scientific advancements in resolving the pandemic.