Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 20(6): 525-533, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755898

ABSTRACT

Human factor Xa (FXa) is a serine protease of the common coagulation pathway. FXa is known to activate prothrombin to thrombin, which eventually leads to the formation of cross-linked blood clots. While this process is important in maintaining hemostasis, excessive thrombin generation results in a host of thrombotic conditions. FXa has also been linked to inflammation via protease-activated receptors. Together, coagulopathy and inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of viral infections, including the current coronavirus pandemic. Direct FXa inhibitors have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, in addition to their established anticoagulant activity. This review summarizes the pharmacological activities of direct FXa inhibitors, their pharmacokinetics, potential drug-drug interactions and adverse effects, and the details of clinical trials involving direct FXa inhibitors in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Drug Interactions , Factor Xa/metabolism , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Half-Life , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Pandemics , Protein Binding/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-904949

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to challenge health care systems around the world. Scientists and pharmaceutical companies have promptly responded by advancing potential therapeutics into clinical trials at an exponential rate. Initial encouraging results have been realized using remdesivir and dexamethasone. Yet, the research continues so as to identify better clinically relevant therapeutics that act either as prophylactics to prevent the infection or as treatments to limit the severity of COVID-19 and substantially decrease the mortality rate. Previously, we reviewed the potential therapeutics in clinical trials that block the early stage of the viral life cycle. In this review, we summarize potential anti-COVID-19 therapeutics that block/inhibit the post-entry stages of the viral life cycle. The review presents not only the chemical structures and mechanisms of the potential therapeutics under clinical investigation, i.e., listed in clinicaltrials.gov, but it also describes the relevant results of clinical trials. Their anti-inflammatory/immune-modulatory effects are also described. The reviewed therapeutics include small molecules, polypeptides, and monoclonal antibodies. At the molecular level, the therapeutics target viral proteins or processes that facilitate the post-entry stages of the viral infection. Frequent targets are the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the viral proteases such as papain-like protease (PLpro) and main protease (Mpro). Overall, we aim at presenting up-to-date details of anti-COVID-19 therapeutics so as to catalyze their potential effective use in fighting the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Delivery Systems , Drug Development , Humans , Pandemics , Peptides/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(6): 866-875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic is caused by coronavirus also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The viral infection continues to impact the globe with no vaccine to prevent the infection or highly effective therapeutics to treat the millions of infected people around the world. The disease starts as a respiratory infection, yet it may also be associated with a hypercoagulable state, severe inflammation owing to excessive cytokines production, and a potentially significant oxidative stress. The disease may progress to multiorgan failure and eventually death. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we summarize the potential of dipyridamole as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed the literature describing the biological activities of dipyridamole in various settings of testing. Data were retrieved from PubMed, SciFinder-CAS, and Web of Science. The review concisely covered relevant studies starting from 1977. RESULTS: Dipyridamole is an approved antiplatelet drug, that has been used to prevent stroke, among other indications. Besides its antithrombotic activity, the literature indicates that dipyridamole also promotes a host of other biological activities including antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant ones. CONCLUSION: Dipyridamole may substantially help improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 treatment. The pharmacokinetics profile of the drug is well established which makes it easier to design an appropriate therapeutic course. The drug is also generally safe, affordable, and available worldwide. Initial clinical trials have shown a substantial promise for dipyridamole in treating critically ill COVID-19 patients, yet larger randomized and controlled trials are needed to confirm this promise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dipyridamole , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Viruses ; 12(10):1092, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-797796

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to challenge health care systems around the world. Scientists and pharmaceutical companies have promptly responded by advancing potential therapeutics into clinical trials at an exponential rate. Initial encouraging results have been realized using remdesivir and dexamethasone. Yet, the research continues so as to identify better clinically relevant therapeutics that act either as prophylactics to prevent the infection or as treatments to limit the severity of COVID-19 and substantially decrease the mortality rate. Previously, we reviewed the potential therapeutics in clinical trials that block the early stage of the viral life cycle. In this review, we summarize potential anti-COVID-19 therapeutics that block/inhibit the post-entry stages of the viral life cycle. The review presents not only the chemical structures and mechanisms of the potential therapeutics under clinical investigation, i.e., listed in clinicaltrials.gov, but it also describes the relevant results of clinical trials. Their anti-inflammatory/immune-modulatory effects are also described. The reviewed therapeutics include small molecules, polypeptides, and monoclonal antibodies. At the molecular level, the therapeutics target viral proteins or processes that facilitate the post-entry stages of the viral infection. Frequent targets are the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the viral proteases such as papain-like protease (PLpro) and main protease (Mpro). Overall, we aim at presenting up-to-date details of anti-COVID-19 therapeutics so as to catalyze their potential effective use in fighting the pandemic.

5.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 35(2): 195-203, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737530

ABSTRACT

Thrombin is a trypsin-like serine protease with multiple physiological functions. Its role in coagulation and thrombosis is well-established. Nevertheless, thrombin also plays a major role in inflammation by activating protease-activated receptors. In addition, thrombin is also involved in angiogenesis, fibrosis, and viral infections. Considering the pathogenesis of COVID-19 pandemic, thrombin inhibitors may exert multiple potential therapeutic benefits including antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. In this review, we describe the clinical features of COVID-19, the thrombin's roles in various pathologies, and the potential of argatroban in COVID-19 patients. Argatroban is a synthetic, small molecule, direct, competitive, and selective inhibitor of thrombin. It is approved to parenterally prevent and/or treat heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in addition to other thrombotic conditions. Argatroban also possesses anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities and has a well-established pharmacokinetics profile. It also appears to lack a significant risk of drug-drug interactions with therapeutics currently being evaluated for COVID-19. Thus, argatroban presents a substantial promise in treating severe cases of COVID-19; however, this promise is yet to be established in randomized, controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19 , Pipecolic Acids/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Antithrombins/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Development , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669635

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is being caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease continues to present significant challenges to the health care systems around the world. This is primarily because of the lack of vaccines to protect against the infection and the lack of highly effective therapeutics to prevent and/or treat the illness. Nevertheless, researchers have swiftly responded to the pandemic by advancing old and new potential therapeutics into clinical trials. In this review, we summarize potential anti-COVID-19 therapeutics that block the early stage of the viral life cycle. The review presents the structures, mechanisms, and reported results of clinical trials of potential therapeutics that have been listed in clinicaltrials.gov. Given the fact that some of these therapeutics are multi-acting molecules, other relevant mechanisms will also be described. The reviewed therapeutics include small molecules and macromolecules of sulfated polysaccharides, polypeptides, and monoclonal antibodies. The potential therapeutics target viral and/or host proteins or processes that facilitate the early stage of the viral infection. Frequent targets are the viral spike protein, the host angiotensin converting enzyme 2, the host transmembrane protease serine 2, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis process. Overall, the review aims at presenting update-to-date details, so as to enhance awareness of potential therapeutics, and thus, to catalyze their appropriate use in combating the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL