Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 12(1): 16-34, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The discovery of drugs capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 is a priority for human beings due to the severity of the global health pandemic caused by COVID-19. To this end, natural products can provide therapeutic alternatives that could be employed as an effective safe treatment for COVID-19. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: Twelve compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of C. officinalis L. and investigated for their inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro compared to its co-crystallized N3 inhibitor using molecular docking studies. Furthermore, a 100 ns MD simulation was performed for the most active two promising compounds, Calendulaglycoside A (SAP5) and Osteosaponin-I (SAP8). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At first, molecular docking studies showed interesting binding scores as compared to the N3 inhibitor. Calendulaglycoside A (SAP5) achieved a superior binding than the co-crystallized inhibitor indicating promising affinity and intrinsic activity towards the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 as well. Moreover, findings illustrated preferential stability for SAP5 within the Mpro pocket over that of N3 beyond the 40 ns MD simulation course. Structural preferentiality for triterpene-Mpro binding highlights the significant role of 17ß-glucosyl and carboxylic 3α-galactosyl I moieties through high electrostatic interactions across the MD simulation trajectories. Furthermore, this study clarified a promising SAR responsible for the antiviral activity against the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and the design of new drug candidates targeting it as well. The above findings could be promising for fast examining the previously isolated triterpenes both pre-clinically and clinically for the treatment of COVID-19.

2.
RSC advances ; 11(47):29267-29286, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812712

ABSTRACT

Six compounds namely, tanshinone IIA (1), carnosic acid (2), rosmarinic acid (3), salvianolic acid B (4), baicalein (5), and glycyrrhetinic acid (6) were screened for their anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities against both the spike (S) and main protease (Mpro) receptors using molecular docking studies. Molecular docking recommended the superior affinities of both salvianolic acid B (4) and glycyrrhetinic acid (6) as the common results from the previously published computational articles. On the other hand, their actual anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities were tested in vitro using plaque reduction assay to calculate their IC50 values after measuring their CC50 values using MTT assay on Vero E6 cells. Surprisingly, tanshinone IIA (1) was the most promising member with IC50 equals 4.08 ng μl−1. Also, both carnosic acid (2) and rosmarinic acid (3) showed promising IC50 values of 15.37 and 25.47 ng μl−1, respectively. However, salvianolic acid (4) showed a weak anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity with an IC50 value equals 58.29 ng μl−1. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations for 100 ns were performed for the most active compound from the computational point of view (salvianolic acid 4), besides, the most active one biologically (tanshinone IIA 1) on both the S and Mpro complexes of them (four different molecular dynamics processes) to confirm the docking results and give more insights regarding the stability of both compounds inside the SARS-CoV-2 mentioned receptors, respectively. Also, to understand the mechanism of action for the tested compounds towards SARS-CoV-2 inhibition it was necessary to examine the mode of action for the most two promising compounds, tanshinone IIA (1) and carnosic acid (2). Both compounds (1 and 2) showed very promising virucidal activity with a most prominent inhibitory effect on viral adsorption rather than its replication. This recommended the predicted activity of the two compounds against the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 rather than its Mpro protein. Our results could be very promising to rearrange the previously mentioned compounds based on their actual inhibitory activities towards SARS-CoV-2 and to search for the reasons behind the great differences between their in silico and in vitro results against SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we recommend further advanced preclinical and clinical studies especially for tanshinone IIA (1) to be rapidly applied in COVID-19 management either alone or in combination with carnosic acid (2), rosmarinic acid (3), and/or salvianolic acid (4). Tanshinone IIA shows the most promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 biological activity: molecular docking, molecular dynamics, in vitro, and SAR studies.

3.
RSC advances ; 11(17):10027-10042, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787159

ABSTRACT

The global breakout of COVID-19 and raised death toll has prompted scientists to develop novel drugs capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. Conducting studies on repurposing some FDA-approved glucocorticoids can be a promising prospective for finding a treatment for COVID-19. In addition, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as glucocorticoids, is a pivotal step in the treatment of critical cases of COVID-19, as they can provoke an inflammatory cytokine storm, damaging lungs. In this study, 22 FDA-approved glucocorticoids were identified through in silico (molecular docking) studies as the potential inhibitors of COVID-19's main protease. From tested compounds, ciclesonide 11, dexamethasone 2, betamethasone 1, hydrocortisone 4, fludrocortisone 3, and triamcinolone 8 are suggested as the most potent glucocorticoids active against COVID-19's main protease. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulations followed by the calculations of the binding free energy using MM-GBSA were carried out for the aforementioned promising candidate-screened glucocorticoids. In addition, quantum chemical calculations revealed two electron-rich sites on ciclesonide where binding interactions with the main protease and cleavage of the prodrug to the active metabolite take place. Our results have ramifications for conducting preclinical and clinical studies on promising glucocorticoids to hasten the development of effective therapeutics against COVID-19. Another advantage is that some glucocorticoids can be prioritized over others for the treatment of inflammation accompanying COVID-19. The global breakout of COVID-19 and raised death toll has prompted scientists to develop novel drugs capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Drug design, development and therapy ; 16:685-715, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749266

ABSTRACT

The rising outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 continues to unfold all over the world. The development of novel effective antiviral drugs to fight against SARS-CoV-2 is a time cost. As a result, some specific FDA-approved drugs have already been repurposed and authorized for COVID-19 treatment. The repurposed drugs used were either antiviral or non-antiviral drugs. Accordingly, the present review thoroughly focuses on the repurposing efficacy of these drugs including clinical trials experienced, the combination therapies used, the novel methods followed for treatment, and their future perspective. Therefore, drug repurposing was regarded as an effective avenue for COVID-19 treatment. Recently, molnupiravir is a prodrug antiviral medication that was approved in the United Kingdom in November 2021 for the treatment of COVID-19. On the other hand, PF-07321332 is an oral antiviral drug developed by Pfizer. For the treatment of COVID-19, the PF-07321332/ritonavir combination medication is used in Phase III studies and was marketed as Paxlovid. Herein, we represented the almost history of combating COVID-19 from repurposing to the recently available oral anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidates, as a new hope to end the current pandemic. Graphical

5.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(1): 44, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595653

ABSTRACT

Investigating bicelles as an oral drug delivery system and exploiting their structural benefits can pave the way to formulate hydrophobic drugs and potentiate their activity. Herein, the ability of non-ionic surfactants (labrasol®, tween 80, cremophore EL and pluronic F127) to form curcumin loaded bicelles with phosphatidylcholine, utilizing a simple method, was investigated. Molecular docking was used to understand the mechanism of bicelles formation. The % transmittance and TEM exhibited bicelles formation with labrasol® and tween 80, while cremophor EL and pluronic F127 tended to form mixed micelles. The surfactant-based nanostructures significantly improved curcumin dissolution (99.2 ± 2.6% within 10 min in case of tween 80-based bicelles) compared to liposomes and curcumin suspension in non-sink conditions. The prepared formulations improved curcumin ex vivo permeation over liposomes and drug suspension. Further, the therapeutic antiviral activity of the formulated curcumin against SARS-CoV-2 was potentiated over drug suspension. Although both Labrasol® and tween 80 bicelles could form bicelles and enhance the oral delivery of curcumin when compared to liposomes and drug suspension, the mixed micelles formulations depicted superiority than bicelles formulations. Our findings provide promising formulations that can be utilized for further preclinical and clinical studies of curcumin as an antiviral therapy for COVID-19 patients. Graphical Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Antiviral Agents , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Micelles , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents
6.
RSC Adv ; 11(50): 31339-31363, 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517647

ABSTRACT

Since its first report in December 2019, the novel coronavirus virus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused an unprecedented global health crisis and economic loss imposing a tremendous burden on the worldwide finance, healthcare system, and even daily life. Even with the introduction of different preventive vaccines, there is still a dire need for effective antiviral therapeutics. Nature has been considered as the historical trove of drug discovery and development, particularly in cases of worldwide crises. Herein, a comprehensive in silico investigation of a highly focused chemical library of 34 pederin-structurally related marine compounds, belonging to four polyketides families, was initiated against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, Mpro, being the key replicating element of the virus and main target in many drugs development programs. Two of the most potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro co-crystallized inhibitors, O6K and N3, were added to the tested database as reference standards. Through molecular docking simulation, promising compounds including Pederin (1), Dihydro-onnamide A (11), Onnamide C (14), Pseudo-onnamide A (17), and Theopederin G (29) have been identified from different families based on their superior ligand-protein energies and relevant binding profiles with the key Mpro pocket residues. Thermodynamic behaviors of the identified compounds were investigated through 200 ns all-atom molecular dynamics simulation illustrating their significant stability and pocket accommodation. Furthermore, structural activity preferentiality was identified for the pederin-based marine compounds highlighting the importance of the terminal guanidine and cyclic hemiacetal linker, and the length of the sidechain. Our findings highlight the challenges of targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro as well as recommending further in vitro and in vivo studies regarding the examined marine products either alone or in combination paving the way for promising lead molecules.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512751

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses represent a major public health concern, as they are highly mutated, resulting in new strains emerging with high pathogenicity. Currently, the world is suffering from the newly evolving severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a mild-to-severe respiratory tract infection with frequent ability to give rise to fatal pneumonia in humans. The overwhelming outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 continues to unfold all over the world, urging scientists to put an end to this global pandemic through biological and pharmaceutical interventions. Currently, there is no specific treatment option that is capable of COVID-19 pandemic eradication, so several repurposed drugs and newly conditionally approved vaccines are in use and heavily applied to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of new variants of the virus that partially or totally escape from the immune response elicited by the approved vaccines requires continuous monitoring of the emerging variants to update the content of the developed vaccines or modify them totally to match the new variants. Herein, we discuss the potential therapeutic and prophylactic interventions including repurposed drugs and the newly developed/approved vaccines, highlighting the impact of virus evolution on the immune evasion of the virus from currently licensed vaccines for COVID-19.

8.
RSC Adv ; 11(56): 35536-35558, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510631

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic became more threatening especially after the introduction of the second and third waves with the current large expectations for a fourth one as well. This urged scientists to rapidly develop a new effective therapy to combat SARS-CoV-2. Based on the structures of ß-adrenergic blockers having the same hydroxyethylamine and hydroxyethylene moieties present in the HIV-1 protease inhibitors which were found previously to inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV, we suggested that they may decrease the SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cell through their ability to decrease the activity of RAAS and ACE2 as well. Herein, molecular docking of twenty FDA-approved ß-blockers was performed targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Results showed promising inhibitory activities especially for Carvedilol (CAR) and Nebivolol (NEB) members. Moreover, these two drugs together with Bisoprolol (BIS) as an example from the lower active ones were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations at 100 ns. Great stability across the whole 100 ns timeframe was observed for the top docked ligands, CAR and NEB, over BIS. Conformational analysis of the examined drugs and hydrogen bond investigation with the pocket's crucial residues confirm the great affinity and confinement of CAR and NEB within the Mpro binding site. Moreover, the binding-free energy analysis and residue-wise contribution analysis highlight the nature of ligand-protein interaction and provide guidance for lead development and optimization. Furthermore, the examined three drugs were tested for their in vitro inhibitory activities towards SARS-CoV-2. It is worth mentioning that NEB achieved the most potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity with an IC50 value of 0.030 µg ml-1. Besides, CAR was found to have a promising inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 0.350 µg ml-1. Also, the IC50 value of BIS was found to be as low as 15.917 µg ml-1. Finally, the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro assay was performed to evaluate and confirm the inhibitory effects of the tested compounds (BIS, CAR, and NEB) towards the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme. The obtained results showed very promising SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitory activities of BIS, CAR, and NEB (IC50 = 118.50, 204.60, and 60.20 µg ml-1, respectively) compared to lopinavir (IC50 = 73.68 µg ml-1) as a reference standard.

9.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488677

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are important secondary plant metabolites that have been studied for a long time for their therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases because of their cytokine-modulatory effects. Five flavonoid aglycones were isolated and identified from the hydrolyzed aqueous methanol extracts of Anastatica hierochuntica L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, and Kickxia aegyptiaca (L.) Nabelek. They were identified as taxifolin (1), pectolinarigenin (2), tangeretin (3), gardenin B (4), and hispidulin (5). These structures were elucidated based on chromatographic and spectral analysis. In this study, molecular docking studies were carried out for the isolated and identified compounds against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) compared to the co-crystallized inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro (α-ketoamide inhibitor (KI), IC50 = 66.72 µg/mL) as a reference standard. Moreover, in vitro screening against SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated. Compounds 2 and 3 showed the highest virus inhibition with IC50 12.4 and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively. Our findings recommend further advanced in vitro and in vivo studies of the examined isolated flavonoids, especially pectolinarigenin (2), tangeretin (3), and gardenin B (4), either alone or in combination with each other to identify a promising lead to target SARS-CoV-2 effectively. This is the first report of the activity of these compounds against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Flavones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brassicaceae/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromones/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Flavones/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
10.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470934

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)) has caused relatively high mortality rates in humans throughout the world since its first detection in late December 2019, leading to the most devastating pandemic of the current century. Consequently, SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic interventions have received high priority from public health authorities. Despite increased COVID-19 infections, a vaccine or therapy to cover all the population is not yet available. Herein, immunoinformatics and custommune tools were used to identify B and T-cells epitopes from the available SARS-CoV-2 sequences spike (S) protein. In the in silico predictions, six B cell epitopes QTGKIADYNYK, TEIYQASTPCNGVEG, LQSYGFQPT, IRGDEVRQIAPGQTGKIADYNYKLPD, FSQILPDPSKPSKRS and PFAMQMAYRFNG were cross-reacted with MHC-I and MHC-II T-cells binding epitopes and selected for vaccination in experimental animals for evaluation as candidate vaccine(s) due to their high antigenic matching and conserved score. The selected six peptides were used individually or in combinations to immunize female Balb/c mice. The immunized mice raised reactive antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in two different short peptides located in receptor binding domain and S2 region. In combination groups, an additive effect was demonstrated in-comparison with single peptide immunized mice. This study provides novel epitope-based peptide vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunization , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438676

ABSTRACT

In response to the urgent need to control Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), this study aims to explore potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents from natural sources. Moreover, cytokine immunological responses to the viral infection could lead to acute respiratory distress which is considered a critical and life-threatening complication associated with the infection. Therefore, the anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents can be key to the management of patients with COVID-19. Four bioactive compounds, namely ferulic acid 1, rutin 2, gallic acid 3, and chlorogenic acid 4 were isolated from the leaves of Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (ethyl acetate extract) and identified using spectroscopic evidence. Furthermore, molecular docking and dynamics simulations were performed for the isolated and identified compounds (1-4) against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) as a proposed mechanism of action. Furthermore, all compounds were tested for their half-maximal cytotoxicity (CC50) and SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Additionally, lung toxicity was induced in rats by mercuric chloride and the effects of treatment with P. dioca aqueous extract, ferulic acid 1, rutin 2, gallic acid 3, and chlorogenic acid 4 were recorded through measuring TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-10, G-CSF, and genetic expression of miRNA 21-3P and miRNA-155 levels to assess their anti-inflammatory effects essential for COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, rutin 2, gallic acid 3, and chlorogenic acid 4 showed remarkable anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities with IC50 values of 31 µg/mL, 108 µg/mL, and 360 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects were found to be better in ferulic acid 1 and rutin 2 treatments. Our results could be promising for more advanced preclinical and clinical studies especially on rutin 2 either alone or in combination with other isolates for COVID-19 management.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chlorogenic Acid/isolation & purification , Chlorogenic Acid/pharmacology , Coumaric Acids/isolation & purification , Coumaric Acids/pharmacology , Gallic Acid/isolation & purification , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats , Rutin/isolation & purification , Rutin/pharmacology , Vero Cells
12.
J Drug Deliv Sci Technol ; 66: 102845, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428141

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a worldwide emerging crisis. Polyphenols are a class of herbal metabolites with a broad-spectrum antiviral activity. However, most polyphenols encounter limited efficacy due to their poor solubility and degradation in neutral and basic environments. Thus, the effectiveness of their pharmaceutical application is critically dependent on the delivery systems to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks. Herein, Polyphenols-rich Cuphea ignea extract was prepared and its constituents were identified and quantified. Molecular docking was conducted for 15 compounds in the extract against SARS-CoV-2 main protease, among which rutin, myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside and rosmarinic acid depicted the most promising antiviral activity. Further, a self-nanoemulsifying formulation, composed of 10% oleic acid, 40% tween 20 and propylene glycol 50%, was prepared to improve the solubility of the extract components and enable its concurrent delivery permitting combined potency. Upon dilution with aqueous phases, the formulation rapidly Formsnanoemulsion of good stability and excellent dissolution profile in acidic pH when compared to the crude extract. It inhibited SARS-CoV-2 completely in vitro at a concentration as low as 5.87 µg/mL presenting a promising antiviral remedy for SARS-CoV-2, which may be attributed to the possible synergism between the extract components.

13.
Heliyon ; 7(9): e07962, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406273

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing is an important approach to the assignment of already approved drugs for new indications. This technique bypasses some steps in the traditional drug approval system, which saves time and lives in the case of pandemics. Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have repeatedly repurposed from treating one virus to another. In this study, 16 FDA-approved hepatitis C virus (HCV) DAA drugs were studied to explore their activities against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) human and viral targets. Among the 16 HCV DAA drugs, telaprevir has shown the best in silico evidence to work on both indirect human targets (cathepsin L [CTSL] and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [hACE2] receptor) and direct viral targets (main protease [Mpro]). Moreover, the docked poses of telaprevir inside both hACE2 and Mpro were subjected to additional molecular dynamics simulations monitored by calculating the binding free energy using MM-GBSA. In vitro analysis of telaprevir showed inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture (IC50 = 11.552 µM, CC50 = 60.865 µM, and selectivity index = 5.27). Accordingly, based on the in silico studies and supported by the presented in vitro analysis, we suggest that telaprevir may be considered for therapeutic development against SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282542

ABSTRACT

The discovery of drugs capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 is a priority for human beings due to the severity of the global health pandemic caused by COVID-19. To this end, repurposing of FDA-approved drugs such as NSAIDs against COVID-19 can provide therapeutic alternatives that could be utilized as an effective safe treatment for COVID-19. The anti-inflammatory activity of NSAIDs is also advantageous in the treatment of COVID-19, as it was found that SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for provoking inflammatory cytokine storms resulting in lung damage. In this study, 40 FDA-approved NSAIDs were evaluated through molecular docking against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Among the tested compounds, sulfinpyrazone 2, indomethacin 3, and auranofin 4 were proposed as potential antagonists of COVID-19 main protease. Molecular dynamics simulations were also carried out for the most promising members of the screened NSAID candidates (2, 3, and 4) to unravel the dynamic properties of NSAIDs at the target receptor. The conducted quantum mechanical study revealed that the hybrid functional B3PW91 provides a good description of the spatial parameters of auranofin 4. Interestingly, a promising structure-activity relationship (SAR) was concluded from our study that could help in the future design of potential SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors with expected anti-inflammatory effects as well. NSAIDs may be used by medicinal chemists as lead compounds for the development of potent SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro) inhibitors. In addition, some NSAIDs can be selectively designated for treatment of inflammation resulting from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Auranofin/chemistry , Auranofin/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/complications , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Databases, Chemical , Humans , Indomethacin/chemistry , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Ligands , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Structure-Activity Relationship , Sulfinpyrazone/chemistry , Sulfinpyrazone/pharmacology , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
15.
Pathogens ; 10(6)2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270100

ABSTRACT

Until now, there has been no direct evidence of the effectiveness of repurposed FDA-approved drugs against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Although curcumin, hesperidin, and quercetin have broad spectra of pharmacological properties, their antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 remain unclear. Our study aimed to assess the in vitro antiviral activities of curcumin, hesperidin, and quercetin against SARS-CoV-2 compared to hydroxychloroquine and determine their mode of action. In Vero E6 cells, these compounds significantly inhibited virus replication, mainly as virucidal agents primarily indicating their potential activity at the early stage of viral infection. To investigate the mechanism of action of the tested compounds, molecular docking studies were carried out against both SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and main protease (Mpro) receptors. Collectively, the obtained in silico and in vitro findings suggest that the compounds could be promising SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. We recommend further preclinical and clinical studies on the studied compounds to find a potential therapeutic targeting COVID-19 in the near future.

16.
Front Chem ; 9: 661230, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238863

ABSTRACT

The rapid and global spread of a new human coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has produced an immediate urgency to discover promising targets for the treatment of COVID-19. Here, we consider drug repurposing as an attractive approach that can facilitate the drug discovery process by repurposing existing pharmaceuticals to treat illnesses other than their primary indications. We review current information concerning the global health issue of COVID-19 including promising approved drugs, e.g., human angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (hACEIs). Besides, we describe computational approaches to be used in drug repurposing and highlight examples of in-silico studies of drug development efforts against SARS-CoV-2. Alacepril and lisinopril were found to interact with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), the host entranceway for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, through exhibiting the most acceptable rmsd_refine values and the best binding affinity through forming a strong hydrogen bond with Asn90, which is assumed to be essential for the activity, as well as significant extra interactions with other receptor-binding residues. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations followed by calculation of the binding free energy were also carried out for the most promising two ligand-pocket complexes from docking studies (alacepril and lisinopril) to clarify some information on their thermodynamic and dynamic properties and confirm the docking results as well. These results we obtained probably provided an excellent lead candidate for the development of therapeutic drugs against COVID-19. Eventually, animal experiments and accurate clinical trials are needed to confirm the potential preventive and treatment effect of these compounds.

17.
Pathogens ; 10(5)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234791

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a novel coronavirus, namely severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), escaped the animal-human interface and emerged as an ongoing global pandemic with severe flu-like illness, commonly known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, a molecular docking study was carried out for seventeen (17) structural analogues prepared from natural maslinic and oleanolic acids, screened against SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Furthermore, we experimentally validated the virtual data by measuring the half-maximal cytotoxic and inhibitory concentrations of each compound. Interestingly, the chlorinated isoxazole linked maslinic acid (compound 17) showed promising antiviral activity at micromolar non-toxic concentrations. Thoughtfully, we showed that compound 17 mainly impairs the viral replication of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, a very promising SAR study for the examined compounds was concluded, which could be used by medicinal chemists in the near future for the design and synthesis of potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidates. Our results could be very promising for performing further additional in vitro and in vivo studies on the tested compound (17) before further licensing for COVID-19 treatment.

18.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 24: 100604, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233460

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) introduced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has greatly affected the global public health. This pandemic disease became particularly threatening after the start of a new wave. Vaccines of tested efficacy to stop COVID-19 infection are being investigated vigorously worldwide. Currently, some specific drugs have been authorized for COVID-19, but the improvement of antivirals requires time. Hence, a faster way of treatment is done by drug repurposing. Repurposing of drugs is promising for treating and reducing the symptoms of the disease, and it a fast, easy, and safe method to address the crisis, because of their previously known applications. Some antimalarial drugs, especially chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, have been repurposed, as they exhibited promising results in vitro and in vivo. This article investigates repurposed antimalarial drugs, focusing on their antiviral mechanisms of action, effects in combinations, trial results, and their side effects.

19.
RSC Adv ; 11(17): 10027-10042, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152890

ABSTRACT

The global breakout of COVID-19 and raised death toll has prompted scientists to develop novel drugs capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. Conducting studies on repurposing some FDA-approved glucocorticoids can be a promising prospective for finding a treatment for COVID-19. In addition, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as glucocorticoids, is a pivotal step in the treatment of critical cases of COVID-19, as they can provoke an inflammatory cytokine storm, damaging lungs. In this study, 22 FDA-approved glucocorticoids were identified through in silico (molecular docking) studies as the potential inhibitors of COVID-19's main protease. From tested compounds, ciclesonide 11, dexamethasone 2, betamethasone 1, hydrocortisone 4, fludrocortisone 3, and triamcinolone 8 are suggested as the most potent glucocorticoids active against COVID-19's main protease. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulations followed by the calculations of the binding free energy using MM-GBSA were carried out for the aforementioned promising candidate-screened glucocorticoids. In addition, quantum chemical calculations revealed two electron-rich sites on ciclesonide where binding interactions with the main protease and cleavage of the prodrug to the active metabolite take place. Our results have ramifications for conducting preclinical and clinical studies on promising glucocorticoids to hasten the development of effective therapeutics against COVID-19. Another advantage is that some glucocorticoids can be prioritized over others for the treatment of inflammation accompanying COVID-19.

20.
Heliyon ; 6(12): e05641, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956042

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing is the most rapid and economic way nowadays to rapidly provide effective drugs for our pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It was a great debate about ARBs whether to be stopped or continued for patients using them especially at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we carried out a virtual screening for almost all members of ARBs (nine) against COVID-19 main protease. Molecular docking as one of the important computational techniques was performed in this work. Interestingly, the tested compounds showed variable binding affinities in the order of N3 inhibitor (10, docked) > Fimasartan (8) > Candesartan (2) > Olmesartan (7) > Azilsartan (9) > Eprosartan (5) > Valsartan (3) > Losartan (1) > Irbesartan (6) > Telmisartan (4). Moreover, Fimasartan (8), Candesartan (2), and Olmesartan (7) were additionally estimated through molecular dynamic simulations monitored via computing the binding free energy using MM-GBSA. The results are promising for rapidly repurposing such drugs (especially, Fimasartan (8) and Candesartan (2)) after further preclinical and clinical studies either alone or in combination with others for the treatment of COVID-19 virus especially known to cause vasodilatation (to prevent blood coagulation) and to reduce inflammation and fibrosis (to prevent pulmonary fibrosis), with well-known safety profiles. In vitro, the virtual findings were consistent with the experimental testing of four representative ARBs. Out of the tested compounds, Olmesartan (7) showed the most promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity (IC50 = 1.808 µM, and CC50 = 557.6 µM) with high selectivity index (308.4) against SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells. This work may clarify and approve not only the safety of ARBs used by a large group of patients worldwide but also their possible effectiveness against the COVID-19 virus either as a prophylactic or treatment option. It intended also to give a clear spot on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) required for the future design of new drugs targeting the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 protease by medicinal chemists.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL