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1.
Haematologica ; 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841291

ABSTRACT

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk of mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The optimal management of AML patients with COVID-19 has not been established. Our multicenter study included 388 adult AML patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between February 2020 and October 2021. The vast majority were receiving or had received AML treatment in the prior 3 months. COVID-19 was severe in 41.2% and critical in 21.1% of cases. The chemotherapeutic schedule was modified in 174 patients (44.8%), delayed in 68 and permanently discontinued in 106. After a median follow-up of 325 days, 180 patients (46.4%) had died; death was attributed to COVID-19 (43.3%), AML (26.1%) or to a combination of both (26.7%), whereas in 3.9% of cases the reason was unknown. Active disease, older age, and treatment discontinuation were associated with death, whereas AML treatment delay was protective. Seventy-nine patients had a simultaneous AML and COVID-19 diagnosis, with an improved survival when AML treatment could be delayed (80%; p.

2.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1578-1584, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482722

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persistence among HCWs and specifically among asymptomatic HCWs. A secondary objective is to determine the duration of persistent SARS-CoV-2 antibodies post infection and factors affecting this duration. The findings are expected to open the door for further research into the role of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: HCWs were divided into high, intermediate, and low risk based on their type and location of work. All participants filled a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained for SARS-CoV-2 IgG/total antibodies. A documented SARS-CoV-2 PCR or Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/total antibodies defined the primary outcome. The probability of persistence of antibody was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Logistic and Cox regression were used where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1111 HCWs were included. The median age 37 years (IQR: 31-43). More than half (67.2%) were females. The primary outcome was seen in 373 (33.6%) participants with a median age of 36 years (IQR: 29-41). Only 37.2% of those with documented positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR had reactive serology, while only 16.2% of those with reactive serology had documented positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. Male gender (OR 0.44, P < 0.001) and older age (OR 0.98, P < 0.019) were associated with a lower risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. The probability of persistent SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at six months was 60.2% (95% CI: 49.5%-73.1%). Omanis had a higher probability of losing the antibody than others (HR 2.63, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: We report a high prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among HCWs in Oman, specifically among asymptomatic HCWs. Community was the most likely source of infection. Therefore, the society must adhere to the roles and regulations set to reduce the risk of transmission. We demonstrate a high percentage of seroconversion post initial infection, and the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at six months in more than half of those previously infected. We demonstrated a new interesting finding of fast decline of SARS-CoV2 antibody levels over time among different nationalities and this requires further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 83-92, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying the immune cells involved in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease progression and the predictors of poor outcomes is important to manage patients adequately. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study enrolled 48 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a tertiary hospital in Oman and 53 non-hospitalized patients with confirmed mild COVID-19. RESULTS: Hospitalized patients were older (58 years vs 36 years, P < 0.001) and had more comorbid conditions such as diabetes (65% vs 21% P < 0.001). Hospitalized patients had significantly higher inflammatory markers (P < 0.001): C-reactive protein (114 vs 4 mg/l), interleukin 6 (IL-6) (33 vs 3.71 pg/ml), lactate dehydrogenase (417 vs 214 U/l), ferritin (760 vs 196 ng/ml), fibrinogen (6 vs 3 g/l), D-dimer (1.0 vs 0.3 µg/ml), disseminated intravascular coagulopathy score (2 vs 0), and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (4 vs 1.1) (P < 0.001). On multivariate regression analysis, statistically significant independent early predictors of intensive care unit admission or death were higher levels of IL-6 (odds ratio 1.03, P = 0.03), frequency of large inflammatory monocytes (CD14+CD16+) (odds ratio 1.117, P = 0.010), and frequency of circulating naïve CD4+ T cells (CD27+CD28+CD45RA+CCR7+) (odds ratio 0.476, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: IL-6, the frequency of large inflammatory monocytes, and the frequency of circulating naïve CD4 T cells can be used as independent immunological predictors of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients to prioritize critical care and resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 155-159, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279599

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Critical illness in COVID-19 is attributed to an exaggerated host immune response. Since neutrophils are the major component of innate immunity, we hypothesize that the quantum of activated neutrophils in the blood may predict an adverse outcome. DESIGN: In a retrospective study of 300 adult patients with confirmed COVID-19, we analyzed the impact of neutrophil activation (NEUT-RI), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the established clinical risk factors of age, diabetes, obesity and hypertension on the clinical outcome. RESULTS: Significant predictors of the need for mechanical ventilation were NEUT-RI (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.22, P < 0.001), diabetes (OR = 2.56, P = 0.00846) and obesity (OR = 6.55, P < 0.001). For death, the significant predictors were NEUT-RI (OR = 1.14, P = 0.00432), diabetes (OR = 4.11, P = 0.00185) and age (OR = 1.04, P = 0.00896). The optimal cut-off value for NEUT-RI to predict mechanical ventilation and death was 52 fluorescence intensity units (sensitivity 44%, specificity 88%, area under the curve 0.67 and 44%, 86%, 0.64, respectively). CONCLUSION: This finding supports an aberrant neutrophil response in COVID-19, likely due to uncontained viral replication, tissue hypoxia and exacerbated inflammation, introduces a novel biomarker for rapid monitoring and opens new avenues for therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Death , Female , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Optical Imaging/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(9): 2144-2151, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205432

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a potentially lethal infection. Cancer patients, and specifically hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are severely immunocompromised and may be at a higher risk of a complicated course with this infection. We aimed to study the COVID-19 outcomes and severity in post HCT patients. We retrospectively reviewed post-HCT patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 15, 2020, and December 1, 2020 at 10 transplant centers across the Middle East. We identified 91 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection across 10 transplant centers. The median age upon presentation with COVID-19 was 35. Fifty two patients were post allo-HCT while the remaining 39 patients were post auto-HCT. The median time from transplant was 14.9 months. Mortality rate was 4.4%. Hospital admission rate was 53%. ICU admission rate was 14%. Mechanical ventilation rate was 10%. Oxygen supplementation rate was 18%. Time from HCT to COVID-19 >6 months was associated with lower admission rates and lower rates of the "severity" composite endpoint. Antibody responses was seen 67% of evaluable patients. In this series of HCT recipients, we report overall favorable clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 and provide preliminary insights into the clinical course of this disease in this specific population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
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