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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 758-766, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The characterization of reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 has been a subject of concern and controversy, especially with the surge of infections with highly transmissible variants worldwide. METHODS: This retrospective national study used comorbidities, vaccination status, SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, and demographics data to profile participants who were reinfected with SARS-CoV-2, defined as having two reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-positive SARS-CoV-2 tests within at least 90 days apart. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the risk factors associated with reinfection . Two control groups were selected: nonreinfected participants reporting a positive test (control group one) and those reporting a negative test (control group two). RESULTS: Between March 2020 and December 2021, 4454 reinfected participants were identified in Saudi Arabia (0.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-0.8). The majority (67.3%) were unvaccinated (95% CI 65.9-68.7) and 0.8% (95% CI 0.6-1.1) had severe or fatal SARS-CoV-2 disease. COVID-19 vaccines were 100% effective against mortality in reinfected individuals who received at least one dose, whereas it conferred 61% (odds ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% CI 0.1-1.0) additional protection against severe disease after the first dose and 100% after the second dose. In the risk factor analysis, reinfection was highly associated with comorbidities, such as HIV (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-5.2; P = 0.009), obesity (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.9; P = 0.003), pregnancy (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.4; P = 0.005), and working in health care facilities (OR 6.1, 95% CI 3.1-12.9; P <0.0001). The delta variant (B.1.617.2) was the most frequent variant of concern among the reinfected cohort. CONCLUSION: This in-depth study of the reinfection profile identified risk factors and highlighted the associated SARS-CoV-2 variants. Results showed that naturally acquired immunity to SARS-CoV-2 through multiple reinfections together with vaccine-induced immunity provided substantial protection against severe SARS-CoV-2 disease and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875702

ABSTRACT

Measles is an RNA virus infectious disease mainly seen in children. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine against measles, it remains a health issue in children. Although it is a self-limiting disease, it becomes severe in undernourished and immune-compromised individuals. Measles infection is associated with secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria due to the immunosuppressive effects of the measles virus. Recent reports highlight that measles infection erases the already existing immune memory of various pathogens. This review covers the incidence, pathogenesis, measles variants, clinical presentations, secondary infections, elimination of measles virus on a global scale, and especially the immune responses related to measles infection.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Measles , Child , Humans , Incidence , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 household transmissibility remains unclear in Pakistan. To understand the dynamics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus disease epidemiology, this study estimated Secondary Attack Rate (SAR) among household and close contacts of index cases in Pakistan using a statistical transmission model. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an inclusive contact tracing dataset from the provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to estimate SAR. We considered the probability of an infected person transmitting the infection to close contacts regardless of residential addresses. This means that close contacts were identified irrespective of their relationship with the index case. We assessed demographic determinants of COVID-19 infectivity and transmissibility. For this purpose based on evolving evidence, and as CDC recommends fully vaccinated people get tested 5-7 days after close contact with a person with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Therefore we followed the same procedure in the close contacts for secondary infection. FINDINGS: During the study period from 15th May 2020 to 15th Jan 2021, a total of 339 (33.9%) index cases were studied from 1000 cases initially notified. Among close contact groups (n = 739), households were identified with an assumed mean incubation period of 8.2+4.3 days and a maximum incubation period of 15 days. SAR estimated here is among the household contacts. 117 secondary cases from 739 household contacts, with SAR 11.1% (95% CI 9.0-13.6). All together (240) SAR achieved was 32.48% (95% CI; 29.12-37.87) for symptomatic and confirmed cases. The potential risk factors for SAR identified here included; old age group (>45 years of age), male (gender), household members >5, and residency in urban areas and for index cases high age group. Overall local reproductive number (R) based on the observed household contact frequencies for index/primary cases was 0.9 (95% CI 0.47-1.21) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 1.3 (95% CI 0.73-1.56) in Punjab. CONCLUSIONS: SAR estimated here was high especially in the second phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. The results highlight the need to adopt rigorous preventive measures to cut the chain of viral transmission and prevent another wave of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 835098, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775699

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection demonstrate impaired lung function and those requiring chemotherapy after recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection have yet to be explored. In this study, we sought to investigate the possible pulmonary functional changes during and after administering chemotherapy in patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: In this study, a total of 37 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with cancer who were discharged from hospital and received subsequent cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled and prospectively followed-up. The following parameters were prospectively measured before (P1), after first chemotherapy cycle (P2), and 10 weeks after the end of chemotherapy (P3), to assess their impact on respiratory complications in terms of diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), forced expiratory volume in 1-s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), 6-min walking distance (6MWD) test and levels of key inflammatory markers. Results: All patients completed at least 2 cycles of chemotherapy without showing overt respiratory complications. Six patients (16%) complained about dyspnea during chemotherapy or at follow-up period. DLCO was significantly impaired during follow-up period [from P1 78 to P3 60% of predicted values; interquartile range (IQR) 55-89] and in 32 of 37 (86% of patients) from P1 to P2 (65% of predictive value; IQR 58-70; p < 0.001). Several patients experienced post-chemotherapy respiratory complications. As expected, all patients from control groups showed persistent improved pulmonary functions. Conclusion: The risk of pulmonary impairments due to cytotoxic chemotherapy in prior SARS-CoV-2 infected patients is linked to the loss of DLCO. Accordingly, we recommend that for patients with cancer requiring chemotherapy after recovering from prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, pulmonary tests to be performed routinely before and during chemotherapy treatment to monitor the pulmonary performance.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305123

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that patients with cancer are at increased risk of detrimental Covid-19 outcome. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and risk factors and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 positive cancer patients remains largely unexplored. We assessed the outcomes of Covid-19 infection in 64 cancer patients and 120 non-cancer and measured SARS-CoV-2 viral load from nasopharyngeal swab samples using cycle threshold (Ct) values who were admitted to two geographically distinct hospitals. We also assessed the incubation period and serial interval time differences between the non-cancer and cancer groups. Our results indicated that the overall mortality rate was higher among cancer patients with a high SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Covid-19 positive cancer patients with higher viral load are more prone to severe outcomes compared to non-cancer and low viral load patients. In addition, patients with lung and hematologic cancer have higher tendencies of severe events in proportion to high viral load. Higher attributable mortality and severity were directly proportional to high viral load particularly patients who are receiving anticancer treatment. Importantly, we found that the incubation period and serial interval time is fairly shorter in cancer patients compared with non-cancer cases. Our report suggests that high SARS-CoV-2 viral loads may play significant role in the overall mortality and severity of Covid-19 positive cancer patients and warranted further study to explore the disease pathogenesis and their use as prognostic tools.

6.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 141, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used as a rescue strategy in patients with severe with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there has been little evidence of its efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of ECMO rescue therapy on patient-important outcomes in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A case series study was conducted for the laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of 22 Saudi hospitals, between March 1, 2020, and October 30, 2020, by reviewing patient's medical records prospectively. RESULTS: ECMO use was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (40.2% vs. 48.9%; p = 0.000); lower COVID-19 virological cure (41.3% vs 14.1%, p = 0.000); and longer hospitalization (20.2 days vs 29.1 days; p = 0.000), ICU stay (12.6 vs 26 days; p = 0.000) and mechanical ventilation use (14.2 days vs 22.4 days; p = 0.000) compared to non-ECMO group. Also, there was a high number of patients with septic shock (19.6%) and multiple organ failure (10.9%); and more complications occurred at any time during hospitalization [pneumothorax (5% vs 29.3%, p = 0.000), bleeding requiring blood transfusion (7.1% vs 38%, p = 0.000), pulmonary embolism (6.4% vs 15.2%, p = 0.016), and gastrointestinal bleeding (3.3% vs 8.7%, p = 0.017)] in the ECMO group. However, PaO2 was significantly higher in the 72-h post-ECMO initiation group and PCO2 was significantly lower in the 72-h post-ECMO start group than those in the 12-h pre-ECMO group (62.9 vs. 70 mmHg, p = 0.002 and 61.8 vs. 51 mmHg, p = 0.042, respectively). CONCLUSION: Following the use of ECMO, the mortality rate of patients and length of ICU and hospital stay were not improved. However, these findings need to be carefully interpreted, as most of our cohort patients were relatively old and had multiple severe comorbidities. Future randomized trials, although challenging to conduct, are highly needed to confirm or dispute reported observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Temperature , Young Adult
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19888, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454817

ABSTRACT

To cope with the shortage of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, healthcare institutions were forced to reuse FFRs after applying different decontamination methods including gamma-irradiation (GIR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GIR on the filtration efficiency (FE) of FFRs and on SARS-CoV-2 detection. The FE of 2 FFRs types (KN95 and N95-3 M masks) was assessed at different particle sizes (0.3-5 µm) following GIR (0-15 kGy) delivered at either typical (1.65 kGy/h) or low (0.5088 kGy/h) dose rates. The detection of two SARS-CoV-2 RNA genes (E and RdRp4) following GIR (0-50 kGy) was carried out using RT-qPCR assay. Both masks showed an overall significant (P < 0.001) reduction in FE with increased GIR doses. No significant differences were observed between GIR dose rates on FE. The GIR exhibited significant increases (P ≤ 0.001) in the cycle threshold values (ΔCt) of both genes, with no detection following high doses. In conclusion, complete degradation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be achieved by high GIR (≥ 30 kGy), suggesting its potential use in FFRs decontamination. However, GIR exhibited adverse effects on FE in dose- and particle size-dependent manners, rendering its use to decontaminate FFRs debatable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Decontamination/methods , Masks , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ventilators, Mechanical , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Filtration , Gamma Rays , Humans , Particle Size
8.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 4313-4328, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417005

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to understand the pathophysiology of host responses to infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/(COVID-19) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and to identify proteins for patient stratification with different grades of illness severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from 43 patients with different grades of COVID-19, 7 MERS-CoV patients admitted to the ICU, and 10 healthy subjects were analyzed using label-free quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). RESULTS: We identified 193 and 91 proteins that differed significantly between COVID-19 and MERS-CoV sample groups, respectively, and 49 overlapped between datasets. Only 10 proteins are diagnostic of asymptomatic cases, 12 are prognostic of recovery from severe illness, and 28 are prognostic of a fatal outcome of COVID-19. These proteins are implicated in virus-specific/related signaling networks. Notable among the top canonical pathways are humoral immunity, inflammation, acute-phase response signaling, liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation, coagulation, and the complement system. Furthermore, we confirmed positive viral shedding in 11.76% of 51 additional peripheral blood samples, indicating that caution should be taken to avoid the possible risk of transfusion of infected blood products. CONCLUSION: We identified COVID-19 and MERS-CoV protein panels that have potential as biomarkers and might assist in the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The identified markers further our understanding of COVID-19 disease pathophysiology and may have prognostic or therapeutic potential in predicting or managing host cell responses to human COVID-19 and MERS-CoV infections.

9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 715794, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399159

ABSTRACT

The correlation between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and risk of disease severity in cancer patients is poorly understood. Given the fact that cancer patients are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), analysis of viral load and disease outcome in COVID-19-infected cancer patients is needed. Here, we measured the SARS-CoV-2 viral load using qPCR cycle threshold (Ct) values collected from 120 noncancer and 64 cancer patients' nasopharyngeal swab samples who are admitted to hospitals. Our results showed that the in-hospital mortality for high viral load cancer patients was 41.38%, 23.81% for medium viral load and 14.29% for low viral load patients (p < -0.01). On the other hand, the mortality rate for noncancer patients was lower: 22.22% among patients with high viral load, 5.13% among patients with medium viral load, and 1.85% among patients with low viral load (p < 0.05). In addition, patients with lung and hematologic cancer showed higher possibilities of severe events in proportion to high viral load. Higher attributable mortality and severity were directly proportional to high viral load particularly in patients who are receiving anticancer treatment. Importantly, we found that the incubation period and serial interval time is shorter in cancer patients compared with noncancer cases. Our report suggests that high SARS-CoV-2 viral loads may play a significant role in the overall mortality and severity of COVID-19-positive cancer patients, and this warrants further study to explore the disease pathogenesis and their use as prognostic tools.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 112-115, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have prolonged infectious viral shedding for more than 20 days. A test-based approach is suggested for de-isolation of these patients. METHODS: The strategy was evaluated by comparing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load (cycle threshold (Ct) values) and viral culture at the time of hospital discharge in a series of 13 COVID-19 patients: six immunocompetent and seven immunocompromised (five solid organ transplant patients, one lymphoma patient, and one hepatocellular carcinoma patient). RESULTS: Three of the 13 (23%) patients had positive viral cultures: one patient with lymphoma (on day 16) and two immunocompetent patients (on day 7 and day 11). Eighty percent of the patients had negative viral cultures and had a mean Ct value of 20.5. None of the solid organ transplant recipients had positive viral cultures. CONCLUSIONS: The mean Ct value for negative viral cultures was 20.5 in this case series of immunocompromised patients. Unlike those with hematological malignancies, none of the solid organ transplant patients had positive viral cultures. Adopting the test-based approach for all immunocompromised patients may lead to prolonged quarantine. Large-scale studies in disease-specific populations are needed to determine whether a test-based approach versus a symptom-based approach or a combination is applicable for the de-isolation of various immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Quarantine , Virus Shedding
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200875

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune response to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is crucial for disease prevention and vaccine development. We studied the antibody responses in 48 human MERS-CoV infection survivors who had variable disease severity in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected for 6 years postinfection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibody Formation , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
12.
Transpl Int ; 34(6): 1019-1031, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140311

ABSTRACT

The increasing global prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting COVID-19 disease pandemic pose significant concerns for clinical management of solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR). Wearable devices that can measure physiologic changes in biometrics including heart rate, heart rate variability, body temperature, respiratory, activity (such as steps taken per day) and sleep patterns, and blood oxygen saturation show utility for the early detection of infection before clinical presentation of symptoms. Recent algorithms developed using preliminary wearable datasets show that SARS-CoV-2 is detectable before clinical symptoms in >80% of adults. Early detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and other pathogens in SOTR, and their household members, could facilitate early interventions such as self-isolation and early clinical management of relevant infection(s). Ongoing studies testing the utility of wearable devices such as smartwatches for early detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other infections in the general population are reviewed here, along with the practical challenges to implementing these processes at scale in pediatric and adult SOTR, and their household members. The resources and logistics, including transplant-specific analyses pipelines to account for confounders such as polypharmacy and comorbidities, required in studies of pediatric and adult SOTR for the robust early detection of SARS-CoV-2, and other infections are also reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Wearable Electronic Devices , Adult , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Saudi Med ; 40(5): 373-381, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) has prompted a need for mass testing to identify patients with viral infection. The high demand has created a global bottleneck in testing capacity, which prompted us to modify available resources to extract viral RNA and perform reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to detect SARS-COV-2. OBJECTIVES: Report on the use of a DNA extraction kit, after modifications, to extract viral RNA that could then be detected using an FDA-approved SARS-COV-2 RT-qPCR assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially, automated RNA extraction was performed using a modified DNA kit on samples from control subjects, a bacteriophage, and an RNA virus. We then verified the automated extraction using the modified kit to detect in-lab propagated SARSCOV-2 titrations using an FDA approved commercial kit (S, N, and ORF1b genes) and an in-house primer-probe based assay (E, RdRp2 and RdRp4 genes). RESULTS: Automated RNA extraction on serial dilutions SARS-COV-2 achieved successful one-step RT-qPCR detection down to 60 copies using the commercial kit assay and less than 30 copies using the in-house primer-probe assay. Moreover, RT-qPCR detection was successful after automated RNA extraction using this modified protocol on 12 patient samples of SARS-COV-2 collected by nasopharyngeal swabs and stored in viral transport media. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the capacity of a modified DNA extraction kit for automated viral RNA extraction and detection using a platform that is suitable for mass testing. LIMITATIONS: Small patient sample size. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Animals , Automation , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Encephalomyocarditis virus/genetics , Humans , Levivirus/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
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