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1.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 15910199221093896, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is emerging as an important biomarker of acute physiologic stress in a myriad of medical conditions, and is a confirmed poor prognostic indicator in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the role of NLR in predicting poor outcome in COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed NLR in COVID-19 patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes enrolled into an international 12-center retrospective study of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, consecutively admitted between March 1, 2020 and May 1, 2020. Increased NLR was defined as ≥7.2. Logistic regression models were generated. RESULTS: Incidence of LVO stroke was 38/6698 (.57%). Mean age of patients was 62 years (range 27-87), and mortality rate was 30%. Age, sex, and ethnicity were not predictive of mortality. Elevated NLR and poor vessel recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score of 1 or 2a) synergistically predicted poor outcome (likelihood ratio 11.65, p = .003). Patients with NLR > 7.2 were 6.8 times more likely to die (OR 6.8, CI95% 1.2-38.6, p = .03) and almost 8 times more likely to require prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 7.8, CI95% 1.2-52.4, p = .03). In a multivariate analysis, NLR > 7.2 predicted poor outcome even when controlling for the effect of low TICI score on poor outcome (NLR p = .043, TICI p = .070). CONCLUSIONS: We show elevated NLR in LVO patients with COVID-19 portends significantly worse outcomes and increased mortality regardless of recanalization status. Severe neuro-inflammatory stress response related to COVID-19 may negate the potential benefits of successful thrombectomy.

2.
Brain Circ ; 8(1): 10-16, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that COVID-19 can trigger thrombosis because of a hypercoagulable state, including large-vessel occlusion ischemic strokes. Bihemispheric ischemic stroke is uncommon and is thought to indicate an embolic source. Here, we examine the findings and outcomes of patients with bihemispheric stroke in the setting of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at a quaternary academic medical center between March 1, 2020, and April 30, 2020. We identified all patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who presented with simultaneous bihemispheric ischemic strokes. RESULTS: Of 637 COVID-19 admissions during the 2-month period, 13 had a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, including 5 who developed bihemispheric cerebral infarction. Three of those 5 (60%) were female, median age was 54 (range 41-67), and all five were being managed for severe COVID-19-related pneumonia complicated by acute kidney injury and liver failure before the diagnosis of cerebral infarction was established. Five presented with elevated ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and four had lymphopenia and elevated D-dimer levels. All patients underwent neuroimaging with computed tomography for persistent depressed mentation, with or without a focal neurologic deficit, demonstrating multifocal ischemic strokes with bihemispheric involvement. Outcome was poor in all patients: two were discharged to a rehabilitation facility with moderate-to-severe disability and three (60%) patients died. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke is implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although causality cannot be established, we present the imaging and clinical findings of patients with COVID-19 and simultaneous bihemispheric ischemic strokes. Multifocal ischemic strokes with bihemispheric involvement should be considered in COVID-19 patients with severe infection and poor neurologic status and may be associated with poor outcomes.

4.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 107-113, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous case reports and case series have described brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with concurrent posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). PURPOSE: We aim to compile and analyze brain MRI findings in patients with COVID-19 disease and PRES. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched on April 5th, 2021 using the terms "COVID-19", "PRES", "SARS-CoV-2" for peer-reviewed publications describing brain MRI findings in patients 21 years of age or older with evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and PRES. RESULTS: Twenty manuscripts were included in the analysis, which included descriptions of 30 patients. The average age was 57 years old. Twenty-four patients (80%) required mechanical ventilation. On brain MRI examinations, 15 (50%) and 7 (23%) of patients exhibited superimposed foci of hemorrhage and restricted diffusion respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PRES is a potential neurological complication of COVID-19 related disease. COVID-19 patients with PRES may exhibit similar to mildly greater rates of superimposed hemorrhage compared to non-COVID-19 PRES patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Neurol Sci ; 42(11): 4437-4445, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As medical education shifted to a virtual environment during the early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we evaluated how neurology podcasting may have been utilized during this period, and which features of podcasts have been more highly sought by a medical audience. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of neurology-themed blogs and/or podcasts between April 2019 and May 2020. Programs were eligible if they reported mean monthly downloads > 2000, were affiliated with an academic society, or offered continuing medical education credit. Thirty-day download counts were compared between study months, with adjustment for multiple testing. Exploratory analyses were performed to determine which podcast features were associated with higher downloads. RESULTS: Of the 12 neurology podcasts surveyed, 8 completed the survey and 5 met inclusion criteria. The median monthly download count was 2865 (IQR 869-7497), with significant variability between programs (p < 0.001). While there was a 358% increase in downloads during April 2020 when compared to the previous month, this was not significant (median 8124 [IQR 2913-14,177] vs. 2268 [IQR 540-6116], padj = 0.80). The non-significant increase in overall downloads during April 2020 corresponded to an increase in unique episodes during that month (r = 0.48, p = 0.003). There was no difference in 30-day downloads among episodes including COVID-19 content versus not (median 1979 [IQR 791-2873] vs. 1171 [IQR 405-2665], p = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: In this unique, exploratory study of academic neurology-themed podcasts, there was no significant increase in episode downloads during the early COVID-19 pandemic. A more comprehensive analysis of general and subspecialty medical podcasts is underway.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Humans , Retrospective Studies
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105806, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained the healthcare systems across the world but its impact on acute stroke care is just being elucidated. We hypothesized a major global impact of COVID-19 not only on stroke volumes but also on various aspects of thrombectomy systems. AIMS: We conducted a convenience electronic survey with a 21-item questionnaire aimed to identify the changes in stroke admission volumes and thrombectomy treatment practices seen during a specified time period of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The survey was designed using Qualtrics software and sent to stroke and neuro-interventional physicians around the world who are part of the Global Executive Committee (GEC) of Mission Thrombectomy 2020, a global coalition under the aegis of Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology, between April 5th and May 15th, 2020. RESULTS: There were 113 responses to the survey across 25 countries with a response rate of 31% among the GEC members. Globally there was a median 33% decrease in stroke admissions and a 25% decrease in mechanical thrombectomy (MT) procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic period until May 15th, 2020 compared to pre-pandemic months. The intubation policy for MT procedures during the pandemic was highly variable across participating centers: 44% preferred intubating all patients, including 25% of centers that changed their policy to preferred-intubation (PI) from preferred non-intubation (PNI). On the other hand, 56% centers preferred not intubating patients undergoing MT, which included 27% centers that changed their policy from PI to PNI. There was no significant difference in rate of COVID-19 infection between PI versus PNI centers (p=0.60) or if intubation policy was changed in either direction (p=1.00). Low-volume (<10 stroke/month) compared with high-volume stroke centers (>20 strokes/month) were less likely to have neurointerventional suite specific written personal protective equipment protocols (74% vs 88%) and if present, these centers were more likely to report them to be inadequate (58% vs 92%). CONCLUSION: Our data provides a comprehensive snapshot of the impact on acute stroke care observed worldwide during the pandemic. Overall, respondents reported decreased stroke admissions as well as decreased cases of MT with no clear preponderance in intubation policy during MT. DATA ACCESS STATEMENT: The corresponding author will consider requests for sharing survey data. The study was exempt from institutional review board approval as it did not involve patient level data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health/trends , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys , Hospitals, High-Volume/trends , Hospitals, Low-Volume/trends , Humans , Infection Control/trends , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors
9.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 6(4): 542-552, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation. FINDINGS: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile. INTERPRETATION: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Aneurysm , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Aneurysm/epidemiology , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
10.
Neurosurgery ; 67, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1142693

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION There are increasing reports of a pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that presents with varying clinical features, but includes features of Kawasaki disease or toxic shock syndrome. Symptoms include fever, rash, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Many patients present without any respiratory symptoms and testing for SARS-CoV-2 is often negative. METHODS A retrospective chart review was performed. RESULTS A 7-year-old previously healthy male presented with 3 days of fevers up to 102.4F, headaches, abdominal pain, and intractable vomiting. Both parents had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 four weeks prior. Nasopharyngeal swab tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Echocardiogram was normal. CT venogram of his head was negative for any pathology. He developed severe neck pain and persistent headache during his hospitalization. Soon after receiving hydroxychloroquine, he developed a facial rash and altered mental status with episodes of aphasia, agitation, and pinpoint pupils. He then became unresponsive with left gaze deviation. A non-contrast head CT and CT angiography were negative. He was given levetiracetam and cefazolin and transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. An electroencephalogram (EEG) showed no epileptiform activity. Over the following 7 hours, the EEG demonstrated left frontotemporal slowing, which progressed into a loss of fast activity over the right hemisphere with increased delta activity in the left hemisphere, then abruptly changed to generalized voltage attenuation.He rapidly lost brainstem reflexes, developing fixed and dilated pupils. Repeat CT scan revealed diffuse cerebral edema with loss of gray-white differentiation. Lab results then were consistent with severe inflammation. An intracranial pressure monitor revealed pressures greater than 76 mmHg. His exam soon became consistent with brain death. Pathologic evaluation showed diffuse cerebral edema with perivascular mononuclear infiltrates. CONCLUSION The cause of this pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome is unclear and the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 affects the nervous system is unknown. Pediatric patients with COVID-19 and neurologic symptoms should be closely monitored as they can rapidly decline due to fulminant cerebral edema.

11.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
12.
Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis ; 5: e263-e270, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110605

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a disease of the respiratory system in its transmission and clinical manifestations, physicians have also reported a tropism toward the nervous system. METHODS: Neurological symptoms can occur as one of many systemic manifestations of a critical form of the disease or in isolation as the predominant presenting complaint. RESULTS: We report a series of 6 patients who suffered significant cerebrovascular accidents while being treated for critical COVID-19 in the intensive care units of a quaternary care hospital in New York's Hudson valley. CONCLUSIONS: This series demonstrates how a relatively rare but catastrophic neurological complication can occur in patients with COVID-19 while they are being managed for their more common problems such as respiratory and renal failure.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105434, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941358

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection, has recently been associated with a myriad of hematologic derangements; in particular, an unusually high incidence of venous thromboembolism has been reported in patients with COVID-19 infection. It is postulated that either the cytokine storm induced by the viral infection or endothelial damage caused by viral binding to the ACE-2 receptor may activate a cascade leading to a hypercoaguable state. Although pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis have been well described in patients with COVID-19 infection, there is a paucity of literature on cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (cVST) associated with COVID-19 infection. cVST is an uncommon etiology of stroke and has a higher occurrence in women and young people. We report a series of three patients at our institution with confirmed COVID-19 infection and venous sinus thrombosis, two of whom were male and one female. These cases fall outside the typical demographic of patients with cVST, potentially attributable to COVID-19 induced hypercoaguability. This illustrates the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for cVST in patients with COVID-19 infection, particularly those with unexplained cerebral hemorrhage, or infarcts with an atypical pattern for arterial occlusive disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(2): 105429, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899244

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus pandemic due to the novel SARS-Cov-2 virus has proven to have systemic and multi-organ involvement with high acuity neurological conditions including acute ischemic strokes. We present a case series of consecutive COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular disease treated at our institution including 3 cases of cerebral artery dissection including subarachnoid hemorrhage. Knowledge of the varied presentations including dissections will help treating clinicians at the bedside monitor and manage these complications preemptively.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Hemorrhagic Stroke/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Aneurysm/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Patient Admission , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnosis , Aneurysm, Dissecting/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hemorrhagic Stroke/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnosis , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105397, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886527

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with ischemic stroke as well as systemic complications such as acute respiratory failure; cytotoxic edema is a well-known sequelae of acute ischemic stroke and can be worsened by the presence of hypercarbia induced by respiratory failure. We present the case of a very rapid neurologic and radiographic decline of a patient with an acute ischemic stroke who developed rapid fulminant cerebral edema leading to herniation in the setting of hypercarbic respiratory failure attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the elevated incidence of cerebrovascular complications in patients with COVID-19, it is imperative for clinicians to be aware of the risk of rapidly progressive cerebral edema in patients who develop COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema/etiology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/complications , Encephalocele/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Aged , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Encephalocele/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
19.
Stroke ; 51(9): e215-e218, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Young patients with malignant cerebral edema have been shown to benefit from early decompressive hemicraniectomy. The impact of concomitant infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and how this should weigh in on the decision for surgery is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all COVID-19-positive patients admitted to the neuroscience intensive care unit for malignant edema monitoring. Patients with >50% of middle cerebral artery involvement on computed tomography imaging were considered at risk for malignant edema. RESULTS: Seven patients were admitted for monitoring of whom 4 died. Cause of death was related to COVID-19 complications, and these were either seen both very early and several days into the intensive care unit course after the typical window of malignant cerebral swelling. Three cases underwent surgery, and 1 patient died postoperatively from cardiac failure. A good outcome was attained in the other 2 cases. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-positive patients with large hemispheric stroke can have a good outcome with decompressive hemicraniectomy. A positive test for COVID-19 should not be used in isolation to exclude patients from a potentially lifesaving procedure.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/complications , Stroke/surgery , Adult , Brain Edema/complications , Brain Edema/surgery , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Clinical Decision-Making , Critical Care , Decompressive Craniectomy/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105011, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548355

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has recently brought to attention the myriad of neuro- logic sequelae associated with Coronavirus infection including the predilection for stroke, particularly in young patients. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a well-described clinical syndrome leading to vasoconstriction in the intracra- nial vessels, and has been associated with convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage and oc- casionally cervical artery dissection. It is usually reported in the context of a trigger such as medications, recreational drugs, or the postpartum state; however, it has not been described in COVID-19 infection. We report a case of both cervical vertebral ar- tery dissection as well as convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage due to RCVS, in a pa- tient with COVID-19 infection and no other triggers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cerebral Arteries/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Vasoconstriction , Vertebral Artery Dissection/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arteries/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Headache Disorders, Primary/etiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Syndrome , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation , Vertebral Artery Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery Dissection/drug therapy , Vertebral Artery Dissection/physiopathology
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