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Q Rev Econ Finance ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150461


This paper investigates the potential hedging and safe-haven properties of several alternative investment assets, including gold, Bitcoin, oil, and the oil price volatility index (OVX), against the risks of the Saudi stock market and its constituent sectors in different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using daily data, we employ the bivariate dynamic conditional correlation-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (DCC-GARCH) technique to model volatilities and conditional correlations. Our findings show that all investigated alternative investment assets had a time-varying hedging role in the Saudi stock market, which became expensive during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results also show that the optimal weights for gold were substantially higher than those of other assets, reaching a peak during the pandemic, implying that investors consider gold a flight-to-safety asset. Additionally, we find that gold and OVX were strong hedges and could have served as weak safe havens for investors during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, while the remaining assets generally lacked these properties and could be merely used as diversifiers. Our empirical findings offer several key implications for policymakers and portfolio managers in Saudi Arabia that may be applicable to similar markets. In particular, we show that OVX-based products can serve as a promising hedging asset for stock markets in oil-exporting countries.

International Journal of Financial Studies ; 10(1):6, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760624


This study investigates return and asymmetric volatility spillovers and dynamic correlations between the main and small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) stock markets in Saudi Arabia and Egypt for the periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Return and volatility spillovers are modelled using a VAR-asymmetric BEKK–GARCH (1,1) model, while a VAR-asymmetric DCC–GARCH (1,1) model is employed to model the dynamic conditional correlations between these markets, which are then used to determine and explore portfolio design and hedging implications. The results show that while bidirectional return spillovers between the main and SME stock markets are limited to Saudi Arabia, shock and volatility spillovers have different characteristics and dynamics in both main–SME market pairs. In addition, the dynamic correlations between the main and SME markets are mostly positive and have notably increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in Saudi Arabia, suggesting that adding SME stocks to a main stock portfolio enhances its risk-adjusted return, especially during tranquil market phases. One practical implication of our results is that the development of SME stock markets can indirectly contribute to economic development via the main market channel and provide an avenue for portfolio diversification and risk management.