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Psycholinguistics ; 33(2):217-237, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20231963


Purpose. Project-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered environment that emphasizes a dynamic classroom approach. It is founded on the idea that students gain a deeper understanding by actively tackling difficulties and issues from the real world. Students gain knowledge in a subject by devoting a significant amount of time to researching and solving a challenging question or interesting issue. Methods & Procedure. PBL was used in online classes during the pandemic of COVID-19. The study concentrated on projects that were created by students themselves under the guidance of teachers with the aim of determining their impact on their communication, engagement, motivation, and academic accomplishment in L2 acquisition context. The sample of the study that consisted of 100 EFL college students deployed this methodology in their weekly lectures. Results. The results show that PBL can have some positive effect on the entire spectrum of parameters under consideration as well as have a substantial impact on communication, engagement, motivation, and academic performance in online education. The findings clearly show that PBL can be a useful methodology for L2 acquisition and can provide students with various challenging activities and topics that increase their motivation and engagement, and thus, academic achievement. © The Author(s) 2023.

Applied Research on English Language ; 12(1):73-94, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146045


The use of digital games has increased dramatically in the last two decades due to the augmentation in the number of Personal Computers (PCs) and mobile devices worldwide. Not only can digital games be played for entertainment, but also, they may have both positive and negative effects on their players. Various effects of digital games on individuals’ levels of attention span, concentration, and addiction have already been tested by numerous studies;however, their impact on incidental Second Language (L2) acquisition is still untouched by language researchers. To address this lacuna, this is a longitudinal observational study that lasted for three months to investigate the impact of digital games played by young learners for entertainment at home on their unintentional acquisition of English as an L2. The age of the participants ranged from 8 to 14 years old, and the experiment was conducted during the Covid-19 pandemic in 2021. Three main games were played by the sample;namely, Free Fire, Minecraft, and Among Us. The findings revealed that digital gaming significantly influenced the vocabulary development of the participants, and gaming was a clear asset for their L2 acquisition. It was also found that the players’ level of vocabulary retention was high;however, two drawbacks were identified in this regard, namely, the prolonged screen time and vocabulary items specifically related to a given area of a particular game. Overall, this study can be an impetus for further research into evaluating the benefits or drawbacks of using digital games for specific aspects of L2 acquisition such as the development of cognitive abilities or enhanced understanding. © 2022 The Authors. Published by University of Isfahan.

CALL-EJ ; 23(2 Special Issue):56-75, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1905163


Due to the unprecedented spread of online education in higher education institutions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the present study discloses the intentional implementation or unintentional presence of critical pedagogy aspects in the online English language teaching environment. It also aims to show if there is an age or gender difference regarding the use of critical pedagogy in online language teaching. The main instrument of the study was an online questionnaire designed based on Brown’s theory of critical pedagogy (2001). A sample that consisted of EFL college teachers from two educational institutions in Iraq and the Czech Republic was used. The sample consists of 57 female and 47 male participants. The data collected were analyzed using the SPSS technique. Findings showed a notable presence of critical pedagogy aspects in online English language teaching. In addition, the result revealed a prominent role for the female teachers over male teachers for using various aspects of critical pedagogy, and the age group between 3140 is the most effective age for teachers in applying the aspects of critical pedagogy. The study further generated some practical implications that may help teach English online. © 2022, CALL-EJ. All rights reserved.

Psycholinguistics ; 31(1):118-140, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1897317


Aim. Foreign language education widely utilizes various forms of eLearning or blended learning techniques and tools, and this trend has recently been supported and speeded up by the global pandemics of COVID-19. The study attempts to analyse the students' experience with the use of digital media used for foreign language education with the aim of providing clear implications needed for future digital (online) language higher education. Methodology. The methodology used to collect data was a questionnaire distributed online to the students of the University of Diyala in Iraq in July 2021 with n=394 making it a very representative and statistically relevant sample. Five hypotheses (H) were created and tested with these results. (H1) there is no correlation between a well-prepared teacher and subjective satisfaction of the students with online classes. (H2) the students will significantly prefer traditional teaching to online L2 acquisition. (H3) there will be a correlation between increased screen time and students' dissatisfaction with online learning. (H4) the more they have to use digital media, the more they will prefer print text for their L2 acquisition. (H5) the most important subjectively perceived negative aspect of online learning will be reduced communication possibilities both with the tutor and with their peers. Results. The students significantly supported traditional foreign language techniques over digital ones despite the fact that the tutors were evaluated with very high grades by the students. Thus, the fact that the tutors are well prepared, they use modern technology and attempt to motivate the students very successfully, the final result of the online foreign language class did not prove to be parallel to the traditional class regarding students' satisfaction. Conclusions. The results could be important for applied linguistics and psycholinguistics as they provide a clear overview of the current state of affairs in L2 acquisition with the use of digital technologies, which is a crucial topic that is more and more important for the development of both psycholinguistics and applied linguistics. Despite the fact that this study deals only with the subjective satisfaction of the participants, it can be generalized and can be transferrable on a large geographical scale. This geographical limitation can be rectified by larger-scale research that can be initiated by this early study. There are many implications connected to these findings, such as moving towards non-digital learning tools, such as print textbooks, focusing on more personal discussions rather than just various online assignments. Moreover, the results of the study should be a contribution to the current scientific discussion about the development of psycholinguodidactics and its role in solving the problem of mastering foreign languages.