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Journal of the Bahrain Medical Society ; 34(1):9-19, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2321482


Objective: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease that has become a global pandemic. This study aimed to identify the risk factors at presentation to predict intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. Materials & Methods: This retrospective observational study recruited 188 confirmed laboratory COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Jidhafs Maternity Hospital (JMH) from 1st June to 5th July 2020. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to Explore risk factors associated with the increased risk of ICU admission. Results: The study revealed that older age (>60 years old) (16[38.1%], P=0.044), male gender (30 [40.0%], P=0.000) were significantly associated with the increased risk of ICU admissions. The most prevalent symptoms in admission were myalgia (13[40.6%], P=0.035), fever (39[34.2%], P=0.002) and cough (37[31.4%], P=0.032). In addition, raised serum level of alanine amino-transferase (ALAT) (34.7% vs. 20.7%, P=0.033), D-dimers (30.7% vs 12.2%, P=0.012), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (31.6% vs 0.0%, P=0.025) and ferritin (37.7% vs 16.7%, P=0.011) found to be important predictor of ICU admission. Conclusion: The finding indicates that older age, male gender, with increased alanine transferase (ALT), increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high D-dimer and high ferritin was associated with an increased risk of ICU admissions. Identification of such factors will help to detect people who are more likely to develop severe COVID-19 disease and will help physicians to determine if patients need regular health care or ICU admission.

Nutrition and Food Science ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1343752


Purpose: This study aims to investigate the association between vitamin D measured in serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Bahrain. This paper hypothesized that lower serum 25(OH)D concentration in COVID 19 patients is associated with longer viral clearance time (VCT) and higher risk of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach: This study used a retrospective cohort design of patients admitted to Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain, from February to June 2020. This study included patients with positive, confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis made using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), World Health Organization diagnosis manual and local diagnostic guidelines. Primary outcome measures were: VCT measured as the time in days between the first positive RT-PCR test result and the first of two consecutive negative RT-PCR results on recovery and admission need to ICU. Findings: A total of 450 patients were analyzed;mean age was 46.4 ± 12.4 years and 349 (78%) were men. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 41.7 ± 23.7 nmol/L for the entire sample. Severe vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/L) was present in 20%, mild-to-moderate deficiency (25–50 nmol/L) in 55%, insufficiency (50 to <75 nmol/L) in 18% and sufficiency (=75 nmol/L) in 7%. The mean VCT was 12.9 ± 8.2 days. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with longer VCT, with an average of three extra days after correction for age and sex (β = 3.1;p = 0.001). Multinomial regression analysis showed that vitamin D deficiency was associated with an 83% increased risk of admission to ICU after correction for age and sex (odds ratio = 1.8;p = 0.03). Originality/value: The results showed that severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with longer recovery time from COVID-19. Low serum 25(OH)D is associated with increased need for critical care in an ICU. Large-scale randomized controlled trials are necessary to further investigate the complex association between vitamin D and COVID-19 infection. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.