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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0244415, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine perception, acceptance, confidence, hesitancy, and barriers among health care workers (HCWs). METHODS: An online national cross-sectional pilot-validated questionnaire was self-administered by HCWs in Saudi Arabia, which is a nation with MERS-CoV experience. The main outcome variable was HCWs' acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine candidates. The factors associated with vaccination acceptance were identified through a logistic regression analysis, and the level of anxiety was measured using a validated instrument to measure general anxiety levels. RESULTS: Out of the 1512 HCWs who completed the study questionnaire-of which 62.4% were women-70% were willing to receive COVID-19 vaccines. A logistic regression analysis revealed that male HCWs (ORa = 1.551, 95% CI: 1.122-2.144), HCWs who believe in vaccine safety (ORa = 2.151; 95% CI: 1.708-2.708), HCWs who believe that COVID vaccines are the most likely way to stop the pandemic (ORa = 1.539; 95% CI: 1.259-1.881), and HCWs who rely on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website for COVID 19 updates (ORa = 1.505, 95% CI: 1.125-2.013) were significantly associated with reporting a willingness to be vaccinated. However, HCWs who believed that the vaccines were rushed without evidence-informed testing were found to be 60% less inclined to accept COVID-19 vaccines (ORa = 0.394, 95% CI: 0.298-0.522). CONCLUSION: Most HCWs are willing to receive COVID-19 vaccines once they are available; the satisfactoriness of COVID-19 vaccination among HCWs is crucial because health professionals' knowledge and confidence toward vaccines are important determining factors for not only their own vaccine acceptance but also recommendation for such vaccines to their patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , /psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Saudi Arabia , Young Adult
2.
Saudi Med J ; 42(8): 853-861, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513262

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after pandemic's peak and before the vaccine enrollment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and further explore predictors for SARS-CoV-2 positivity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 515 blood donors from November 22 to December 17, 2020 was conducted at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to look at SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) positivity. The participants were asked questions about their demographic characteristics, past SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms and exposures. RESULTS: The seroprevalence in our study was 12.2% (n=63/515). Being a non-citizen was associated with significantly higher seroprevalence (OR 2.10, p=0.02). Participants with history of SARS-CoV-2 exposure or symptoms regardless of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis had higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity compared to unexposed or asymptomatic participants (OR 2.47, p=0.0008 or 11.19, p=0.0001, respectively). Blood donors who had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 IgG infection had a higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity rate (OR 5.04, p=0.008) and index value (p=0.003) than the asymptomatic. Of all the reported symptoms, cough (p=0.004) and anosmia (p=0.002) were significant predictors of SARS-CoV-2 IgG. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the blood donors in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is considerably lower than the percentages necessary for herd immunity. Developing SARS-CoV-2-symptoms is the critical factor for higher seropositivity after SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048586, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280432

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the perception, confidence, hesitancy and acceptance rate of various COVID-19 vaccine types among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Saudi Arabia, a nation with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus experience. DESIGN: National cross-sectional, pilot-validated questionnaire. SETTING: Online, self-administered questionnaire among HCWs. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2007 HCWs working in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia participated; 1512 (75.3%) participants completed the survey and were included in the analysis. INTERVENTION: Data were collected through an online survey sent to HCWs during 1-15 November 2020. The main outcome measure was HCW acceptance of COVID-19 candidate vaccines. The associated factors of vaccination acceptance were identified through a logistic regression analysis and via measurement of the level of anxiety, using the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7 scale. RESULTS: Among the 1512 HCWs who were included, 62.4% were women, 70.3% were between 21 and 40 years of age, and the majority (62.2%) were from tertiary hospitals. In addition, 59.5% reported knowing about at least one vaccine; 24.4% of the participants were sure about their willingness to receive the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, and 20.9% were willing to receive the RNA BNT162b2 vaccine. However, 18.3% reported that they would refuse to receive the Ad5-vectored vaccine, and 17.9% would refuse the Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine. Factors that influenced the differential readiness of HCWs included their perceptions of the vaccine's efficiency in preventing the infection (33%), their personal preferences (29%) and the vaccine's manufacturing country (28.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Awareness by HCWs of the several COVID-19 candidate vaccines could improve their perceptions and acceptance of vaccination. Reliable sources on vaccine efficiency could improve vaccine uptake, so healthcare authorities should use reliable information to decrease vaccine hesitancy among frontline healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Perception , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 43-51, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in a middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) referral hospital during the peak months of the pandemic. DESIGN: A single-center case series of hospitalized individuals with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in King Saud University Medical City (KSUMC), an academic tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Clinical and biochemical markers were documented. Risks for ventilatory support, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death are presented. RESULTS: Out of 12,688 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase reaction (RT-PCR) from June 1 to August 31, 2020, 2,683 (21%) were positive for COVID-19. Of the latter, 605 (22%) patients required hospitalization with a median age of 55, 368 (61%) were male. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (43%) and diabetes (42%). Most patients presented with fever (66%), dyspnea (65%), cough (61%), elevated IL-6 (93.5%), D-dimer (90.1%), CRP (86.1%), and lymphopenia (41.7%). No MERS-CoV co-infection was detected. Overall, 91 patients (15%) died; risk factors associated with mortality were an age of 65 years or older OR 2.29 [95%CI 1.43-3.67], presence of two or more comorbidities OR 3.17 [95%CI 2.00-5.02], symptoms duration of seven days or less OR 3.189 [95%CI (1.64 - 6.19]) lymphopenia OR 3.388 [95%CI 2.10-5.44], high CRP OR 2.85 [95%CI 1.1-7.32], high AST OR 2.95 [95%CI 1.77-4.90], high creatinine OR 3.71 [95%CI 2.30-5.99], and high troponin-I OR 2.84 [95%CI 1.33-6.05]. CONCLUSION: There is a significant increase in severe cases of COVID-19. Mortality was associated with older age, shorter symptom duration, high CRP, low lymphocyte count, and end-organ damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
5.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 10(3): 214-221, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) reported 170,639 cases and 1430 deaths from COVID-19 since the first case emerged in the country on March 2 through June 25, 2020. The objective of this report is to describe the characteristics and outcome observed among 99 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the largest academic hospital in KSA, and assess co-infection with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). METHODS: This single-center case series data included select epidemiological, clinical, radiological features and laboratory findings of all confirmed hospitalized cases of COVID-19 in King Saud University Medical City (KSUMC), Riyadh, KSA, from March 22 until May 31, 2020, followed through June 6, 2020. We conducted retrospective analysis of listed data from 99 hospitalized patients and present characteristics and factors associated with severity in percentages and univariate odds ratios. Cases were confirmed using nasopharyngeal or throat swab by real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and MERS-CoV by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The 99 hospitalized COVID-19 patients included in this analysis constitute 16% of 632 positive SARS-CoV-2 among 6633 persons who were tested at the KSUMC (positivity rate, 9.4%). MERS-CoV PCR was negative in all 99 patients tested. The majority of these 99 hospitalized patients were males (66%), had a mean age of 44 years (range, 19-87), and a quarter (25.3%) were health care workers. Patients with comorbid conditions accounted for 52.5% of patients including the 8.1% who were asymptomatic; diabetes mellitus being the most frequent (31.3%), followed by hypertension (22.2%). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (67.7%), cough (60.6%), dyspnea (43.4%), upper respiratory symptoms (27.3%), fatigue (26.3%), diarrhea (19.2%) and loss of smell (9.1%). The clinical conditions among these 99 patients included upper respiratory tract infection (47.5%), abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, high inflammatory markers a fifth (21%) of patients had moderate pneumonia, while 7% had severe pneumonia with 22.2% requiring admission to the intensive care unit and 12.1% died. Late presentation with severe disease, an abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, high inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, ferritin, and procalcitonin), and end organ damage (high creatinine or high aspartate aminotransferase) were predictors for admission to critical care unit or died. CONCLUSION: We observed no MERS-CoV co-infection in this early cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were relatively young, more than half had comorbid conditions, presented with fever and/or cough, an abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, and high inflammatory markers. Given MERS-CoV endemicity in the country, co-monitoring of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection is critical.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
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