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J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(4): 609-618, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443051


OBJECTIVE: In response to COVID-19, the informatics community united to aggregate as much clinical data as possible to characterize this new disease and reduce its impact through collaborative analytics. The National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) is now the largest publicly available HIPAA limited dataset in US history with over 6.4 million patients and is a testament to a partnership of over 100 organizations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a pipeline for ingesting, harmonizing, and centralizing data from 56 contributing data partners using 4 federated Common Data Models. N3C data quality (DQ) review involves both automated and manual procedures. In the process, several DQ heuristics were discovered in our centralized context, both within the pipeline and during downstream project-based analysis. Feedback to the sites led to many local and centralized DQ improvements. RESULTS: Beyond well-recognized DQ findings, we discovered 15 heuristics relating to source Common Data Model conformance, demographics, COVID tests, conditions, encounters, measurements, observations, coding completeness, and fitness for use. Of 56 sites, 37 sites (66%) demonstrated issues through these heuristics. These 37 sites demonstrated improvement after receiving feedback. DISCUSSION: We encountered site-to-site differences in DQ which would have been challenging to discover using federated checks alone. We have demonstrated that centralized DQ benchmarking reveals unique opportunities for DQ improvement that will support improved research analytics locally and in aggregate. CONCLUSION: By combining rapid, continual assessment of DQ with a large volume of multisite data, it is possible to support more nuanced scientific questions with the scale and rigor that they require.

COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Data Accuracy , Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act , Humans , United States
Sci Data ; 7(1): 414, 2020 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943915


As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds, radiology imaging is playing an increasingly vital role in determining therapeutic options, patient management, and research directions. Publicly available data are essential to drive new research into disease etiology, early detection, and response to therapy. In response to the COVID-19 crisis, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has extended the Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) to include COVID-19 related images. Rural populations are one population at risk for underrepresentation in such public repositories. We have published in TCIA a collection of radiographic and CT imaging studies for patients who tested positive for COVID-19 in the state of Arkansas. A set of clinical data describes each patient including demographics, comorbidities, selected lab data and key radiology findings. These data are cross-linked to SARS-COV-2 cDNA sequence data extracted from clinical isolates from the same population, uploaded to the GenBank repository. We believe this collection will help to address population imbalance in COVID-19 data by providing samples from this normally underrepresented population.

COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Rural Population , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States , Young Adult