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1.
BioMed Research International ; 2022:3113119, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973955

ABSTRACT

Objective: Internet of Things (IoT) integrates several technologies where devices learn from the experience of each other thereby reducing human-intervened likely errors. Modern technologies like IoT and machine learning enable the conventional to patient-specific approach transition in healthcare. In conventional approach, the biggest challenge faced by healthcare professionals is to predict a disease by observing the symptoms, monitoring the remote area patient, and also attending to the patient all the time after being hospitalised. IoT provides real-time data, makes decision-making smarter, and provides far superior analytics, and all these to help improve the quality of healthcare. The main objective of the work was to create an IoT-based automated system using machine learning models for symptom-based COVID-19 prognosis. Methods: Comparative analysis of predictive microbiology of COVID-19 from case symptoms using various machine learning classifiers like logistics regression, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, random forest, decision trees, Naive Bayes, and gradient booster is reported here. For the sake of the validation and verification of the models, performance of each model based on the retrieved cloud-stored data was measured for accuracy. Results: From the accuracy plot, it was concluded that k-NN was more accurate (97.97%) followed by decision tree (97.79), support vector machine (97.42), logistics regression (96.50), random forest (90.66), gradient boosting classifier (87.77), and Naive Bayes (73.50) in COVID-19 prognosis. Conclusion: The paper presents a health monitoring IoT framework having high clinical significance in real-time and remote healthcare monitoring. The findings reported here and the lessons learnt shall enable the healthcare system worldwide to counter not only this ongoing COVID but many other such global pandemics the humanity may suffer from time to come.

2.
Signa Vitae ; 18(4):68-74, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964952

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments have been implicated as a source of index cases of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection. We describe the epidemiological characteristics and initial clinical presentation of patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in an emergency department at a hospital in Riyadh, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The records of all patients presenting to the emergency department who tested positive for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection on real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing from April 2014 to November 2019 were reviewed, and the outcomes were assessed. The clinical presentations and outcomes were compared according to sex. A total of 68 patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection were identified, of whom 40 (58.8%) were female, and 28 (41.2%) were male. The mean age was 50.7 (standard deviation: 16.4) years, and female patients were younger (44.7±13.1 years) than male patients (59.4 ± 16.9 years). Nineteen of the 68 patients (27.9%) were asymptomatic of whom the majority (16/19, 84%) were female (p = 0.012). The most common symptoms were fever (n = 29, 42.6%), cough (n = 25, 36.8%), upper respiratory tract infection (n = 23, 33.8%), and pneumonia (n = 15, 22.1%). Pneumonia, diarrhea, dyspnea, and vomiting/diarrhea were more common among male patients. Male patients were more likely than female patients to require hospital admission (78.6% vs. 30.0%), intensive care unit admission (64.3% vs. 15.0%), and invasive mechanical ventilation (32.1% vs. 10.0%). The most common presentation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in this cohort was asymptomatic infection. A high proportion of asymptomatic infections has not been reported previously. The study did not identify typical clinical features of MERS patients. Male patients tended to develop more severe disease than female patients. A larger study is needed to confirm these findings. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by MRE Press.

3.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S268-S269, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746667

ABSTRACT

Background. The unique feature of the second wave of the COVID -19 pandemic in India has been the alarming surge of acute invasive fungal infection among COVID -19 patients. The increased incidence of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is a matter of concern, as this fulminant infection has high morbidity and mortality. Hence, it is imperative to understand it's imaging features, for early diagnosis, staging and treatment. Methods. We systematically reviewed 32 COVID-19 cases with imaging diagnosis of acute invasive fungal rhino-sinusitis or rhino-orbital-cerebral disease between March to May 2021. These patients underwent contrast MRI of the paranasal sinus, orbit and brain. Contrast enhanced CT chest and paranasal sinuses were done as needed. Results. The age group ranged between 30 to 71 yrs with male preponderance. The most common predisposing factors were intravenous steroid therapy and supplemental oxygen. All cases were confirmed by fungal culture and most common was Mucor. The rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis was staged as below In our study we found that the most common site in the nasal cavity was the middle turbinate /meatus and the earliest sign was non-enhancing / "black" turbinate. Premaxillary and retroantral fat necrosis was the earliest sign of soft tissue invasion. Spread via the sphenopalatine foramen and pterygopalatine fossa was more common than bony erosions. Orbital cellulitis and optic neuritis were the most common among stage 3 cases. Of patients with CNS involvement, the most common were cavernous sinus thrombosis and trigeminal neuritis. Two patients with pulmonary mucormycosis showed large necrotic cavitary lesions, giving the characteristic "bird's nest" appearance. Conclusion. The mortality rate was 20% in our study. In our short term follow up, 30 % of recovered patients had relapse on imaging due to incomplete clearance and partial antifungal treatment. High clinical suspicion and low imaging threshold are vital for early Mucormycosis detection in COVID-19 patients. Familiarity with early imaging signs is critical to prevent associated morbidity /mortality. Axial CT chest image in lung window shows necrotic right upper lobe cavity with internal septations and debris on a background of surrounding COVID-19 changes.

4.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327014

ABSTRACT

Background: As COVID-19 Omicron variant spread in several countries, healthcare workers' (HCWs) perceptions of vaccine effectiveness, booster and worries warrant reassessment. Methods: Online questionnaire among HCWs in Saudi Arabia (KSA) was collected between Dec 1-6, 2021, aiming to assess their Omicron variant’s perceptions, worries, and booster-vaccine advocacy. Results: Among the 1285 HCWs participants in the study, two-thirds were females, 41% were nurses,46.4% were physicians, and 50% worked in tertiary care hospitals. Vaccination was perceived to be the most effective way to prevent the spread of Omicron variant and future variants by 66.9%. The respondents perceived social distancing (78%), universal masking (77.8%), and avoiding unnecessary travel (71.4%), slightly superior to vaccination to prevent COVID-19 variants spread. Of the respondents, 99.5% received two doses of COVID-19 vaccine. Regarding the booster dose, 96% either received it or planned to receive it once they are eligible. 57.7% of the respondents agreed that Omicron could cause a new COVID-19 wave worldwide, 45.9% agreed it may cause another COVID-19 wave in Saudi Arabia and 46.1% indicated the possibility of another lockdown. Overall, the HCWs worry level of the Omicron variant correlated significantly and strongly with their perception of the effectiveness of vaccination and preventive measures. Male HCWs had a significant agreement with mandatory vaccination of all eligible adult populations while HCWs who are unwilling to receive the vaccine had a strong disagreement with mandatory vaccination. Conclusions: The current study was conducted in the first week of Omicron variant discovery in KSA and only two-thirds of HCWs felt that vaccination is the best option to prevent the variant spread, indicating the need to further motivation campaigns for vaccination and booster doses education among HCWs. HCWs had a strong belief in non-pharmacologic interventions that should be encouraged and augmented. It is important to further study and enhance coping strategies for HCWs as we move through the third year of the pandemic with more potential variants, to protect HCWs from fatigue and burnout.

5.
Erciyes Medical Journal ; 44(1):3-7, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1614338

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the world has struggled to contain it and deal with the in-creasing number of deaths. There have been reported variations in the incidence, prevalence, and fatality rates. These variations were thought to be multifactorial rather than due solely to unique characteristics or interventions. This work reviews data publicly available regarding COVID-19 and discusses the possible reasons for the regional variabilities of prevalence and mortality.

6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5947-5964, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478937

ABSTRACT

The recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has resulted in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, affecting millions of lives. Although vaccines are presently made available, and vaccination drive is in progress to immunize a larger population; still the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality is persistent amid threats of the third wave of the ongoing pandemic. In the scenario of unavailability of robust and efficient treatment modalities, it becomes essential to understand the mechanism of action of the virus and deeply study the molecular mechanisms (both at the virus level and the host level) underlying the infection processes. Recent studies have shown that coronaviruses (CoVs) cause-specific epigenetic changes in the host cells to create a conducive microenvironment for replicating, assembling, and spreading. Epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 multiplication cycle, like expressing cytokine genes, viral receptor ACE2, and implicating different histone modifications. For SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral proteins are physically associated with various host proteins resulting in numerous interactions between epigenetic enzymes (i.e., histone deacetylases, bromodomain-containing proteins). The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the virus life cycle and the host immune responses to control infection result in epigenetic factors recognized as emerging prognostic COVID-19 biomarkers and epigenetic modulators as robust therapeutic targets to curb COVID-19. Therefore, this narrative review aimed to summarize and discuss the various epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and how these mechanisms are altered in the host cells during coronavirus infection. We also discuss the opportunities to exploit these epigenetic changes as therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epigenetic alterations and regulation play a pivotal role at various levels of coronavirus infection: entry, replication/transcription, and the process of maturation of viral proteins. Coronaviruses modulate the host epigenome to escape the host immune mechanisms. Therefore, host epigenetic alterations induced by CoVs can be considered to develop targeted therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Epigenome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
8.
Infezioni in Medicina ; 29(1):10-19, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117873

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic worldwide. On a daily basis the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. The main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is through the air (airborne transmission). This review details the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the aerodynamics, and different modes of transmission (e.g. droplets, droplet nuclei, and aerosol particles). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by an infected person during activities such as expiration, coughing, sneezing, and talking. During such activities and some medical procedures, aerosols and droplets contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 particles are formed. Depending on their sizes and the environmental conditions, such particles stay viable in the air for varying time periods and can cause infection in a susceptible host. Very few studies have been conducted to establish the mechanism or the aerodynamics of virus-loaded particles and droplets in causing infection. In this review we discuss the various forms in which SARS-CoV-2 virus particles can be transmitted in air and cause infections.

10.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(4):545-550, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-970345

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic started to spread from Hubei province in China. Currently there are many affected countries worldwide, including Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to assess the use of social media as a source for COVID-19 awareness in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted between 9 and 13 May 2020 and a total of 3,204 subjects participated in the survey. We used snowball sampling techniques through an online structured questionnaire. The data were cleaned, coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 25.0. A chi-square test was used to find the associations between variables. Of all participants, 75.4% had a high level of awareness of the COVID-19 pandemic. Saudi participants above 18 years old and medical practitioners showed a high level of awareness. All participants from all regions of Saudi Arabia showed a high level of awareness except for those from the northern region. The most common source of information was the official government social media, and 44.1% reported the use of Twitter. Our findings show that social media have a positive impact on the circulation of information about the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia.

11.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(4):465-468, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-970329

ABSTRACT

Not available.

12.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(4):486-499, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-970313

ABSTRACT

To date, research on viral shedding (VS), live virus isolation and infection status remains ongoing as scientists and clinicians attempt to better understand the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Viral RNA detection at different stages of the disease, quantitative changes and patterns of viral persistence and clearance all provide context for the pathogenesis and transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Given the highly infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2 and its impact on the global population and economy, clinicians continue to seek the best methods for controlling its spread, and data on public health preventative measures continue to emerge. In this paper we review the available evidence on the viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in the URT to determine a timeline for infection based on molecular and viral culture findings and to assess the significance of persistently positive results. Keywords: viral shedding, viral load, viral culture, SARS-CoV-2, upper respiratory tract.

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