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2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 878159, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785459

ABSTRACT

Background: As the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant spreads in several countries, healthcare workers' (HCWs) perceptions and worries regarding vaccine effectiveness and boosters warrant reassessment. Methods: An online questionnaire among HCWs in Saudi Arabia (KSA) was distributed from Dec 1st-6th 2021 to assess their perceptions, vaccine advocacy to the Omicron variant, and their perception of the effectiveness of infection prevention measures and vaccination to prevent its spread, their Omicron variant related worries in comparison to the other variants, and their agreement with mandatory vaccination in general for adults. Results: Among the 1,285 HCW participants, two-thirds were female, 49.8 % were nurses, 46.4% were physicians, and 50.0% worked in tertiary care hospitals. 66.9% considered vaccination to be the most effective way to prevent the spread of the Omicron variant and future variants. The respondents however perceived social distancing (78.0%), universal masking (77.8%), and avoiding unnecessary travel (71.4%) as slightly superior to vaccination to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants. HCWs aging 55 or older agreed significantly with vaccine ineffectiveness to control Omicron spread, while those who believed in non-pharmacological infection prevention measures agreed significantly with vaccination for that purpose. Male HCWs had a significant agreement with mandatory vaccination of all eligible adult populations. On the other hand, unwilling HCWs to receive the vaccine had strong disagreements with mandatory vaccination. Conclusions: The current study in the first week of Omicron showed that only two-thirds of HCWs felt that vaccination was the best option to prevent the spread of the Omicron variant, indicating the need for further motivation campaigns for vaccination and booster dose. HCWs had a strong belief in infection prevention measures to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants that should be encouraged and augmented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
3.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1773509

ABSTRACT

Background Two vaccines for COVID-19 have been approved and administered in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA);Pfizer-BioNtech BNT162b2 and AstraZeneca-Oxford AZD1222 vaccines. The purpose of this study was to describe the real-world data on the outcome of single dose of these COVID-19 vaccines in a large cohort in KSA and to analyse demographics and co-morbidities as risk factors for infection post one-dose vaccination. Methods In this prospective cohort study, a total of 18,543 subjects received one dose of either of the vaccines at a vaccination centre in KSA, and were followed up for three to eight months. Data were collected from three sources;clinical data from medical records, adverse events (AEs) from a self-reporting system, and COVID-19 infection data from the national databases. The study was conducted during the pandemic restrictions on travel, mobility, and social interactions. Results The median age of participants was 33 years with an average body mass index of 27.3. The majority were males (60.1%). Results showed that 92.17% of the subjects had no COVID-19 infection post-vaccination as infection post-vaccination was documented for 1452 (7.83%). Diabetes mellitus (p=0.03), organ transplantation (p=0.02), and obesity (p<0.01) were associated with infection post-vaccination. Unlike vaccine type, being Saudi, male, or obese was associated with the occurrence breakthrough infections more than other parameters. AEs included injection site pain, fatigue, fever, myalgia, headache and was reported by 5.8% of the subjects. Conclusion Single dose COVID-19 vaccines showed a protection rate of 92.17% up to eight months follow-up in this cohort. This rate in AZD1222 was higher than what have been previously reported in effectiveness studies and clinical trials. Obese, male, and Saudi were at higher risk of contracting the infection post-vaccination, Saudi and male might have more social interaction with the public when mobility and social interactions were limited during the pandemic. Side effects and AEs were within what has been reported in clinical trials.

4.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(6): 828-838, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768952

ABSTRACT

The past two decades have witnessed the emergence of three zoonotic coronaviruses which have jumped species to cause lethal disease in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. MERS-CoV emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and the origins of MERS-CoV are not fully understood. Genomic analysis indicates it originated in bats and transmitted to camels. Human-to-human transmission occurs in varying frequency, being highest in healthcare environment and to a lesser degree in the community and among family members. Several nosocomial outbreaks of human-to-human transmission have occurred, the largest in Riyadh and Jeddah in 2014 and South Korea in 2015. MERS-CoV remains a high-threat pathogen identified by World Health Organization as a priority pathogen because it causes severe disease that has a high mortality rate, epidemic potential, and no medical countermeasures. MERS-CoV has been identified in dromedaries in several countries in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. MERS-CoV-2 causes a wide range of clinical presentations, although the respiratory system is predominantly affected. There are no specific antiviral treatments, although recent trials indicate that combination antivirals may be useful in severely ill patients. Diagnosing MERS-CoV early and implementation infection control measures are critical to preventing hospital-associated outbreaks. Preventing MERS relies on avoiding unpasteurized or uncooked animal products, practicing safe hygiene habits in health care settings and around dromedaries, community education and awareness training for health workers, as well as implementing effective control measures. Effective vaccines for MERS-COV are urgently needed but still under development.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 104-108, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751048

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The world had witnessed the occurrence of multiple waves of the SARS-CoV-2. Data comparing the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia during the first and second waves are lacking. This study compares the characteristics and the outcomes of patients in these 2 waves. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2. We compared epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, and clinical data. RESULTS: The study included hospitalized patients admitted up to February 28, 2021 as the first wave and those admitted from March 1, 2021 as the second wave. There were 378 patients in the first wave and 241 patients in the second wave. Patients in the first wave were significantly younger (mean age and SD of 47.5 ± 20 vs 55.3 ± 18.2 years; p <0.001). In relation to symptoms, shortness of breath, wheezes, myalgia, tachypnea, and respiratory distress were significantly more common in the second wave than the first wave. On the other hand, sore throat was more common in the first wave than the second wave. Patients in the second wave had higher mean values of lymphocytes count, platelet counts, and ALT than those in the first wave. Patients in the first wave were more likely to receive antibiotics and antiviral therapy and had higher death rate (16.2% vs 8.4%; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The study showed that patients in the second wave were younger and had a lower rate of death than the first wave.

6.
Infection ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748391

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies investigated the endurance of symptoms and occurrence of complications three months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aims to examine the prevalence, variation, and severity of continual symptoms in the post-COVID-19 using a single-center questionnaire. METHODS: The questionnaire was distributed among population in Saudi Arabia who recovered from COVID-19 between April 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021. RESULTS: A total of 744 participants completed the questionnaire, 318 (42.8%) recovered less than 3 months, 75 (10.1%) recovered 3-6 months, while 351 (47.2%) recovered more than 6 months. About half of the participants 353 (47.5%) had incessant symptoms and of those patients, more than half had two or more symptoms. Common symptoms included fatigue 189 (25.4%), headache 118 (15.9%), and myalgia 63 (8.5%). Of the participants, 189 (21.4%) experienced continual symptoms including anxiety in 98 (13.2%) and depression in 70 (9.5%). CONCLUSION: The current study showed a high proportion of individuals with long-COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, proper assessment of the individuals in the post-recovery period can guide the patients to the relevant clinics for rehabilitation. Moreover, there is a great importance to decrease COVID-19 infection, populations should be targeted to boost vaccine efficiency.

7.
Infection ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743837

ABSTRACT

Introduction Recent studies investigated the endurance of symptoms and occurrence of complications three months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aims to examine the prevalence, variation, and severity of continual symptoms in the post‐COVID-19 using a single-center questionnaire. Methods The questionnaire was distributed among population in Saudi Arabia who recovered from COVID‐19 between April 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021. Results A total of 744 participants completed the questionnaire, 318 (42.8%) recovered less than 3 months, 75 (10.1%) recovered 3–6 months, while 351 (47.2%) recovered more than 6 months. About half of the participants 353 (47.5%) had incessant symptoms and of those patients, more than half had two or more symptoms. Common symptoms included fatigue 189 (25.4%), headache 118 (15.9%), and myalgia 63 (8.5%). Of the participants, 189 (21.4%) experienced continual symptoms including anxiety in 98 (13.2%) and depression in 70 (9.5%). Conclusion The current study showed a high proportion of individuals with long-COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, proper assessment of the individuals in the post-recovery period can guide the patients to the relevant clinics for rehabilitation. Moreover, there is a great importance to decrease COVID-19 infection, populations should be targeted to boost vaccine efficiency.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged and spread globally at an alarming speed, healthcare workers' (HCWs) uncertainties, worries, resilience, and coping strategies warranted assessment. The COVID-19 pandemic had a severe psychological impact on HCWs, including the development of Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms. Specific subgroups of HCWs, such as front-line and female workers, were more prone to poor mental health outcomes and difficulties facing stress. METHODS: The responses to an online questionnaire among HCWs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were collected from 1 December 2021 to 6 December 2021, aiming to assess their uncertainties, worries, resilience, and coping strategies regarding the Omicron variant. Three validated instruments were used to achieve the study's goals: the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS), the Standard Stress Scale (SSS), and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS)-Short Form. RESULTS: The online survey was completed by 1285 HCWs. Females made up the majority of the participants (64%). A total of 1285 HCW's completed the online survey from all regions in KSA. Resilient coping scored by the BRCS was negatively and significantly correlated with stress as scored by the SSS (r = -0.313, p < 0.010). Moreover, intolerance of uncertainty scored by the IUS positively and significantly correlated with stress (r = 0.326, p < 0.010). Increased stress levels were linked to a considerable drop in resilient coping scores. Furthermore, being a Saudi HCW or a nurse was linked to a significant reduction in resilient coping ratings. Coping by following healthcare authorities' preventative instructions and using the WHO website as a source of information was linked to a considerable rise in resilient coping. CONCLUSIONS: The negative association between resilient coping and stress was clearly shown, as well as how underlying intolerance of uncertainty is linked to higher stress among HCWs quickly following the development of a new infectious threat. The study provides early insights into developing and promoting coping strategies for emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Uncertainty , World Health Organization
10.
Infection ; 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1663317

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccines have been developed to compact the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and have been administered to people all over the world. These vaccines have been quite effective in reducing the possibility of severe illness, hospitalization and death. However, the recent emergence of Variants of Concern specifically the delta variant, B.1.617.2, had resulted in additional waves of the pandemic. METHODS: We aim to review the literature to understand the transmission and disease severity, and determine the efficacy of the current COVID-19 vaccines. We searched Pubmed, Scopus, and Embase till August 4th 2021, and used the search terms "delta variant", "vaccinations"," breakthrough infections", and "neutralizing antibody". For the meta-analysis, 21 studies were screened in particular and five articles (148,071 cases) were included in the study, and only four were analyzed in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: In this review, both in vitro and in vivo studies showed significant reductions in neutralization rates against delta variants for vaccinated individuals and convalescent patients with prior history of COVID-19. However, There was a lower incidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2 due to Delta variant was found after the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech, Oxford-AstraZeneca and Moderna vaccines. CONCLUSION: In fully vaccinated individuals, symptomatic infection with the delta variant was significantly reduced, and therefore, vaccinations play an important role to assist the fight against delta variant.

11.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662145

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mass gathering (MG) religious events provide ideal conditions for transmission and globalization of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). We review recent literature on COVID-19 and other RTIs at recurring international annual MG religious and sporting events. RECENT FINDINGS: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic organizers of MG religious and sporting events introduced risk-based infection control measures that limited transmission of RTIs. The 2020 and 2021 Hajj were conducted with limited numbers of pilgrims compared to the annual millions of pilgrims. The Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games were cancelled and held in 2021. The success of the COVID-19 countermeasures at the 2021 Hajj and 2021 Tokyo Olympics was based on implementing good public health and social measures alongside a comprehensive testing strategy. SUMMARY: MG events are associated with transmission of a range of bacterial and viral RTIs. Introducing risk based a multitude of public health interventions can reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and other RTIs.

12.
Bioengineered ; 13(2): 3797-3809, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655951

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally with catastrophic damages to the public health, social and economy since the beginning of the outbreak. In 2020, Southeast Asia proved that it could prevent the worst effects of a pandemic through the closure of activities and borders and movement restriction, as well as social distancing. Nevertheless, with the occurrence of the common variants of concern (VOCs), especially Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2), Southeast Asia is facing a significant increase in the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Now, the area also has the threats of the spreading out of the dangerous variant - Omicron (B.1.1.529) from other close countries or regions. COVID-19 countermeasures such as closures and social distancing seem to be insufficient. Moreover, Southeast Asia is being held back by a shortage of vaccines and other medical resources. This work focuses on describing the COVID-19 situation, the virus variants, and the coverage of COVID-19 vaccination in the area. We also provide perspectives on the COVID-19 vaccine distribution, protecting the economic capitals, developing the green zone, and the importance of finding more vaccine supplies in Southeast Asia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asia, Southeastern , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
14.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 13(1): 120, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One possible reason for increased mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with diabetes is from the complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). OBJECTIVES: To re-evaluate the association of SARS-CoV-2 and development of DKA and analyse the demographic and biochemical parameters and the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients with DKA. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was followed. METHODS: Electronic databases (Proquest, Medline, Embase, Pubmed, CINAHL, Wiley online library, Scopus and Nature) were searched from 1 December 2019 to 30 June 2021 in the English language using the following keywords alone or in combination: COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 AND diabetic ketoacidosis OR DKA OR ketosis OR ketonemia OR hyperglycaemic emergency OR hyperglycaemic crisis. We included studies in adults and children of all ages in all healthcare settings. Binary logistic regression model was used to explore the effect of various demographic and biochemical parameters variables on patient's final treatment outcome (survival or death). RESULTS: Of the 484 papers that were identified, 68 articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis (54 case report, 10 case series, and 4 cohort studies). Studies involving 639 DKA patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 [46 (7.2%) were children and 334 (52.3%) were adults] were analyzed. The median or mean patient age ranged from < 1 years to 66 years across studies. Most of the patients (n = 309, 48.3%) had pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus. The majority of the patients were male (n = 373, 58.4%) and belonged to Hispanic (n = 156, 24.4%) and black (n = 98, 15.3%) ethnicity. The median random blood glucose level, HbA1c, pH, bicarbonate, and anion gap in all included patients at presentation were 507 mg/dl [IQR 399-638 mg/dl], 11.4% [IQR 9.9-13.5%], 7.16 [IQR 7.00-7.22], 10 mmol/l [IQR 6.9-13 mmol/l], and 24.5 mEq/l [18-29.2 mEq/l]; respectively. Mortality rate was [63/243, 25.9%], with a majority of death in patients of Hispanic ethnicity (n = 17, 27%; p = 0.001). The odd ratios of death were significantly high in patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus type 2 [OR 5.24, 95% CI 2.07-15.19; p = 0.001], old age (≥ 60 years) [OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.38-7.91; p = 0.007], and male gender [OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.37-5.17; p = 0.004] compared to those who survived. CONCLUSION: DKA is not uncommon in SARS-CoV-2 patients with diabetes mellitus and results in a mortality rate of 25.9%. Mortality key determinants in DKA patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are individuals with pre-existing diabetes mellitus type 2, older age [≥ 60 years old], male gender, BMI ≥ 30, blood glucose level > 1000 mg/dl, and anion gap ≥ 30 mEq/l.

15.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 261-269, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620857

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To mitigate morbidity, mortality, and impacts of COVID-19 on health, it was essential to implement a comprehensive framework for COVID-19 control and prevention. A well-recognized tool from the field of injury prevention known as the Haddon matrix was utilized. The matrix states that any accident is affected by the host, agent, and environment. Another well-recognized tool used by the national fire protection association known as the Community risk reduction tool (CRR). The (CRR) tool utilizes the Five E's of Community Risk Reduction. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the risk factors that increase the susceptibility and the severity of COVID-19 infection based on the Haddon matrix and the proposed prevention strategies by the CRR tool by using the combined model. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed the literature to assess known factors contributing to COVID-19 susceptibility, infection, and severity of infection. We then used the Haddon matrix to structure, separating human factors from technical and environmental details and timing. We then used the community risk reduction (CRR) model to set all responses and control measures for each element obtained from the Haddon matrix tool. Subsequently, we incorporated both tools to develop the combined model. CONCLUSION: we proposed and implemented a combined model that utilizes the CRR model as the systematic strategy for the more theoretical framework of Haddon's matrix. Combining both models was practical and helpful in planning the preparedness and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia that can be generalized to national and international levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613729

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, conducting face-to-face medical residency interviews was challenging due to infection prevention precautions, social distancing, and travel restrictions. Virtual interviews were implemented by the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS) as an alternative process for residency matching while striving to maintain the same quality standards. This national survey was conducted to assess the satisfaction and perceptions of faculty members' virtual interview performance in the assessment for the medical training residency programs. Among the participating 173 faculty members, 34.1% did not have previous experience with video-conferencing. The Zoom application was the most commonly used platform (65.9%). Most (89.6%) of the faculty perceived virtual interviews as "adequate" platforms on which the candidates could express themselves, while almost half of the faculty (53.8%) agreed that virtual interviews allowed them to accurately reach an impression about the candidates. Overall, 73.4% of faculty felt comfortable ranking the virtually interviewed candidates. We conclude that the acceptance of participating faculty members in the first Saudi medical residency training matching cycle virtual interviewing event was well-perceived. This study provides evidence for future application and research of virtual interviews in residency candidates' assessment, especially after the pandemic crisis resolves.

17.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(Supplement_1):S268-S269, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1569832
18.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 141, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used as a rescue strategy in patients with severe with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there has been little evidence of its efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of ECMO rescue therapy on patient-important outcomes in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A case series study was conducted for the laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of 22 Saudi hospitals, between March 1, 2020, and October 30, 2020, by reviewing patient's medical records prospectively. RESULTS: ECMO use was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (40.2% vs. 48.9%; p = 0.000); lower COVID-19 virological cure (41.3% vs 14.1%, p = 0.000); and longer hospitalization (20.2 days vs 29.1 days; p = 0.000), ICU stay (12.6 vs 26 days; p = 0.000) and mechanical ventilation use (14.2 days vs 22.4 days; p = 0.000) compared to non-ECMO group. Also, there was a high number of patients with septic shock (19.6%) and multiple organ failure (10.9%); and more complications occurred at any time during hospitalization [pneumothorax (5% vs 29.3%, p = 0.000), bleeding requiring blood transfusion (7.1% vs 38%, p = 0.000), pulmonary embolism (6.4% vs 15.2%, p = 0.016), and gastrointestinal bleeding (3.3% vs 8.7%, p = 0.017)] in the ECMO group. However, PaO2 was significantly higher in the 72-h post-ECMO initiation group and PCO2 was significantly lower in the 72-h post-ECMO start group than those in the 12-h pre-ECMO group (62.9 vs. 70 mmHg, p = 0.002 and 61.8 vs. 51 mmHg, p = 0.042, respectively). CONCLUSION: Following the use of ECMO, the mortality rate of patients and length of ICU and hospital stay were not improved. However, these findings need to be carefully interpreted, as most of our cohort patients were relatively old and had multiple severe comorbidities. Future randomized trials, although challenging to conduct, are highly needed to confirm or dispute reported observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Temperature , Young Adult
19.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):268-269, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564187

ABSTRACT

Background The unique feature of the second wave of the COVID -19 pandemic in India has been the alarming surge of acute invasive fungal infection among COVID -19 patients. The increased incidence of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is a matter of concern, as this fulminant infection has high morbidity and mortality. Hence, it is imperative to understand it’s imaging features, for early diagnosis, staging and treatment. Methods We systematically reviewed 32 COVID-19 cases with imaging diagnosis of acute invasive fungal rhino-sinusitis or rhino-orbital-cerebral disease between March to May 2021. These patients underwent contrast MRI of the paranasal sinus, orbit and brain. Contrast enhanced CT chest and paranasal sinuses were done as needed. Results The age group ranged between 30 to 71 yrs with male preponderance. The most common predisposing factors were intravenous steroid therapy and supplemental oxygen. All cases were confirmed by fungal culture and most common was Mucor. The rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis was staged as belowStageNo. of cases1 (Limited to nasal cavity)22 (Involving Paranasal sinuses) 143 (Involvement of orbit)84 (Involvement of CNS)8 In our study we found that the most common site in the nasal cavity was the middle turbinate /meatus and the earliest sign was non-enhancing / “black” turbinate. Premaxillary and retroantral fat necrosis was the earliest sign of soft tissue invasion. Spread via the sphenopalatine foramen and pterygopalatine fossa was more common than bony erosions. Orbital cellulitis and optic neuritis were the most common among stage 3 cases. Of patients with CNS involvement, the most common were cavernous sinus thrombosis and trigeminal neuritis. Two patients with pulmonary mucormycosis showed large necrotic cavitary lesions, giving the characteristic “bird’s nest” appearance. Figure 1. Black turbinate Contrast enhanced coronal T1 FS images of paranasal sinuses shows necrotic non-enhancing right superior and middle turbinates (*) Figure 2: Axial contrast enhanced T1 FS image showing necrotic non enhancing premaxillary (arrowhead) and retroantral fat (straight arrow) walled off by thin enhancing rim. Figure 3: Contrast enhanced axial T1 FS images of paranasal sinuses shows necrotic non-enhancing left middle meatus spreading along sphenopalatine foramen in to pterygopalatine fossa (arrow head) Conclusion The mortality rate was 20% in our study. In our short term follow up, 30 % of recovered patients had relapse on imaging due to incomplete clearance and partial antifungal treatment. High clinical suspicion and low imaging threshold are vital for early Mucormycosis detection in COVID-19 patients. Familiarity with early imaging signs is critical to prevent associated morbidity /mortality. Figure 4: Contrast enhanced coronal T1 FS and diffusion weighted images shows necrotic non-enhancing left middle meatus with left orbital cellulitis (*) and optic neuritis (white arrow) Figure 5. Bird’s nest Axial CT chest image in lung window shows necrotic right upper lobe cavity with internal septations and debris on a background of surrounding COVID-19 changes. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

20.
Infection ; 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection had been investigated utilizing serology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This community-based sero-survey was carried out in the neighborhoods of three cities in Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Of 5629 participants, 2766 (49.1%) were women; and 2148 (38.1%) were 18-34 years of age, and 3645 (64.7%) were from South East Asia. Positive serology was seen in 2825 (50.2% (95% CI: 48.8-51.5%) for SARS-CoV-2 anti-S1 IgG antibodies by ECLIA. Being in the age category of 18-34 years and being from Eastern Mediterranean Region (country A) were associated with higher COVID-19 seropositivity with estimated odds ratio of 1.3 [95% CI 1.1-1.8] and 2.5 [95% CI 1.1.5-4.2] respectively. Gender, social status, education, nationality, symptoms, presence of comorbidities and activity style were positively associated with increased seropositivity. Factors associated negatively with the rate of seropositivity were higher education and having outdoor activity with estimated OR of 0.92 [95% CI 0.46-0.95] and 0.59 [95% CI 0.47-0.74], respectively. CONCLUSION: The study showed high seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among high density population. Health education campaigns should target middle-aged, those with low education, those living in lower standards and indoor workers.

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