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1.
SAGE Open Med ; 9: 20503121211049931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472333

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critically ill COVID-19 patients are at increased risk of thrombosis with an enhanced risk of bleeding. We aimed to explore the role of anti-factor Xa levels in optimizing the high-intensity anticoagulation's safety and efficacy and finding possible associations between D-dimer levels, cytokine storm markers, and COVID-19-induced coagulopathy or thrombophilia. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study conducted on 69 critically ill COVID-19 patients who received three regimens of higher intensity anticoagulation. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (24.6%) received high-dose enoxaparin prophylaxis, 29 patients (42%) received therapeutic doses of enoxaparin, and 23 patients (33.3%) were on therapeutic unfractionated heparin infusion. Fewer than one-third of the whole cohort (n = 22; 31.8%) achieved the target range of anti-factor Xa. The patients were divided into three subgroups based on anti-factor Xa target status within each anticoagulation regimen; when compared, the only association observed among them was for interleukin-6 levels, which were significantly higher in both the "above the expected range" and "below the expected range" groups compared with the "within the expected range" group (p = 0.009). Major bleeding episodes occurred in 14 (20.3%) patients and were non-significantly more frequent in the "below the expected anti-factor Xa range group" (p = 0.415). Seven patients (10.1%) developed thrombosis. The majority of patients had anti-factor Xa levels below the expected ranges (four patients, 57.1%). CONCLUSION: Conventional anti-factor Xa ranges may not be appropriate as a predictive surrogate for bleeding in critically ill COVID-19. The clinical decision to initiate therapeutic anticoagulation preemptively may be individualized according to thrombosis and bleeding risks. Cytokine storm markers, namely, interleukin-6, may play a role in COVID-19-induced coagulopathy or thrombophilia.

2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(44): 62266-62273, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286177

ABSTRACT

We conducted the current analysis to determine the potential role of measles vaccination in the context of the spread of COVID-19. Data were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Health Observatory data repository about the measles immunization coverage estimates and correlated to overall morbidity and mortality for COVID-19 among different countries. Data were statistically analyzed to calculate the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho). There was a significant positive correlation between the vaccine coverage (%) and new cases per one million populations (rho = 0.24; p-value = 0.025); however, this correlation was absent in deaths per one million populations (rho = 0.17; p-value = 0.124). On further analysis of the effect of first reported year of vaccination policy, there was no significant correlation with both of total cases per one million populations (rho = 0.11; p-value = 0.327) and deaths per one million populations (rho = -0.02; p-value = 0.829). Claims regarding the possible protective effect of measles vaccination seem to be doubtful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Infant , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(26): 34611-34618, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111322

ABSTRACT

We conducted the current analysis to determine the potential role of polio vaccination in the context of the spread of COVID-19. Data were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Health Observatory data repository regarding the polio immunization coverage estimates and correlated to the overall morbidity and mortality for COVID-19 among different countries. Data were analyzed using R software version 4.0.2. Mean and standard deviation were used to represent continuous variables while we used frequencies and percentages to represent categorical variables. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for continuous variables since they were not normally distributed. Moreover, the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho) was used to determine the relationship between different variables. There was a significantly positive correlation between the vaccine coverage (%) and both of total cases per one million populations (rho = 0.37; p-value < 0.001) and deaths per one million populations (rho = 0.30; p-value < 0.001). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between different income groups and each of vaccine coverage (%) (rho = 0.71; p-value < 0.001), total cases per one million populations (rho = 0.50; p-value < 0.001), and deaths per one million populations (rho = 0.39; p-value < 0.001). All claims regarding the possible protective effect of Polio vaccination do not have any support when analyzing the related data. Polio vaccination efforts should be limited to eradicate the disease from endemic countries; however, there is no evidence to support the immunization with live-attenuated vaccines for the protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Humans , Morbidity , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
5.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-939

ABSTRACT

Aim: We conducted the current analysis to determine the potential role of measles vaccination in the context of the spread of COVID-19. br br Methods: Data wer

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