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1.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782208

ABSTRACT

Background Data on SARS-CoV-2 in infants ≤ 90 days are limited with conflicting reports regarding its presentation and outcomes. Methods We conducted an ambispective cohort study using prospectively collected Health Electronic Surveillance Network Database by the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Infants of ≤ 90 days of age who had a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 virus were included. Patients were divided in Early neonatal (0–6 days), late neonatal (7–27 days), and post- neonatal (28–90 days) groups and were compared for clinical characteristics and outcomes by contacting parents and collecting information retrospectively. Results Of 1,793 infants, 898 infants were included for analysis. Most infants in the early neonatal group had no features of infection (tested based on maternal positivity), whereas most infants in the late and post- neonatal groups were tested because of clinical features of infection. Fever and respiratory signs were the most common presenting feature in the late and post-neonatal groups. Hospitalization was higher in the early neonatal group (80%), compared to the two other groups. The overall mortality in the cohort was 1.6%. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants ≤ 90 days might not be as rare as previously reported. The clinical presentation varies based on age at positive RT-PCR result.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing number of experiments have suggested potential cross-reactive immunity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and previous human coronaviruses. We conducted the present retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between previous Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the relationship between previous MERS-CoV and COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: Starting in March 2020, we prospectively followed two groups of individuals who tested negative for COVID-19 infection. The first group had a previously confirmed MERS-CoV infection, which was compared to a control group of MERS-negative individuals. The studied cohort was then followed until November 2020 to track evidence of contracting COVID-19 infection. FINDINGS: A total of 82 (24%) MERS-positive and 260 (31%) MERS-negative individuals had COVID-19 infection. Patients in the MERS-positive group had a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than those in the MERS-negative group (Risk ratio [RR] 0.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.522-0.929; p =0.014). The risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization in the MERS-positive group was significantly higher (RR 4.036, 95% CI 1.705-9.555; p =0.002). The case fatality rate (CFR) from COVID-19 was 4.9% in the MERS-positive group and 1.2% in the MERS-negative group (p =0.038). The MERS-positive group had a higher risk of death than the MERS-negative group (RR 6.222, 95% CI 1.342-28.839; p =0.019). However, the risk of mortality was similar between the two groups when death was adjusted for age (p =0.068) and age and sex (p =0.057). After controlling for all the independent variables, only healthcare worker occupation and >1 comorbidity were independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: Individuals with previous MERS-CoV infection can exhibit a cross-reactive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study demonstrated that patients with MERS-CoV infection had higher risks of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death than MERS-negative individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross Reactions/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(4): 437-443, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of COVID-19 patients, and the risk factors associated with death in Saudi Arabia to serve as a reference to further understand this pandemic and to help in the future decisions and control of this global crisis. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 240,474 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected retrospectively through the Health Electronic Surveillance Network at the Ministry of Health. Patients were classified based on their outcome as recovered, dead, or active with no definite outcome. We must specify the date period. RESULTS: As of 20th of June 2020, 79.7% of COVID-19 cases were young and middle-aged, ranging between 20-59 years. There was evidently a difference in the sex ratio, where males constituted 71.7% of cases. The majority were non-Saudi nationals, representing 54.7% of cases. Furthermore, the contraction of COVID-19 was travel-related in 45.1% of cases. Signs and symptoms were reported in 63% of cases, the most common of which were fever; 85.2%, and cough; 85%. Deaths occurred more frequently in patients 40-49 years, 50-59 years, and 60-69 years, representing 19.2%, 27.9%, and 21.3% of deaths, respectively. Additionally, the case fatality rate (CFR) was higher in older age-groups, reaching 10.1% in those ≥80 years. Moreover, the CFR of males was higher than that of females, with 0.95% and 0.62%, respectively. As for nationality, Saudis had a CFR of 0.46% versus 1.19% in non-Saudis. CONCLUSION: The total number of positive COVID-19 cases detected constitute 0.7% of the Saudi population to date. Older age, non-Saudi nationalities, being male, travelling outside Saudi Arabia, and the presence of symptoms, as opposed to being asymptomatic were considered risk factors and found to be significantly more associated with death in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Ratio , Travel , Young Adult
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