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Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(12)2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123899


To manage the COVID-19 outbreak, the WHO recommends adult and child vaccination. Vaccine skepticism has been a major worldwide health concern for decades, and the situation is worsening. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate parental willingness to vaccinate their children (aged 5 to 11 years) against COVID-19 and to describe its relationship with attitude, barriers, facilitators, and sources of knowledge regarding the vaccine. Methods: From February to March 2022, a community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken among the parents of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We employed a convenient sampling procedure to gather the required sample. Using the Raosoft sample size calculator, a minimum sample size of 385 was determined based on a 95% confidence level, a 5% margin of error, and a 5% precision level. The data were analyzed using version 26 of SPSS. A p-value less than 0.05 was judged statistically significant. The Chi-square test and likelihood ratio were utilized to describe the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, driving factors, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy associated factors were identified using multivariate binary logistic regression. A total of 528 replies were received. The majority of respondents were mothers (77.7%), aged 26 to 40 years (67.8%), married (91.5%), Saudi nationals (96.2%), college graduates (70.6%), with a monthly family income of more than SAR 10,000 (46.4%), non-healthcare professionals (84.7%), employed in the government sector (33.7%), with three children (23.3%), and children aged 5 to 11 years (88.7%). A little more than half of the parents (55.7%) exhibited considerable vaccination hesitancy. About 16.28% of parents were willing to vaccinate their children as soon as possible, compared to 38.44% who had no interest whatsoever in vaccination. A greater proportion of mothers and unemployed parents were unwilling to vaccinate their children. Parents with a higher monthly income (above SAR 10,000), who worked as healthcare professionals, and whose children suffered from chronic conditions were significantly more ready to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Parents who were aware of anti-vaccination campaigns and who vaccinated their children with required childhood vaccines were also much more likely to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Most parents (66.9%) obtained information on COVID-19 via the Saudi Ministry of Health website, followed by social media (48.1%). The vaccine's novelty and the dearth of reliable information about its safety (65%) and insufficient information about its effectiveness (36.2%) were the primary reasons for not vaccinating children against COVID-19, whereas preventing children from contracting COVID-19 (55.9%) and government mandate (38.8%) were the primary reasons for vaccinating children against COVID-19. Conclusions: There was significant parental hesitancy to immunize their children against COVID-19. To involve and educate parents, multi-component interventions must be developed and implemented.

Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376815


Rational and responsible self-medication (SM) is not only the key to better health outcomes, but also key to limiting adverse drug events. This institution-based cross-sectional study utilized seven- and four-item scales to assess the knowledge and attitude towards SM. Similarly, SM practices were measured using eight scale questions consisting of SM practice during the last six months, type of drug consumed, reason and frequency of SM, and so on. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Overall, 371 students completed the questionnaire. The students with a good level of knowledge and positive attitude towards SM were 60.64% and 66.8%, respectively. About 55.5% of students practiced SM during the last six months using antipyretics (37.7%), multivitamins (36.4%), sleeping aids (20.2%), and anti-histamines (18.6%). Headache (79.2%), fever (37.7%), pain (25.9%), and colds and coughs (25.3%) were the illnesses for which they sought SM. The students admitted that drug side effects (75%), drug resistance (33.7%), drug interaction (41.5%), and poor treatment outcome (28.3%) were the consequences of irrational SM practice. Students (87.6%) propose that extending SM awareness through the Ministry of Health (83%) and pharmaceutical companies (48%) as major platforms would improvise the rational practice. Since AlMaarefa University students will be future healthcare professionals, their perception must be considered and accordingly educated to practice rational SM.

Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Self Medication , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires