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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 44812-44817, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303355

ABSTRACT

The infectiousness of COVID-19 is high among the susceptible population, making the calculation of the reproduction number (R) an essential step to implement preventive measures. We aim to estimate COVID-19 transmission to determine if the disease is successfully controlled or extra measured should be adopted to attain this goal. The daily incidence data of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia from March 2nd, 2020, to April 4th, 2021, were obtained from the continuously updated Saudi Ministry of Health COVID-19 repository. To get accurate estimation of the situation over the last 4 months (from December 1st, 2020, to April 4th, 2021), we calculated the weekly (every 7 days) R starting from March 2nd, 2020, and till the last week of the available data. The calculated values of R were represented as median, first quantile (Q1), and third quantile (Q3). As early as the first week of December 2020, the median R was 0.81 (0.80-0.83) which means that each existing infected case would transmit infection to only one person. This was followed by fluctuations over the next few weeks around R value of 1, reaching its highest level of 1.45 (1.42-1.47) between December 31st, 2020, and January 6th, 2021. This was followed by a relatively steady decline over the following weeks, with some till mid-March where the R values started to slightly rise again. Social distancing, protective precautions, avoiding abuse of the partial lifting, expanding the screening process, and other Saudi measures sound to be successful and should be replicated in similar communities. This measure should be continued till the vaccination process is completed, to reduce the number of contacts and to avoid uncontrolled transmission of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Reproduction , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(44): 62266-62273, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286177

ABSTRACT

We conducted the current analysis to determine the potential role of measles vaccination in the context of the spread of COVID-19. Data were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Health Observatory data repository about the measles immunization coverage estimates and correlated to overall morbidity and mortality for COVID-19 among different countries. Data were statistically analyzed to calculate the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho). There was a significant positive correlation between the vaccine coverage (%) and new cases per one million populations (rho = 0.24; p-value = 0.025); however, this correlation was absent in deaths per one million populations (rho = 0.17; p-value = 0.124). On further analysis of the effect of first reported year of vaccination policy, there was no significant correlation with both of total cases per one million populations (rho = 0.11; p-value = 0.327) and deaths per one million populations (rho = -0.02; p-value = 0.829). Claims regarding the possible protective effect of measles vaccination seem to be doubtful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Infant , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
3.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1076

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19, a novel coronavirus, is currently a major worldwide threat. It has infected more than a million people globally leading to hundred-thousan

4.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-939

ABSTRACT

Aim: We conducted the current analysis to determine the potential role of measles vaccination in the context of the spread of COVID-19. br br Methods: Data wer

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