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Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178364


The recently emerged COVID-19 disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has adversely affected the whole world. As a significant public health threat, it has spread worldwide. Scientists and global health experts are collaborating to find and execute speedy diagnostics, robust and highly effective vaccines, and therapeutic techniques to tackle COVID-19. The ocean is an immense source of biologically active molecules and/or compounds with antiviral-associated biopharmaceutical and immunostimulatory attributes. Some specific algae-derived molecules can be used to produce antibodies and vaccines to treat the COVID-19 disease. Algae have successfully synthesized several metabolites as natural defense compounds that enable them to survive under extreme environments. Several algae-derived bioactive molecules and/or compounds can be used against many diseases, including microbial and viral infections. Moreover, some algae species can also improve immunity and suppress human viral activity. Therefore, they may be recommended for use as a preventive remedy against COVID-19. Considering the above critiques and unique attributes, herein, we aimed to systematically assess algae-derived, biologically active molecules that could be used against this disease by looking at their natural sources, mechanisms of action, and prior pharmacological uses. This review also serves as a starting point for this research area to accelerate the establishment of anti-SARS-CoV-2 bioproducts.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorophyta/chemistry , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Rhodophyta/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Carrageenan/chemistry , Carrageenan/isolation & purification , Carrageenan/therapeutic use , Chlorophyta/metabolism , Humans , Lectins/isolation & purification , Lectins/therapeutic use , Phaeophyta/metabolism , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Rhodophyta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Sustain Prod Consum ; 26: 343-359, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857174


COVID-19 has heightened human suffering, undermined the economy, turned the lives of billions of people around the globe upside down, and significantly affected the health, economic, environmental and social domains. This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the ecological domain, the energy sector, society and the economy and investigate the global preventive measures taken to reduce the transmission of COVID-19. This analysis unpacks the key responses to COVID-19, the efficacy of current initiatives, and summarises the lessons learnt as an update on the information available to authorities, business and industry. This review found that a 72-hour delay in the collection and disposal of waste from infected households and quarantine facilities is crucial to controlling the spread of the virus. Broad sector by sector plans for socio-economic growth as well as a robust entrepreneurship-friendly economy is needed for the business to be sustainable at the peak of the pandemic. The socio-economic crisis has reshaped investment in energy and affected the energy sector significantly with most investment activity facing disruption due to mobility restrictions. Delays in energy projects are expected to create uncertainty in the years ahead. This report will benefit governments, leaders, energy firms and customers in addressing a pandemic-like situation in the future.

Sustainability ; 12(20):8319, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-845237


The present study investigated the relationship between the transmission of COVID-19 infections and climate indicators in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using coronavirus infections data available from the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR), Bangladesh. The Spearman rank correlation test was carried out to study the association of seven climate indicators, including humidity, air quality, minimum temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, mean temperature, and wind speed with the COVID-19 outbreak in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study found that, among the seven indicators, only two indicators (minimum temperature and average temperature) had a significant relationship with new COVID-19 cases. The study also found that air quality index (AQI) had a strong negative correlation with cumulative cases of COVID-19 in Dhaka city. The results of this paper will give health regulators and policymakers valuable information to lessen the COVID-19 spread in Dhaka and other countries around the world.

Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 616, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-686482


In December 2019, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related epidemic was first observed in Wuhan, China. In 2020, owing to the highly infectious and deadly nature of the virus, this widespread novel coronavirus disease 2019 (nCOVID-19) became a worldwide pandemic. Studies have revealed that various environmental factors including temperature, humidity, and air pollution may also affect the transmission pattern of COVID-19. Unfortunately, still, there is no specific drug that has been validated in large-scale studies to treat patients with confirmed nCOVID-19. However, remdesivir, an inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), has appeared as an auspicious antiviral drug. Currently, a large-scale study on remdesivir (i.e., 200 mg on first day, then 100 mg once/day) is ongoing to evaluate its clinical efficacy to treat nCOVID-19. Good antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 was not observed with the use of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). Nonetheless, the combination of umifenovir and LPV/r was found to have better antiviral activity. Furthermore, a combination of hydroxychloroquine (i.e., 200 mg 3 times/day) and azithromycin (i.e., 500 mg on first day, then 250 mg/day from day 2-5) also exhibited good activity. Currently, there are also ongoing studies to evaluate the efficacy of teicoplanin and monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, in this article, we have analyzed the genetic diversity and molecular pathogenesis of nCOVID-19. We also present possible therapeutic options for nCOVID-19 patients.