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1.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782208

ABSTRACT

Background Data on SARS-CoV-2 in infants ≤ 90 days are limited with conflicting reports regarding its presentation and outcomes. Methods We conducted an ambispective cohort study using prospectively collected Health Electronic Surveillance Network Database by the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Infants of ≤ 90 days of age who had a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 virus were included. Patients were divided in Early neonatal (0–6 days), late neonatal (7–27 days), and post- neonatal (28–90 days) groups and were compared for clinical characteristics and outcomes by contacting parents and collecting information retrospectively. Results Of 1,793 infants, 898 infants were included for analysis. Most infants in the early neonatal group had no features of infection (tested based on maternal positivity), whereas most infants in the late and post- neonatal groups were tested because of clinical features of infection. Fever and respiratory signs were the most common presenting feature in the late and post-neonatal groups. Hospitalization was higher in the early neonatal group (80%), compared to the two other groups. The overall mortality in the cohort was 1.6%. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants ≤ 90 days might not be as rare as previously reported. The clinical presentation varies based on age at positive RT-PCR result.

2.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(5): 526-532, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many survivors of COVID-19 have developed symptoms and diseases similar to those observed after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the symptoms that appear after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been eradicated and to determine their relationship with COVID-19 severity. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in all eligible confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection from Saudi Arabia. Study participants were randomly selected using computerized random sampling from a population of 314,821 patients. Descriptive statistics were used to describe baseline demographic data and clinical characteristics. Categorical variables were presented as counts and percentages, while continuous variables were presented as means and standard deviations. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of patients were found to have five or fewer symptoms simultaneously. Late symptoms (in the ongoing symptomatic COVID-19) occurred in 225 (22·5%) patients with the most common late symptoms being loss of smell, loss of taste, fatigue, shortness of breath, and cough (52·4%, 31·1%, 11·5%, 10·2%, and 8·9% of patients with late symptoms, respectively). We also found that the presence of acute symptoms of COVID-19 and admission to the hospital were significant independent predictors of the post-COVID-19 condition. CONCLUSION: Saudi patients with COVID-19 develop a wide range of symptoms, similar to those observed and reported in other countries. The loss of smell, the loss of taste, shortness of breath, and fatigue were the main persistent symptoms. Regular follow-up of COVID-19 survivors is highly recommended to minimize the burden of the post-acute COVID-19 condition and improve the quality of life of patients.

3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 261-269, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620857

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To mitigate morbidity, mortality, and impacts of COVID-19 on health, it was essential to implement a comprehensive framework for COVID-19 control and prevention. A well-recognized tool from the field of injury prevention known as the Haddon matrix was utilized. The matrix states that any accident is affected by the host, agent, and environment. Another well-recognized tool used by the national fire protection association known as the Community risk reduction tool (CRR). The (CRR) tool utilizes the Five E's of Community Risk Reduction. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the risk factors that increase the susceptibility and the severity of COVID-19 infection based on the Haddon matrix and the proposed prevention strategies by the CRR tool by using the combined model. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed the literature to assess known factors contributing to COVID-19 susceptibility, infection, and severity of infection. We then used the Haddon matrix to structure, separating human factors from technical and environmental details and timing. We then used the community risk reduction (CRR) model to set all responses and control measures for each element obtained from the Haddon matrix tool. Subsequently, we incorporated both tools to develop the combined model. CONCLUSION: we proposed and implemented a combined model that utilizes the CRR model as the systematic strategy for the more theoretical framework of Haddon's matrix. Combining both models was practical and helpful in planning the preparedness and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia that can be generalized to national and international levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing number of experiments have suggested potential cross-reactive immunity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and previous human coronaviruses. We conducted the present retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between previous Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the relationship between previous MERS-CoV and COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: Starting in March 2020, we prospectively followed two groups of individuals who tested negative for COVID-19 infection. The first group had a previously confirmed MERS-CoV infection, which was compared to a control group of MERS-negative individuals. The studied cohort was then followed until November 2020 to track evidence of contracting COVID-19 infection. FINDINGS: A total of 82 (24%) MERS-positive and 260 (31%) MERS-negative individuals had COVID-19 infection. Patients in the MERS-positive group had a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than those in the MERS-negative group (Risk ratio [RR] 0.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.522-0.929; p =0.014). The risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization in the MERS-positive group was significantly higher (RR 4.036, 95% CI 1.705-9.555; p =0.002). The case fatality rate (CFR) from COVID-19 was 4.9% in the MERS-positive group and 1.2% in the MERS-negative group (p =0.038). The MERS-positive group had a higher risk of death than the MERS-negative group (RR 6.222, 95% CI 1.342-28.839; p =0.019). However, the risk of mortality was similar between the two groups when death was adjusted for age (p =0.068) and age and sex (p =0.057). After controlling for all the independent variables, only healthcare worker occupation and >1 comorbidity were independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: Individuals with previous MERS-CoV infection can exhibit a cross-reactive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study demonstrated that patients with MERS-CoV infection had higher risks of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death than MERS-negative individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross Reactions/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 3923-3934, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443915

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a single-chain ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus. As of March 25, 2021, the total number of positive cases and fatalities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) had reached 386,300 and 6624, respectively, with a case fatality rate of 1.71%. The KSA was among the leading nations to heed the advice of WHO officials and put strict precautionary and preventive measures in place to curb the early spread of COVID-19 before it was declared a global pandemic. METHODOLOGY: This was an uncontrolled before-after study following a mixed-method approach for data collection. National and regional data were extracted from the Health Electronic Surveillance Network (HESN), a centralized public health collection system for quantitative and statistical data. Quantitative and qualitative methods have been utilized in studying data derived from tech media. RESULTS: The Saudi authorities utilized different technological tools to aid in managing and combating the COVID-19 pandemic. In the case of Al Madinah Al Mounawarah, after the implementation of several technologies, the most important being Tawakkalna, the number of active daily cases decreased by 61%. CONCLUSION: The use of the Tawakkalna application was proven to be a successful method in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic in the KSA. This vital and essential experience warrants the use of different digital technology that offers a personalized profile displaying the person's status (affected, vaccinated, or no history of infection). This application played and will continue to play a crucial and effective role in pandemic containment in Saudi Arabia.

6.
Ann Thorac Med ; 16(3): 280-286, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332203

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Exploring clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in children may help in prevention and treatment guidelines. AIMS: The aim of the to describe the spectrum of pediatric COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study involving pediatric COVID-19 patients across all Saudi regions. METHODS: All patients aged between 2 months and 18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. The primary end point was the hospitalization. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistics were used to describe the baseline demographic data and clinical characteristics. Numerical data were explored using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test, while Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical data. RESULTS: Among the 654 pediatric COVID-19 patients, 4.7% (n = 31) were hospitalized, with one patient only needing pediatric intensive care admission. Sex, breastfeeding, birth status, and the patients' living environment showed no significant association with hospitalization. Most children (80.3%, n = 525) were symptomatic, with two symptoms that were significantly associated with admission, namely, vomiting (P = 0.007) and nausea (P = 0.026). History of admission within the last year was identified in 10.4% (n = 68) children but had no association with worse outcome. The median duration of hospitalization for the entire group was 5.5 days, with longest hospital stay for age group 7-12 years (median 6 days). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is usually a milder disease in children. Although having preexisting medical conditions was linked to a longer hospitalization, it was not associated with worse outcome. Continuous surveillance will allow additional characterization of the burden and outcomes of pediatric COVID-19-associated hospitalizations.

7.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 875-886, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of hospitalization in older (≥60 years) patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Patients were randomly selected from a COVID-19 database maintained by the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. All patients were aged ≥60 years, had reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19, and were registered in the database during March 2020 to July 2020. Medical and sociodemographic characteristics were retrieved from the database. Additional data were collected by telephone interviews conducted by trained health professionals. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the relationship between patient characteristics and the risk of hospitalization. RESULTS: Of the 613 included patients (51.1% females), more than half (57.3%) were between 60 to 69 years of age, and 53% (324/613) had been hospitalized. The independent predictors of hospitalization included age ≥65 years (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.66-3.33, P < 0.001), having more than one comorbidity (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.09-2.20, P = 0.01), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.09-2.11, P = 0.01), hypertension (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.007-1.97, P = 0.04), chronic kidney disease (OR = 3.87, 95% CI: 1.41-10.58, P = 0.008), and history of hospital admission within the preceding year (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.11-2.55, P = 0.013). Risk of hospitalization was lower in males (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.90, P = 0.01) and in patients co-living with health care workers (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.96, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Factors associated with higher risk of COVID-19-associated hospitalization should be used in prioritizing older adults' admission. Future studies with more robust designs should be conducted to examine the risk of COVID-19-associated illness severity and mortality.

8.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 779-790, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117623

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19), declared a pandemic by WHO in March 2020, is an unprecedented occurrence in our recent history. Effective risk communication by health authorities, through relaying reliable and authoritative information, is imperative in combating the spread of the outbreak. We aimed to measure the effectiveness of risk communication campaign and overall awareness during COVID-19 pandemic among the general population in Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 5472 individuals in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess several factors regarding the risk communication messages during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the knowledge and response of the general population toward COVID-19 and MoH efforts. The questionnaire was divided into five main sections: general knowledge of COVID-19, channels and social media platforms used perceived risk and stress or panic toward COVID-19, satisfaction and community perception, most trusted source of information, and type of information received. RESULTS: A total of 5472 individuals participated in the study residing in Saudi Arabia. Overall knowledge of COVID-19 was determined to be above average (0.58 + 0.159). Of the general population, 57.1% perceived that the risk of getting sick with COVID-19 is low, while nearly half of the respondents (45.7%) have a high level of stress and panic toward COVID-19. The majority of responders to the questionnaire reinforced that MoH was their most trusted source of information for the COVID-19 pandemic (91.7%). CONCLUSION: This study showed that the risk communication campaign by healthcare authorities during the COVID-19 pandemic has improved the awareness among the general population in Saudi Arabia, where the overwhelming majority placed high trust in the MoH as its main reference for COVID-19 information.

9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2020 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910327

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the knowledge and awareness, and to identify the practice reflection of knowledge concerning Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) on hospital visitor's daily life. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2 tertiary referral hospitals in Riyadh Saudi Arabia, from February 2015 to February 2016. A total random sample of 305 hospital visitors consented to participate. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions regarding awareness and practice of measures to prevent the spread of infection. RESULTS: Study showed that participants have a fair knowledge regarding the cause of MERS (N = 228; 74.8%). Nearly half of them (47%) stated that camels are the source of the spread of MERS. Approximately 70% of the participants preferred both sanitization and wearing facemasks as preventive measures for MERS. However, only 3.95% practiced not eating camel products, such as milk and meat. CONCLUSIONS: Although hospital visitors showed some knowledge and positive awareness in several aspects of MERS awareness, there are weak areas where knowledge and awareness were not up to recommended guidelines. Continued educational programs are needed to improve awareness and knowledge of all the public toward MERS-coronavirus infection. This study may assist in the development of future strategies on preventive measures of the disease.

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