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1.
Nano Res ; 15(6): 5510-5516, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877966

ABSTRACT

Developing convenient and accurate SARS-CoV-2 antigen test and serology test is crucial in curbing the global COVID-19 pandemic. In this work, we report an improved indium oxide (In2O3) nanoribbon field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor platform detecting both SARS-CoV-2 antigen and antibody. Our FET biosensors, which were fabricated using a scalable and cost-efficient lithography-free process utilizing shadow masks, consist of an In2O3 channel and a newly developed stable enzyme reporter. During the biosensing process, the phosphatase enzymatic reaction generated pH change of the solution, which was then detected and converted to electrical signal by our In2O3 FETs. The biosensors applied phosphatase as enzyme reporter, which has a much better stability than the widely used urease in FET based biosensors. As proof-of-principle studies, we demonstrate the detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and universal transport medium (UTM) (limit of detection [LoD]: 100 fg/mL). Following the SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests, we developed and characterized additional sensors aimed at SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, which is important to trace past infection and vaccination. Our spike protein IgG antibody tests exhibit excellent detection limits in both PBS and human whole blood ((LoD): 1 pg/mL). Our biosensors display similar detection performance in different mediums, demonstrating that our biosensor approach is not limited by Debye screening from salts and can selectively detect biomarkers in physiological fluids. The newly selected enzyme for our platform performs much better performance and longer shelf life which will lead our biosensor platform to be capable for real clinical diagnosis usage. Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material (materials and methods for device fabrication, functionalization of In2O3 devices, photographs of the liquid gate measurement setup, mobilities of the nine devices labeled in Fig. 1(b), family curves of I DS-V DS with the liquid gate setup and current change after bubbling the substrate solution (current vs. time curve for S1 antigen detection)) is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s12274-022-4190-0.

2.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17396, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380095

ABSTRACT

Background Globally, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder that affects children. In 2011, there was an ADHD diagnosis prevalence of around 8% among children (4-17 years) in the US. ADHD-affected children are more prone to physical injuries such as physical trauma, accidental poisoning, burns, etc. This study was aimed to evaluate the association of ADHD with severe injuries, the influence of age and gender on this association, and the impact of ADHD medications on the frequency of such injuries. Methodology This study was conducted in three governmental and three private settings in Aseer region. The files of children who were diagnosed with ADHD in the study settings were reviewed for a 12-month time period. Data were extracted from the medical files using a pre-structured data extraction sheet to avoid errors and inter-rater bias. The extracted data included child gender, age, duration of disease, and injury-related data. A brief questionnaire had been applied to mothers regarding mothers' attitudes towards injuries among their children, adherence to medications, as well as the reasons for non-adherence to medications and clinical visits in a non-adherent group during the clinic visit. Results One hundred and sixty-three children with a diagnosis of ADHD completed the study. The affected children were aged between two and 15 years (mean: 7.8 ± 2.9 years). An exact of 116 (71.2%) children were males. An exact of 70 (42.9%) affected children had trauma. The most-reported traumas were superficial injuries (84.3%), burns (48.6%), fractures (37.1%), deep injuries (31.4%), and broken or lost teeth (28.6%). About 52% of the children were adherent to medications and their clinical visits. Among the non-adherent group, the most reported reasons were parents' care and attention (20.5%), followed by the COVID-19 pandemic and delay in visits times (16.7%). Regarding mothers' attitudes towards injuries among children with ADHD, 49.1% of the mothers agreed that there is an association between a child with ADHD and being traumatized while 22.7% said there was no relation. Conclusions In our cohort, the majority of the children with ADHD were boys at primary school age. Association of the history of the disease with trauma was not uncommon, and most injuries were not severe, but burns and deep injuries were reported among considered portions.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341686

ABSTRACT

Stigma is a negative feeling affecting many patients with various health conditions, especially the contagious ones such as COVID-19. The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) is one of the valid and reliable stigma-measuring tools; however, it has not been translated and validated in Arabic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and validate the EMIC in Arabic among a sample of Arabic-speaking adults who recently recovered from COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. The 12 items of the EMIC scale were forward- and backward-translated and reviewed by all authors to check the face and content validity prior to approving the final version of the Arabic 12-item EMIC. A total of 174 participants aged ≥18 years who contracted COVID-19 and recovered as of 29 July 2020 were interviewed. The Cronbach's alpha of the Arabic version of the 12-item EMIC was 0.79, indicating an acceptable level of internal consistency. Using principal component analysis with varimax rotation, two factors explained more than 60% of the variance of the translated EMIC scale. The mean EMIC score was 5.91, implying a low level of stigma among participants. Married participants (ß = 2.93; 95%CI 0.88 to 4.98, p = 0.005) and those with a family history of mental illness (ß = 2.38; 95%CI 0.29 to 4.46, p = 0.025) were more likely to have higher EMIC scores in comparison to their counterparts who were unmarried and had no family history of mental illness. On the contrary, older adults were less likely to have high EMIC scores (ß = -0.11; 95%CI -0.21 to -0.01, p = 0.03). Future studies with larger samples of patients with COVID-19 and various health conditions should be conducted to examine the validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the EMIC among different patient populations and to unveil the factors that may play a role in patients' feelings of stigmatization in this part of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Adult , Culture , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341683

ABSTRACT

The world is still in need of an effective therapy to treat coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). This cross-sectional study was conducted on COVID-19 survivors in Saudi Arabia to investigate the influence of a healthy diet on the recovery time from COVID-19. A questionnaire was developed to assess participants' dietary habits, based on the 2015 Dutch food-based dietary guidelines. A total of 738 COVID-19 survivors participated in the study, of whom 237 (32.1%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 treatment while 501 (76.9%) were not hospitalized, and 320 (43.4%) were females and 418 (56.6%) were males. Overall, no significant difference was noted in healthy diet score between males and females; however, this score was significantly lower for Saudis compared to non-Saudis. Among the non-hospitalized patients, eating a more healthy diet was associated with a shorter duration of recovery (p < 0.05) and was significantly affected by gender (15.8 ± 9.3 male vs. 12.1 ± 8.9 female; p < 0.001) and marital status (12.1 ± 8.4 singles vs. 13.7 ± 9.3 married vs. 16.1 ± 11.8 divorced; p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant correlation was found with age or BMI. In this study, a more healthy diet was associated with a shorter duration of recovery from COVID-19. However, further studies are needed to thoroughly investigate the relationship between diet and recovery time from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Healthy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Saudi Pharm J ; 29(8): 833-842, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275537

ABSTRACT

The impact of different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on the COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality rates have been studied extensively around the world; however, there is a dearth of data on the impact of different clinical and sociodemographic variables on the COVID-19-related outcomes in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to identify those at high risk of worse clinical outcomes, such as hospitalization and longer length of stay (LOS) among young and middle-aged adults (18 to 55 years). In this questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, 706 patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 infection were interviewed. Patients' demographic characteristics, dietary habits, medical history, and lifestyle choices were collected through phone interviews. Patients with chronic health conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, reported a higher rate of hospitalization, ICU admission, oxygen-support needs, and a longer period of recovery and LOS. Multiple logistic regression showed that diabetes, hypertension, and pulmonary disease (e.g., asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization and longer LOS. Multiple logistic regression showed that symptoms of breathlessness, loss of smell and/or taste, diarrhea, and cough were associated with a longer recovery period. Similarly, breathlessness, vomiting, and diarrhea were associated with higher rates of hospitalization. The findings of this study confirm the similarity of the factors associated with worse clinical outcomes across the world. Future studies should use more robust designs to investigate the impact of different therapies on the COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in Saudi Arabia.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224022

ABSTRACT

The use of traditional medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia stems mainly from consumers' belief in prophetic medicine. This study was conducted to explore changes in patients' use of dietary or herbal supplements among individuals infected with COVID-19 before and during infection and the association between herbal or dietary supplements and hospitalization. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted enrolling symptomatic patients who had recently recovered from COVID-19. Data were collected through phone interviews, and McNemar's test was used to investigate changes to consumption of dietary or herbal supplements before and during infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between supplements use during patients' infection and hospitalization. A total of 738 patients were included in this study, of whom 32.1% required hospitalization. About 57% of participants were male with a mean age of 36.5 (±11.9) years. The use of lemon/orange, honey, ginger, vitamin C, and black seed among participants significantly increased during their infection. In contrast, patients using anise, peppermint, and coffee peel before their infection were more likely to stop using them during their infection. In addition, using lemon/orange (p < 0.0001), honey (p = 0.0002), ginger (p = 0.0053), vitamin C (p = 0.0006), black seed (p < 0.0001), peppermint (p = 0.0027), costus (p = 0.0095), and turmeric (p = 0.0012) was significantly higher among nonhospitalized patients than hospitalized ones. However, in the multivariable logistic regression, only use of vitamin C (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.33-0.79), peppermint (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.31-0.90), and lemon/orange (OR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.33-0.88) was associated with significantly lower odds of hospitalization. The study reveals that patients' consumption of dietary or herbal supplements changed in response to their COVID-19 infection, with hospitalized patients having a lower likelihood of using these supplements. Because some supplements were associated with lower odds of hospitalization, these supplements or their bioactive components should be further investigated as feasible options for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
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