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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305193

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Severe COVID-19 is represented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that requires mechanical ventilation. Moreover, recent studies are reporting invasive fungal infection associated with severe COVID-19. It is unclear whether the prescription of immunotherapies such as corticosteroids, or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection itself is risk factor for COVID-19-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Hence, fungal infections present an additional uncertainty in managing COVID-19 patients and further compromise the outcome. Case study Here we report a case of SARS-CoV-2 complicated by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in a patient with no traditional risk factors for IPA. Admitted to ICU due to ARDS on mechanical ventilation, the patient deteriorated clinically with unexplained increased of fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO) requirement from 50% to 80%. Investigations showed borderline serum galactomannan, nonspecific radiological findings reported to be atypical for COVID-19, and the respiratory sample grew Aspergillus spp. Main diagnosis COVID-19 related fungal infection. The patient was treated with antifungal therapy for four weeks. He improved clinically after one week of starting antimicrobial treatment. After a prolonged ICU stay (87 days) due to infection control precaution, he was discharged from the ICU and moved to a long-term facility for further management and support. Conclusions: This case highlights the diagnostic challenge in such cases. and the importance of early recognition of CAPA which can optimize therapy by administration of appropriate antifungal agents that may impact mortality.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574068

ABSTRACT

ß2-microglobulin (ß2-m), a 11.8 kDa protein, pairs non-covalently with the α3 domain of the major histocompatibility class (MHC) I α-chain and is essential for the conformation of the MHC class I protein complex. Shed ß2-m is measurable in circulation, and various disorders are accompanied by increases in ß2-m levels, including several viral infections. Therefore, we explored whether ß2-m levels could also be elevated in Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and whether they predict disease severity. Serum ß2-m levels were measured in a cohort of 34 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 on admission to a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, as well as in an approximately age-sex matched group of 34 uninfected controls. Mean ß2-m level was 3.25±1.68 mg/l (reference range 0.8-2.2 mg/l) in patients (mean age 48.2±21.6) and 1.98±0.61 mg/l in controls (mean age 48.2±21.6). 17 patients (mean age 36.9± 18.0) with mean ß2-m levels of 2.27±0.64 mg/l had mild disease by WHO severity categorization, 12 patients (mean age 53.3±18.1) with mean ß2-m levels of 3.57±1.39 mg/l had moderate disease, and five patients (of whom 2 died; mean age 74.4±13.8) with mean ß2-m levels of 5.85±1.85 mg/l had severe disease (P < = 0.001, by ANOVA test for linear trend). In multivariate ordinal regression ß2-m levels were the only significant predictor of disease severity. Our findings suggest that higher ß2-m levels could be an early indicator of severity of disease and predict outcome of Covid-19. As the main limitations of the study are a single-center study, sample size and ethnicity, these results need confirmation in larger cohorts outside the Arabian Peninsula in order to delineate the value of ß2-m measurements. The role of ß2-m in the etiology and pathogenesis of severe Covid-19 remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Severity of Illness Index , beta 2-Microglobulin/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Saudi Arabia
3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(1): 51-55, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549934

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients is associated with suboptimal immune response and risk for breakthrough infection. It is not known whether they are at risk of severe post-vaccine breakthrough infections in the presence of SARSCoV-2 variant of concern. We describe a case series of four fully vaccinated solid organ transplant recipients who developed SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern breakthrough infections. Three patients received BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech) and one patient received ChAdOx1 (AZD12220) COVID-19 vaccines. The patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in Saudi Arabia. Two patients were infected with Alpha variant and had severe pneumonia requiring intensive care admission and ventilatory support and subsequently died. The other two patients recovered; one patient was infected with Beta variant required low supplemental oxygen via nasal flow and the other patient was infected with Delta variant and required high supplemental oxygen nasal flow. Younger patients had a better outcome than older patients. Future large studies are required to confirm our observations and to compare the different vaccine efficacy among solid organ transplants in the era of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(5)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121790

ABSTRACT

Combating the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demands accurate, rapid, and point-of-care testing with fast results to triage cases for isolation and treatment. The current testing relies on reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), which is routinely performed in well-equipped laboratories by trained professionals at specific locations. However, during busy periods, high numbers of samples queued for testing can delay the test results, impacting efforts to reduce the infection risk. Besides, the absence of well-established laboratories at remote sites and low-resourced environments can contribute to a silent spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). These reasons compel the need to accommodate point-of-care testing for COVID-19 that meets the ASSURED criteria (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free, and deliverable). This study assessed the agreement and accuracy of the portable Biomeme SARS-CoV-2 system against the gold standard tests. Nasopharyngeal and nasal swabs were used. Of the 192 samples tested using the Biomeme SARS-CoV-2 system, the results from 189 samples (98.4%) were in agreement with the reference standard-of-care RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2. The portable system generated simultaneous results for nine samples in 80 min with high positive and negative percent agreements of 99.0% and 97.8%, respectively. We performed separate testing in a sealed glove box, offering complete biosafety containment. Thus, the Biomeme SARS-CoV-2 system can help decentralize COVID-19 testing and offer rapid test results for patients in remote and low-resourced settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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