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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305250

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to over 150 countries worldwide. Since the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Saudi Arabia, cases have continued to escalate exponentially. The COVID-19 outbreak has had a negative effect on mental health and well-being. The study aim was to investigate the effects of the strict national regulations associated with the COVID-19 pandemic on the population’s mental health. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of Saudi residents. Participants completed an online questionnaire after 1 month of a nationwide 24-hour curfew. We measured psychological distress using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). We ran binary logistic regression analyses to detect variables that significantly predicted DASS-21 scores. Results The sample comprised 2252 Saudi residents. The DASS-21 score means and standard deviations for depression and anxiety for the whole sample (10.73 ± 10.29 and 6.98 ± 8.30, respectively) were in the range of mild depression and anxiety. In contrast, the mean DASS-21 stress score was within the normal range (11.97 ± 10.80). The mean stress score for healthcare workers was within normal range (13.70 ± 10.68), but was significantly higher than the mean score for the public (11.56 ± 10.89;P  = .0006). Several variables (e.g. age, gender and history of contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases) were significantly associated with higher DASS-21 scores. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic has created a psychological burden. Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement emergency psychological interventions to reduce the negative psychosocial effects of the pandemic on public mental health.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 792533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643562

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to over 150 countries worldwide. Since the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Saudi Arabia, cases have continued to escalate exponentially. The COVID-19 outbreak has had a negative effect on mental health and well-being. The study aimed to investigate the effects of the strict national regulations associated with the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of Saudi residents. Saudi residents aged 18 years or older were invited to complete an online questionnaire after one month of a nationwide 24-h curfew between May 6, 2020 and May 13, 2020. We measured psychological distress using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). We ran binary logistic regression analyses to detect variables that significantly predicted DASS-21 scores. Results: A sample of 2252 participants was recruited from the general population of Saudi Arabia. The DASS-21 score means and standard deviations for depression and anxiety for the whole sample (10.73 ± 10.29 and 6.98 ± 8.30, respectively) were in the range of mild depression and anxiety. In contrast, the mean DASS-21 stress score was within the normal range (11.97 ± 10.80). The mean stress score for healthcare workers was within the normal range (13.70 ± 10.68) but was significantly higher than the mean score for the public (11.56 ± 10.89; P = 0.0006). Several variables (e.g., age, gender, and history of contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases) were significantly associated with higher DASS-21 scores. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a psychological burden. Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement emergency public health interventions that ameliorate the risk perception of COVID-19 through the dissemination of adequate and targeted health information that could be a successful measure to mitigate the psychological impact of the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 797545, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603439

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic poses unprecedented challenges to healthcare workers worldwide. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia, and to identify the factors associated with these psychological disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted from January 21 to March 2, 2021. Physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and other healthcare workers from different parts of Saudi Arabia were recruited through snowball sampling. Psychological outcomes were measured using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Pearson's chi-square test was used to explore the bivariate association between diverse characteristics and each outcome. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Results: A total of 501 healthcare workers completed the survey, of whom 60% were female and nearly half were pharmacists. The majority (76.25%) of respondents reported that a family member, friend, or colleague had contracted COVID-19, and more than one-third (36%) knew someone who died due to COVID-19. Overall, the estimated prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, and stress were 54.69, 60.88, and 41.92%, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed that healthcare workers with chronic diseases, nurses, and healthcare workers from the southern region were more likely to suffer from depression and stress. Further, individuals with positive COVID-19 test results showed a greater proportion of depressive symptoms compared to others. In addition, knowing someone who died due to COVID-19 and having a chronic illness were predisposing factors for anxiety. Conclusion: After more than a year, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress remains substantial among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. The findings can help guide efforts to mitigate the psychological impact of the pandemic.

4.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 5597-5606, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease due to SARS-COV-2. Patients with risk factors are vulnerable to severe morbidity and mortality. Favipiravir (FPV) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are considered possible COVID-19 treatments. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of FPV compared to HCQ in patients with COVID-19 as the standard of care approved by the national protocol there. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study on patients with COVID-19 who were administered either FPV or HCQ at King Faisal Medical Complex, Taif, Saudi Arabia, from June 2020 to August 2020. RESULTS: In total, 508 patients were included in the analysis. Patients were categorized into three groups by medication. Patients enrolled in this study were 244 (55.8%) on FPV, 193 (44.2%) on HCQ and 71 (13.81%) on neither medication. Patients who received FPV had higher age and greater comorbidity. Most of the patients were discharged on day 14 (n = 303, 59.6%), 26 (36.6%) in neither med, 154 (63.1%) in FPV and 123 (63.7%) in HCQ groups with significant difference between groups (P < 0.0001). Mortality rate was 8.2% (n = 20) in FPV and 7.3% (n = 14) in HCQ groups with significant difference between groups (P = 0.048). Regarding drug safety, 19.7% of patients treated with FPV vs 7.8% HCQ have adverse effects with significant difference between groups (P < 0.0001). Most of the side effects were increase ALT and AST. Meanwhile, prolonged Q-T interval was reported only in the HCQ group (2.6%). From Cox regression modeling, only mechanical ventilation due to Covid 19 was predictive for mortality (HR: 16.598, 95% CI: 7.095-38.828, P < 0.0001). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in the prediction of discharge of FPV (vs HCQ) (HR: 0.933, 95% CI: 0.729-1.195, P = 0.5843), predictors of mortality were HCQ (vs FPV) (HR: 2.3, 95% CI: 0.994-5.487, P = 0.0518). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed improved survival time and discharged time among patients in the HCQ versus FPV group with an insignificant difference between them (P = 0.85, P = 0.06, respectively). CONCLUSION: The present study concluded that FPV and HCQ showed comparable efficacy in decrease mortality and oxygen requirements. FPV likely has a more favorable safety profile regarding cardiac toxicity. A randomized clinical trial with large patient numbers is recommended to confirm the effectiveness of these drugs in COVID-19 patients.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282489

ABSTRACT

In the first few months of the pandemic, Makkah region reported the highest number of COVID-19 cases among all regions in Saudi Arabia. More than 80% of these reported cases were non-Saudi residents. In this study, we evaluated the perceived threat from and psychological impact of COVID-19 among non-Saudi residents of Makkah region. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected using a standardized self-report questionnaire. A total of 292 expatriates were included in the study, the majority of whom were non-Arabic speakers. The prevalence of self-reported depression was nearly 40%, anxiety was 32%, and stress was 43%. The findings indicated variability in the prevalence of psychological symptoms among expatriates from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, work environment and perceived threat were strong predictors of psychological disorders. This suggested that the perceived threat from and psychological burden of COVID-19 among non-Saudis in Makkah region is substantial. Future research should investigate the reasons behind these variations in the psychological impact of the pandemic among different ethnic groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
6.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 1439-1447, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190233

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into a worldwide pandemic and continues to escalate exponentially in many countries across the globe. Recently, higher rates of psychological distress have been reported in several countries during the pandemic. Accordingly, the study aim was to investigate the relationship between public mental health and immune status during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants of this cross-sectional study were 2252 national and foreign residents of Saudi Arabia. We used a web-based self-rated questionnaire to measure the association between psychological distress (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales [DASS-21]) and immune status (Immune Status Questionnaire [ISQ]) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also investigated predictors of reduced immune status using binary logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Data from 1721 respondents showed that 17.5% of participants scored below the immune status cutoff (ISQ ˂ 6). Mean (± standard deviation) depression, anxiety, and stress scores in the reduced immune status group (ISQ ˂ 6) indicated moderate depression, anxiety, and stress (19.1 ± 11.4; 15.0 ± 9.6; 21.8 ± 11.2, respectively) and were significantly higher than scores in the normal immune status group (ISQ ≥ 6) (8.6 ± 9.1, P ˂ 0.0001; 5.0 ± 6.7, P ˂ 0.0001; 9.3 ± 9.3, P ˂ 0.0001, respectively). The regression analysis showed that age, anxiety, and stress were the only factors that significantly predicted the presence of reduced immune status. CONCLUSION: There is an association between mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and immune response in the public, especially in elderly people.

7.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 3147-3153, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011325

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional online survey that targeted adults over the age of 18 residing in Saudi Arabia. The data collection began June 1, 2020 and continued for four weeks. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Specific, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire version BIP-Q5, and a 9-item health literacy measure were used. RESULTS: There were 1249 participants, of which 62.21% were under the age of 34. The prevalence of PTSD was 19.5% among all participants. The results showed that both the perception of threat (OR =1.17, 95% CI = 1.13-1.19) and health literacy (OR =0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99) were associated with PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study highlights important findings that the level of an individual's perception of threat and health literacy is associated with symptoms of PTSD. Thus, an understanding of these constructs in the target population will enable the development of better measures designed to reduce the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Saudi Pharm J ; 28(12): 1666-1673, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus diseases of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was classified as one of the worst pandemics in the 21st century. Its rapid transmission, unpredicted mortality rate, and the uncertainty surrounding its transmission method have evoked additional fear and anxiety. Nonetheless, to the best of our knowledge, no prior study has explored PTSD prevalence three months after the start of the quarantine procedures in Saudi Arabia nor has examined PTSD prevalence by three different methods. OBJECTIVE: This observational cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence, severity, and influencing factors of PTSD in different regions of Saudi Arabia three months after the onset of the quarantine procedures related to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Through the month of June 2020, 1374 people (49.05% men and 50.95% women) completed a 35-item, 10-minute online. The prevalence of PTSD was measured using PCL-S (specific for COVID-19) that assesses the 17 symptoms of PTSD. Resilience was measured using 2-items Arabic version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 2 (CD-RISC 2). RESULTS: We calculated the prevalence by three methods, namely, PTSD cut-off score, criteria, and combined, and the prevalence was 22.63%, 24.8%, and 19.6%, respectively. Female participants showed higher prevalence than male. As well, participants who were either tested positive or suspected of having been infected with COVID-19 showed higher PTSD prevalence. Higher resilience was associated with lower PTSD prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study to report PTSD prevalence by three differential methods three months after the onset of the quarantine procedures related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. We observed a significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Saudi population; therefore, great attention should be performed in implementing new procedures that deal with the highlighted risk factors, especially in vulnerable groups, to overcome the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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