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1.
Medicina ; 58(8):1076, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1979313

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: COVID-19 patients exhibit a broad range of manifestations, presenting with a flu-like respiratory tract infection that can advance to a systemic and severe disease characterized by pneumonia, pulmonary edema, severe damage to the airways, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, causing fatality in 70% of COVID-19 cases). A 'cytokine storm' profile is found in most severely influenced COVID-19 patients. The treatment protocol of the disease also includes tocilizumab, which is a humanized monoclonal antibody used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. This study was designed (1) to assess the role of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients regarding therapeutic efficacy through evaluation of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) resolution and anticoagulant effect, analyzing clinical safety via monitoring of associated adverse effects profile;and (2) to compare the clinical safety and therapeutic efficacy of institutional treatment regimen (alone) versus tocilizumab added to an institutional treatment module in COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, the endpoints parametric assessment of severely diseased patients of COVID-19 was performed (total n = 172, control group (institutional protocol treatment provided), n = 101 and test group (tocilizumab provided), n = 71) at the Khyber Teaching Institution, MTI, Peshawar. The assessments were compared using non-parametric analyses at baseline and after a follow-up of 12–18 days until the patient discharged or expired. Results: Results of the study revealed an insignificant difference among the control vs. test group in resolving inflammatory parameters (C-reactive protein (CRP) 21.30 vs. 50.07;p = 0.470, ferritin 482.9 vs. 211.5;p = 0.612, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 29.12 vs.18.8;p = 0.0863, and D-dimer 464 vs.164.4;p = 0.131). However, a statistically significant difference was found between the control group and test group regarding coagulation parameters (international normalized ratio (INR) 0.12 vs. −0.07;p ≤0.001;activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) 0.42 vs. −1.16;p ≤0.001;prothrombin time (PT) 0.31 vs. −0.96;p ≤0.001;platelet count −12.34 vs. −1.47;p = 0.012) and clinical survival rate (89.10 vs. 90.14;p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was significantly higher infection rates and raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) associated with the tocilizumab group as compared to those receiving institutional treatment (bacterial infections: 0.99% vs. 15.49%;p ≤0.01, ALT: 3.96% vs. 28.16%;p ≤0.01, ALP: 1.98% vs. 22.53%;p ≤0.01). Conclusions: From this study, it was concluded that tocilizumab can be a better drug of choice in terms of efficacy, particularly in resolving coagulopathy in severe COVID-19 patients.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 652335, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526785

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has a disastrous effect on mankind due to the contagious and rapid nature of its spread. Although vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been successfully developed, the proven, effective, and specific therapeutic molecules are yet to be identified for the treatment. The repurposing of existing drugs and recognition of new medicines are continuously in progress. Efforts are being made to single out plant-based novel therapeutic compounds. As a result, some of these biomolecules are in their testing phase. During these efforts, the whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has given the direction to explore the omics systems and approaches to overcome this unprecedented health challenge globally. Genome, proteome, and metagenome sequence analyses have helped identify virus nature, thereby assisting in understanding the molecular mechanism, structural understanding, and disease propagation. The multi-omics approaches offer various tools and strategies for identifying potential therapeutic biomolecules for COVID-19 and exploring the plants producing biomolecules that can be used as biopharmaceutical products. This review explores the available multi-omics approaches and their scope to investigate the therapeutic promises of plant-based biomolecules in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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