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1.
Tomography ; 8(2): 1041-1051, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776350

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of the outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019, as of 1 September 2021, the World Health Organization has confirmed more than 239 million cases of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infectious disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with more than 4.5 million deaths. Although SARS-CoV-2 mainly involves the respiratory tract, it is considered to be a systemic disease. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of all manifestations of COVID-19 disease, as well as its related complications. The figure of the radiologist is fundamental in the management and treatment of the patient. The authors try to provide a systematic approach based on an imaging review of major multi-organ manifestations of this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Emergencies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318409

ABSTRACT

Background: In clinical practice, the striking similarities observed at computed tomography (CT) between the diseases make it difficult to distinguish a COVID-19 pneumonia from a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to Systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the present study was to identify the main CT features that may help distinguishing SSc-ILD from COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This multicentric study included 22 international readers divided in the radiologist group (RAD) and non-radiologist group (nRAD). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study.Findings: Fibrosis inside focal ground glass opacities (GGO) in the upper lobes;fibrosis in the lower lobe GGO;reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONS in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGO in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia or SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score weas created which resulted positively associated with the COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity).Interpretation: The CT differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through the combination our score and the radiologic expertise. If an overlap of both diseases is suspected, the presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest a COVID-19 pneumonia while the presence of fibrosis inside GGO may indicate a SSc-ILD.Funding: No Funding were received for this study.Declaration of Interests: SC reports personal fees from NOVARTIS-SANOFI-LILLY-CELTHER-PFIZER-JANSSEN;MK reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer-Ingelheim, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from Chugai, grants and personal fees from Ono Pharmeceuticals, personal fees from Tanabe-Mitsubishi, personal fees from Astellas, personal fees from Gilead, personal fees from Mochida;ST reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Roche, outside the submitted work;GS reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim;CB reports personal fees from Actelion, personal fees from Eli Lilly, grants from European Scleroderma Trial and Research (EUSTAR) group, grants from New Horizon Fellowship, grants from Foundation for Research in Rheumatology (FOREUM), grants from Fondazione Italiana per la Ricerca sull'Artrite (FIRA);CV reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, grants and personal fees from F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.;FL reports lectures fee from Roche and from Boehringer- Ingelheim;CPD reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boerhinger Ingelheim, grants from Servier, grants and personal fees from Inventiva, grants and personal fees from Arxx Therapeutics, personal fees from Corbus, personal fees from Sanofi, personal fees from Roche;FL reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Orion Pharma, personal fees from AstraZeneca, grants from MSD, personal fees from HIKMA, personal fees from Trudell International, grants and personal fees from Chiesi Farmaceutici, personal fees from Novartis Pharma;MH reports personal fees from Speaking fees from Actelion, Eli lilly and Pfizer;D K reports personal fees from Actelion, grants and personal fees from Bayer, grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelhem, personal fees from CSL Behring, grants and personal fees from Horizon, grants from Pfizer, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from BMS, outside the submitted work;and Dr Khanna is the Chief Medical officer of Eicos Sciences Inc and has s ock options. All the mentioned authors declared previous feed outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This retrospective, observational, multicentric, international study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Florence Careggi hospital (protocol number 17104_oss).

3.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(4): 1600-1609, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the main CT features that may help in distinguishing a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to SSc from COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This multicentric study included 22 international readers grouped into a radiologist group (RADs) and a non-radiologist group (nRADs). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study. RESULTS: Fibrosis inside focal ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in the upper lobes; fibrosis in the lower lobe GGOs; reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGOs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score was created that was positively associated with COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). CONCLUSION: CT diagnosis differentiating between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through a combination of the proposed score and radiologic expertise. The presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest COVID-19 pneumonia, while the presence of fibrosis inside GGOs may indicate SSc-ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Scleroderma, Systemic , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Fibrosis , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnostic imaging , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Radiol Med ; 126(5): 661-668, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006390

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aims of our study are: (1) to estimate admission chest X-ray (CXR) accuracy during the descending phase of pandemic; (2) to identify specific CXR findings strictly associated with COVID-19 infection; and (3) to correlate lung involvement of admission CXR with patients' outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the admission CXR of 327 patients accessed to our institute during the Italian pandemic descending phase (April 2020). For each CXR were searched ground glass opacification (GGO), consolidation (CO), reticular-nodular opacities (RNO), nodules, excavations, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, vascular congestion and cardiac enlargement. For lung alterations was defined the predominance (upper or basal, focal or diffuse, central or peripheric, etc.). Then radiologists assessed whether CXRs were suggestive or not for COVID-19 infection. For COVID-19 patients, a prognostic score was applied and correlated with the patients' outcome. RESULTS: CXR showed 83% of specificity and 60% of sensitivity. GGO, CO, RNO and a peripheric, diffuse and basal prevalence showed good correlation with COVID-19 diagnosis. A logistic regression analysis pointed out GGO and a basal or diffuse distribution as independent predictors of COVID-19 diagnosis. The prognostic score showed good correlation with the patients' outcome. CONCLUSION: In our study, admission CXR showed a fair specificity and a good correlation with patients' outcome. GGO and others CXR findings showed a good correlation with COVID-19 diagnosis; besides GGO a diffuse or bibasal distribution resulted in independent variables highly suggestive for COVID-19 infection thus enabling radiologists to signal to clinicians radiologically suspect patients during the pandemic descending phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Emergency Service, Hospital , Radiography, Thoracic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
5.
Radiol Med ; 126(4): 570-576, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947057

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is considered a major risk factor for fatal outcome in COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the possible association between computed tomography (CT) signs of chronic CVD and mortality in infected patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a double-blind retrospective evaluation of the cerebral CT scans of 83 COVID-19 patients looking for CT signs of chronic CVD. We developed a rapid visual score, named CVD-CT, which summarized the possible presence of parietal calcifications and dolichosis, with or without ectasia, of intracranial arteries, areas of chronic infarction and leukoaraiosis. Statistical analysis was carried out with weighted Cohen's K test for inter-reader agreement and logistic regression to evaluate the association of in-hospital mortality with CVD-CT, chest X-ray (CXR) severity score (Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema-RALE) for radiological assessment of pulmonary disease, sex and age. RESULTS: CVD-CT (odds ratio 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.2-2.1, p = 0.001) was associated with increased risk of mortality. RALE showed an almost significant association (odds ratio 1.05, 95% C.I. 1-1.1, p 0.06), whereas age and sex did not. CONCLUSION: CVD-CT is associated with risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients. The presence of CT signs of chronic CVD may be correlated to a condition of fragility of the circulatory system, which constitutes a key risk factor for death in infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Edema/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Radiol Med ; 125(8): 730-737, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591499

ABSTRACT

AIM: The purpose of this study is to describe the main chest radiological features (CXR) of COVID-19 and correlate them with clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study involving patients with clinical-epidemiological suspect of COVID-19 infection, who performed CXRs at the emergency department (ED) of our University Hospital from March 1 to March 31, 2020. All patients performed RT-PCR nasopharyngeal and throat swab, CXR at the ED and clinical-epidemiological data. RT-PCR results were considered the reference standard. The final outcome was expressed as discharged or hospitalized patients into a medicine department or intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: Patients that had a RT-PCR positive for COVID-19 infection were 234 in total: 153 males (65.4%) and 81 females (34.6%), with a mean age of 66.04 years (range 18-97 years). Thirteen CXRs were negative for radiological thoracic involvement (5.6%). The following alterations were more commonly observed: 135 patients with lung consolidations (57.7%), 147 (62.8%) with GGO, 55 (23.5%) with nodules and 156 (66.6%) with reticular-nodular opacities. Patients with consolidations and GGO coexistent in the same radiography were 35.5% of total. Peripheral (57.7%) and lower zone distribution (58.5%) were the most common predominance. Moreover, bilateral involvement (69.2%) was most frequent than unilateral one. Baseline CXR sensitivity in our experience is about 67.1%. The most affected patients were especially males in the age group 60-79 years old (45.95%, of which 71.57% males). RALE score was slightly higher in male than in female patients. ANOVA with Games-Howell post hoc showed significant differences of RALE scores for group 1 vs 3 (p < 0.001) and 2 vs 3 (p = 0.001). Inter-reader agreement in assigning RALE score was very good (ICC: 0.92-with 95% confidence interval 0.88-0.95). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19, CXR shows patchy or diffuse reticular-nodular opacities and consolidation, with basal, peripheral and bilateral predominance. In our experience, baseline CXR had a sensitivity of 68.1%. The RALE score can be used in the emergency setting as a quantitative method of the extent of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, correlating with an increased risk of ICU admission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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