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1.
Addiction ; 117(7): 2027-2036, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Smoking increases the risk of severe COVID-19, but whether lung function or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mediate the underlying associations is unclear. We conducted the largest Mendelian randomization study to date, to our knowledge, to address these questions. DESIGN: Mendelian randomization study using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), FinnGen and UK Biobank. The main analysis was the inverse variance weighted method, and we included a range of sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the findings. SETTING: GWAS which included international consortia, FinnGen and UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: The sample size ranged from 193 638 to 2 586 691. MEASUREMENTS: Genetic determinants of life-time smoking index, lung function [e.g. forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 )], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and different severities of COID-19. RESULTS: Smoking increased the risk of COVID-19 compared with population controls for overall COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.19 per standard deviation (SD) of life-time smoking index, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.27], hospitalized COVID-19 (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.42-1.97) or severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.10-1.98), with directionally consistent effects from sensitivity analyses. Lung function and COPD liability did not appear to mediate these associations. CONCLUSION: There is genetic evidence that smoking probably increases the risk of severe COVID-19 and possibly also milder forms of COVID-19. Decreased lung function and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease do not seem to mediate the effect of smoking on COVID-19 risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Lung , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 733667, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775871

ABSTRACT

Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children ranks one of the major public health problems in our time. Poor parental knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) on ETS often contribute to worse exposure of the kids. Thus, we aimed to document parental KAP regarding tobacco use, smoking cessation and children's ETS exposure, and to analyse how knowledge and attitude relate to practice. Methods: Self-administered KAP questionnaires were distributed to smoking parents recruited from the pediatric unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital, which provides pediatric service to a population of 1.2 million in Hong Kong. The 60-item questionnaire had a range of 0-38 for knowledge, 0-44 for attitude, and 0-40 for practice. Descriptive analyses were performed for KAP response, regression analyses were performed for the exploration of associations and identification of predictive indicators. Results: 145 smoking parents (mean age: 38.0 ± 6.7 yrs.; male: 85.5%) were included. Less than half (39.3%) of them reported a smoke-free policy at home. Among those parents who had private cars, less than half (45.2%) of them had smoke-free policy in their car that they never smoked in the car. Only 25.5% of the participants correctly answered ≥70% of the knowledge questions, and 11.8 % of the participants gave favorable responses to ≥70% of the attitude questions. The total knowledge and the total attitudes score were positively associated (r = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79, p < 0.001), yet they were only modestly correlated with parental practice on children's ETS exposure. By multivariate regressions, potential predictive factors for more favorable parental KAP included higher household income, lower parental nicotine dependence level and breastfeeding practice. Conclusions: Parental KAP related to tobacco use and children's ETS exposure needs improvement to address the significant gap between recommended and actual practice. The weak association between knowledge and practice suggested that parental education alone is not adequate to combat ETS exposure in children.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Adult , Child , Environmental Exposure , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Parents , Tobacco Use
3.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(2): 204-213, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758319

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Montreal has been the epicentre of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Canada. Given the regional disparities in incidence and mortality in the general population, we aimed to describe local characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients in Montreal. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective cohort of consecutive adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal with confirmed COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Between 20 March and 13 May 2020, 75 patients were admitted, with a median [interquartile range (IQR)] age of 62 [53-72] yr and high rates of obesity (47%), hypertension (67%), and diabetes (37%). Healthcare-related infections were responsible for 35% of cases. The median [IQR] day 1 sequential organ failure assessment score was 6 [3-7]. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was used in 57% of patients for a median [IQR] of 11 [5-22] days. Patients receiving IMV were characterized by a moderately decreased median [IQR] partial pressure of oxygen:fraction of inspired oxygen (day 1 PaO2:FiO2 = 177 [138-276]; day 10 = 173 [147-227]) and compliance (day 1 = 48 [38-58] mL/cmH2O; day 10 = 34 [28-42] mL/cmH2O) and very elevated estimated dead space fraction (day 1 = 0.60 [0.53-0.67]; day 10 = 0.72 [0.69-0.79]). Overall hospital mortality was 25%, and 21% in the IMV patients. Mortality was 82% in patients ≥ 80 yr old. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Montreal were similar to those reported in the existing literature. We found an increased physiologic dead space, supporting the hypothesis that pulmonary vascular injury may be central to COVID-19-induced lung damage.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Montréal a été l'épicentre de la pandémie du coronavirus (COVID-19) au Canada. Étant donné les disparités régionales dans l'incidence et la mortalité dans la population générale, nous avons tenté de décrire les caractéristiques locales, les traitements et le devenir des patients atteints de la COVID-19 en état critique à Montréal. MéTHODE: Notre étude de cohorte rétrospective monocentrique a inclus tous les patients adultes admis consécutivement à l'unité de soins intensifs de l'Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal avec un diagnostic confirmé de COVID-19. RéSULTATS: Soixante-quinze patients ont été admis entre le 20 mars et le 13 mai 2020. Ceux-ci avaient un âge médian [écart interquartile (ÉIQ)] de 62 [53­72] ans et présentaient une incidence élevée d'obésité (47 %), d'hypertension (67 %) et de diabète (37 %). Les transmissions associées aux soins de santé étaient responsables de 35 % des cas. Au jour 1, le score SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment ­ évaluation séquentielle de défaillance des organes) médian [ÉIQ] était de 6 [3­7]. La ventilation mécanique invasive (VMI) a été utilisée chez 57 % des patients, pour une durée médiane [ÉIQ] de 11 [5­22] jours. Les patients ayant reçu une VMI étaient caractérisés par une médiane [ÉIQ] modérément réduite de la pression partielle de la fraction d'oxygène inspiré (jour 1 PaO2:FiO2 = 177 [138­276]; jour 10 = 173 [147­227]), de la compliance (jour 1 = 48 [38­58] mL/cmH2O; jour 10 = 34 [28­42] mL/cmH2O), ainsi que par une fraction d'espace mort estimé très élevée (jour 1 = 0,60 [0,53-0,67]; jour 10 = 0,72 [0,69-0,79]). La mortalité hospitalière était de 25 % globalement, et de 21 % chez les patients avec VMI. La mortalité a atteint 82 % chez les patients agés de ≥ 80 ans. CONCLUSION: Les caractéristiques et le devenir des patients en état critique atteints de la COVID-19 à Montréal étaient semblables à ceux rapportés dans la littérature existante. Nous avons observé un espace mort physiologique augmenté, ce qui appuie l'hypothèse que des lésions vasculaires pulmonaires seraient primordiales dans les lésions pulmonaires induites par la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Canada , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
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