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1.
Journal of King Saud University - Science ; : 102402, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2086459

ABSTRACT

Objectives We performed a virtual screening of olive secoiridoids of the OliveNetTM library to predict SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibition. Benchmarked molecular docking protocol that evaluated the performance of two docking programs was applied to execute virtual screening. Molecular dynamics stability analysis of the top-ranked olive secoiridoid docked to PLpro was also carried out. Methods Benchmarking virtual screening used two freely available docking programs, AutoDock Vina 1.1.2. and AutoDock 4.2.1. for molecular docking of olive secoiridoids to a single PLpro structure. Screening also included benchmark structures of known active and decoy molecules from the DEKOIS 2.0 library. Based on the predicted binding energies, the docking programs ranked the screened molecules. We applied the usual performance evaluation metrices to evaluate the docking programs using the predicted ranks. Molecular dynamics of the top-ranked olive secoiridoid bound to PLpro and computation of MM-GBSA energy using three iterations during the last 50ps of the analysis of the dynamics in Desmond supported the stability prediction. Results and discussions Predictiveness curves suggested that AutoDock Vina has a better predictive ability than AutoDock, although there was a moderate correlation between the active molecules rankings (Kendall's correlation of rank (τ) = 0.581). Interestingly, two same molecules, Demethyloleuropein aglycone, and Oleuroside enriched the top 1% ranked olive secoiridoids predicted by both programs. Demethyloleuropein aglycone bound to PLpro obtained by docking in AutoDock Vina when analyzed for stability by molecular dynamics simulation for 50ns displayed an RMSD, RMSF less than 2Å, and MM-GBSA energy of -94.54 ± 6.05 kcal/mol indicating good stability. Molecular dynamics also revealed the interactions of Demethyloleuropein aglycone with binding sites 2 and 3 of PLpro, suggesting a potent inhibition. In addition, for 98% of the simulation time, two phenolic hydroxy groups of Demethyloleuropein aglycone maintained two hydrogen bonds with Asp302 of PLpro, specifying the significance of the groups in receptor binding. Conclusion AutoDock Vina retrieved the active molecules accurately and predicted Demethyloleuropein aglycone as the best inhibitor of PLpro. The Arabian diet consisting of olive products rich in secoiridoids benefits from the PLpro inhibition property and reduces the risk of viral infection.

2.
Arab J Chem ; 15(12): 104334, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060412

ABSTRACT

Targeting SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease using inhibitors is a suitable approach for inhibition of virus replication and dysregulation of host anti-viral immunity. Engaging all five binding sites far from the catalytic site of PLpro is essential for developing a potent inhibitor. We developed and validated a structure-based pharmacophore model with 9 features of a potent PLpro inhibitor. The pharmacophore model-aided virtual screening of the comprehensive marine natural product database predicted 66 initial hits. This hit library was downsized by filtration through a molecular weight filter of ≤ 500 g/mol. The 50 resultant hits were screened by comparative molecular docking using AutoDock and AutoDock Vina. Comparative molecular docking enables benchmarking docking and relieves the disparities in the search and scoring functions of docking engines. Both docking engines retrieved 3 same compounds at different positions in the top 1 % rank, hence consensus scoring was applied, through which CMNPD28766, aspergillipeptide F emerged as the best PLpro inhibitor. Aspergillipeptide F topped the 50-hit library with a pharmacophore-fit score of 75.916. Favorable binding interactions were predicted between aspergillipeptide F and PLpro similar to the native ligand XR8-24. Aspergillipeptide F was able to engage all the 5 binding sites including the newly discovered BL2 groove, site V. Molecular dynamics for quantification of Cα-atom movements of PLpro after ligand binding indicated that it exhibits highly correlated domain movements contributing to the low free energy of binding and a stable conformation. Thus, aspergillipeptide F is a promising candidate for pharmaceutical and clinical development as a potent SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibitor.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113178, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866910

ABSTRACT

Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, endothelium imbalance, chronic inflammation, immune dysregulation, and its comorbidities may all have a role in systemic inflammation, leading to the pulmonary fibrosis and cytokine storm, which leads to failure of lung function, which is a hallmark of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Obesity may also disrupt the function of mucociliary escalators and cooperation of epithelial cell's motile cilia in the airway, limiting the clearance of the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). Adipose tissues in obese patients have a greater number of proteases and receptors for SARS-CoV-2 admittance, proposing that they could serve as an accelerator and reservoir for this virus, boosting immunological response and systemic inflammation. Lastly, anti-inflammatory cytokines such as anti-IL-6 and the infusion of mesenchymal stem cells could be used as a modulation therapy of immunity to help COVID-19 patients. Obesity, on the other hand, is linked to the progress of COVID-19 through a variety of molecular pathways, and obese people are part of the SARS-CoV-2 susceptible individuals, necessitating more protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Inflammation , Morbidity , Obesity/epidemiology
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113089, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821149

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a condition that affects a large percentage of the population and it is the leading cause of a wide range of costly complications. Diabetes is linked to a multi-fold increase in mortality and when compared to non-diabetics, the intensity and prevalence of COVID-19 ailment among diabetic individuals are more. Since its discovery in Wuhan, COVID-19 has grown rapidly and shown a wide range of severity. Temperature, lymphopenia, non-productive cough, dyspnoea, and tiredness are recognized as the characteristic of individuals infected with COVID-19 disease. In COVID-19 patients, diabetes and other related comorbidities are substantial predictors of disease and mortality. According to a recent study, SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for covid-19 disease) may also lead to direct pancreatic harm, which could aggravate hyperglycemia and potentially cause the establishment of diabetes in formerly non-diabetic individuals. This bidirectional association of COVID-19 and diabetes load the burden on health care professionals throughout the world. It is recommended that gliptin medications be taken moderately, blood glucose levels must be kept under control, ACE inhibitors should be used in moderation, decrease the number of avoidable hospitalizations, nutritional considerations, and some other prevention measures, such as immunization, are highly recommended. SARS-CoV-2 may cause pleiotropic changes in glucose homeostasis, which could exacerbate the pathophysiology of pre-existing diabetes or result in new disease processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Morbidity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112756, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708753

ABSTRACT

The 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19) has caused a global chaos, where a novel Omicron variant has challenged the healthcare system, followed by which it has been referred to as a variant of concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization (WHO), owing to its alarming transmission and infectivity rate. The large number of mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is responsible for strengthening of the spike-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction, thereby explaining the elevated threat. This is supplemented by enhanced resistance of the variant towards pre-existing antibodies approved for the COVID-19 therapy. The manuscript brings into light failure of existing therapies to provide the desired effect, however simultaneously discussing the novel possibilities on the verge of establishing suitable treatment portfolio. The authors entail the risks associated with omicron resistance against antibodies and vaccine ineffectiveness on one side, and novel approaches and targets - kinase inhibitors, viral protease inhibitors, phytoconstituents, entry pathways - on the other. The manuscript aims to provide a holistic picture about the Omicron variant, by providing comprehensive discussions related to multiple aspects of the mutated spike variant, which might aid the global researchers and healthcare experts in finding an optimised solution to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cathepsins/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Phytotherapy/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/physiology , Protein Structural Elements/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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