Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 14(9):1967, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2010313

ABSTRACT

The authors hereby request the inclusion of two authors (Olivia Teixeira and Maria Cristina Nonato) in the recently published article in Viruses entitled 'Nucleocapsid (N) gene mutations of SARS-CoV-2 can affect real-time RT-PCR diagnostic and impact false-negative results';[...]

2.
Environ Microbiol ; 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948875

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether a set of phylogeographical tracked emergent events of Orthocoronavirinae were related to developed, urban and polluted environments worldwide. We explored coronavirus records in response to climate (rainfall parameters), population density, CO2 emission, Human Developmental Index (HDI) and deforestation. We contrasted environmental characteristics from regions with spillovers or encounters of wild Orthocoronavirinae against adjacent areas having best-preserved conditions. We used all complete sequenced CoVs genomes deposited in NCBI and GISAID databases until January 2021. Except for Deltacoronavirus, concentrated in Hong Kong and in birds, the other three genera were scattered all over the planet, beyond the original distribution of the subfamily, and found in humans, mammals, fishes and birds, wild or domestic. Spillovers and presence in wild animals were only reported in developed/densely populated places. We found significantly more occurrences reported in places with higher HDI, CO2 emission, or population density, along with more rainfall and more accentuated seasonality. Orthocoronavirinae occurred in areas with significantly higher human populations, CO2 emissions and deforestation rates than in adjacent locations. Intermediately disturbed ecosystems seemed more vulnerable for Orthocoronavirinae emergence than forested regions in frontiers of deforestation. Sadly, people experiencing poverty in an intensely consumerist society are the most vulnerable.

3.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939019

ABSTRACT

RT-PCR testing data provides opportunities to explore regional and individual determinants of test positivity and surveillance infrastructure. Using Generalized Additive Models, we explored 222,515 tests of a random sample of individuals with COVID-19 compatible symptoms in the Brazilian state of Bahia during 2020. We found that age and male gender were the most significant determinants of test positivity. There was evidence of an unequal impact among socio-demographic strata, with higher positivity among those living in areas with low education levels during the first epidemic wave, followed by those living in areas with higher education levels in the second wave. Our estimated probability of testing positive after symptom onset corroborates previous reports that the probability decreases with time, more than halving by about two weeks and converging to zero by three weeks. Test positivity rates generally followed state-level reported cases, and while a single laboratory performed ~90% of tests covering ~99% of the state's area, test turn-around time generally remained below four days. This testing effort is a testimony to the Bahian surveillance capacity during public health emergencies, as previously witnessed during the recent Zika and Yellow Fever outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Male , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917799

ABSTRACT

Our effort in SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in Brazil has detected the Alpha Variant of Concern with a predominance higher than 75% in the population of Ilhabela island (São Paulo State) at a time when the Gamma VOC was already predominating the mainland raised concerns for closer surveillance on this island. Therefore, we intensified the surveillance for 24 weeks by generating data from 34% of local positive cases. Our data show that the patterns of VOC predominance dynamics and infection rates were in general distinct from the mainland. We report here the first known case of Alpha predominance in a Brazilian population, a delay greater than 3 months for the Gamma to dominate the previous variants compared to the mainland, and a faster dispersion rate of Gamma and Delta VOCs compared to the mainland. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in Ilhabela were characterized by multiple independent introduction events of Gamma and Delta, with a few events of Alpha introduction, two of them followed by community transmission. This study evidenced the peculiar behavior of SARS-CoV-2 variants in an isolated population and brought to light the importance of specific programs for SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in isolated populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Virus Res ; 315: 198785, 2022 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860141

ABSTRACT

Brazil ranks as third in terms of total number of reported SARS-CoV-2 cases globally. The COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil was characterised by the co-circulation of multiple variants as a consequence of multiple independent introduction events occurring through time. Here, we describe the SARS-CoV-2 variants that are currently circulating and co-circulating in the country, with the aim to highlight which variants have driven the different epidemic waves. For this purpose, we retrieved metadata information of Coronavirus sequences collected in Brazil and available at the GISAID database. SARS-CoV-2 lineages have been identified along with eleven variants, labelled as VOCs (Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Delta and Omicron) VOIs (Lambda and Mu) VUMs (B.1.1.318) and FMVs (Zeta, Eta and B.1.1.519). Here we show that, in the Brazilian context, after 24 months of sustained transmission and evolution of SARS-CoV-2, local variants (among them the B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33) were displaced by recently introduced VOCs firstly with the Gamma, followed by Delta and more recently Omicron. The rapid spread of some of those VOCs (such as Gamma and Omicron) was also mirror by a large increase in the number of cases and deaths in the country. This in turn reinforces that, due to the emergence of variants that appear to induce a substantial evasion against neutralizing antibody response, it is important to strengthen genomic effort within the country and how vaccination still remains a critical process to protect the vulnerable population, still at risk of infection and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
Virus Evol ; 8(1): veac024, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774420

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Brazil was driven mainly by the spread of Gamma (P.1), a locally emerged variant of concern (VOC) that was first detected in early January 2021. This variant was estimated to be responsible for more than 96 per cent of cases reported between January and June 2021, being associated with increased transmissibility and disease severity, a reduction in neutralization antibodies and effectiveness of treatments or vaccines, and diagnostic detection failure. Here we show that, following several importations predominantly from the USA, the Delta variant rapidly replaced Gamma after July 2021. However, in contrast to what was seen in other countries, the rapid spread of Delta did not lead to a large increase in the number of cases and deaths reported in Brazil. We suggest that this was likely due to the relatively successful early vaccination campaign coupled with natural immunity acquired following prior infection with Gamma. Our data reinforce reports of the increased transmissibility of the Delta variant and, considering the increasing concern due to the recently identified Omicron variant, argues for the necessity to strengthen genomic monitoring on a national level to quickly detect the emergence and spread of other VOCs that might threaten global health.

8.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572657

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic demands massive testing by Real-time RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), which is considered the gold standard diagnostic test for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, the virus continues to evolve with mutations that lead to phenotypic alterations as higher transmissibility, pathogenicity or vaccine evasion. Another big issue are mutations in the annealing sites of primers and probes of RT-PCR diagnostic kits leading to false-negative results. Therefore, here we identify mutations in the N (Nucleocapsid) gene that affects the use of the GeneFinder COVID-19 Plus RealAmp Kit. We sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes from 17 positive samples with no N gene detection but with RDRP (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) and E (Envelope) genes detection, and observed a set of three different mutations affecting the N detection: a deletion of 18 nucleotides (Del28877-28894), a substitution of GGG to AAC (28881-28883) and a frameshift mutation caused by deletion (Del28877-28878). The last one cause a deletion of six AAs (amino acids) located in the central intrinsic disorder region at protein level. We also found this mutation in 99 of the 14,346 sequenced samples by the Sao Paulo state Network for Pandemic Alert of Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, demonstrating the circulation of the mutation in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Continuous monitoring and characterization of mutations affecting the annealing sites of primers and probes by genomic surveillance programs are necessary to maintain the effectiveness of the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , DNA Primers , False Negative Reactions , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296139

ABSTRACT

The Beta variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in South Africa in late 2020 and rapidly became the dominant variant, causing over 95% of infections in the country during and after the second epidemic wave. Here we show rapid replacement of the Beta variant by the Delta variant, a highly transmissible variant of concern (VOC) that emerged in India and subsequently spread around the world. The Delta variant was imported to South Africa primarily from India, spread rapidly in large monophyletic clusters to all provinces, and became dominant within three months of introduction. This was associated with a resurgence in community transmission, leading to a third wave which was associated with a high number of deaths. We estimated a growth advantage for the Delta variant in South Africa of 0.089 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.084-0.093) per day which corresponds to a transmission advantage of 46% (95% CI 44-48) compared to the Beta variant. These data provide additional support for the increased transmissibility of the Delta variant relative to other VOC and highlight how dynamic shifts in the distribution of variants contribute to the ongoing public health threat.

10.
Virus Res ; 308: 198643, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537116

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 alpha VOC (also known as lineage B.1.1.7) initially described in the autumn, 2020 in UK, rapidly became the dominant lineage across much of Europe. Despite multiple studies reporting molecular evidence suggestive of its circulation in Brazil, much is still unknown about its genomic diversity in the state of São Paulo, the main Brazilian economic and transportation hub. To get more insight regarding its transmission dynamics into the State we performed phylogenetic analysis on all alpha VOC strains obtained between February and August 2021 from the Sao Paulo state Network for Pandemic Alert of Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. The performed phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the alpha VOC genomes were interspersed with viral strains sampled from different Brazilian states and other countries suggesting that multiple independent Alpha VOC introductions from Brazil and overseas have occurred in the São Paulo State over time. Nevertheless, large monophyletic clusters were also observed especially from the Central-West part of the São Paulo State (the city of Bauru) and the metropolitan region of the São Paulo city. Our results highlight the Alpha VOC molecular epidemiology in the São Paulo state and reinforce the need for continued genomic surveillance strategies for the real-time monitoring of potential emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants during the ever-growing vaccination process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genomics , Humans , World Health Organization
11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 489, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387493

ABSTRACT

We investigated SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in Italy, one of the countries hit hardest by the pandemic, using phylodynamic analysis of viral genetic and epidemiological data. We observed the co-circulation of multiple SARS-CoV-2 lineages over time, which were linked to multiple importations and characterized by large transmission clusters concomitant with a high number of infections. Subsequent implementation of a three-phase nationwide lockdown strategy greatly reduced infection numbers and hospitalizations. Yet we present evidence of sustained viral spread among sporadic clusters acting as "hidden reservoirs" during summer 2020. Mathematical modelling shows that increased mobility among residents eventually catalyzed the coalescence of such clusters, thus driving up the number of infections and initiating a new epidemic wave. Our results suggest that the efficacy of public health interventions is, ultimately, limited by the size and structure of epidemic reservoirs, which may warrant prioritization during vaccine deployment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Genome, Viral/genetics , Mutation , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Geography , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 440-446, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319035

ABSTRACT

The first severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in South Africa was identified on 5 March 2020, and by 26 March the country was in full lockdown (Oxford stringency index of 90)1. Despite the early response, by November 2020, over 785,000 people in South Africa were infected, which accounted for approximately 50% of all known African infections2. In this study, we analyzed 1,365 near whole genomes and report the identification of 16 new lineages of SARS-CoV-2 isolated between 6 March and 26 August 2020. Most of these lineages have unique mutations that have not been identified elsewhere. We also show that three lineages (B.1.1.54, B.1.1.56 and C.1) spread widely in South Africa during the first wave, comprising ~42% of all infections in the country at the time. The newly identified C lineage of SARS-CoV-2, C.1, which has 16 nucleotide mutations as compared with the original Wuhan sequence, including one amino acid change on the spike protein, D614G (ref. 3), was the most geographically widespread lineage in South Africa by the end of August 2020. An early South African-specific lineage, B.1.106, which was identified in April 2020 (ref. 4), became extinct after nosocomial outbreaks were controlled in KwaZulu-Natal Province. Our findings show that genomic surveillance can be implemented on a large scale in Africa to identify new lineages and inform measures to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Such genomic surveillance presented in this study has been shown to be crucial in the identification of the 501Y.V2 variant in South Africa in December 2020 (ref. 5).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Datasets as Topic , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Typing , Mutation , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , South Africa/epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing
14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104976, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281500

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of an unprecedented worldwide pandemic. Brazil demonstrates one of the highest numbers of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases, and São Paulo State is the epicenter of the pandemics in the country. Nevertheless, little is known about the SARS-CoV-2 circulation in other cities in the State than São Paulo city. The objective of this study was to analyze phylogenetically SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating in city of Ribeirão Preto at the beginning of the pandemic and during the actual second wave. Twenty-nine nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive samples were sequenced by nanopore technology (18 obtained at the initial period of the pandemic and 11 during the second wave) and analyzed them phylogenetically. The performed analysis demonstrated that the majority of the strains obtained in the initial period of the pandemic in Ribeirão Preto belonged mainly to the B1.1.33 lineage (61.1%), but B.1.1 (27.8%) and B.1.1.28 (11.1%) lineages were also identified. In contrast, the second wave strains were composed exclusively by the Brazilian variant of concern (VOC) P.1 (91%) and P.2 (9%) lineages. The obtained phylogenetic results were suggestive of successive SARS-CoV-2 lineage substitution in this Brazilian region by the P.1 VOC. The performed study examines the SARS-CoV-2 genotypes in Ribeirão Preto city via genomic surveillance data. The obtained findings can contribute for continuous long-term genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 due to the accelerated dynamics of viral lineage substitution, predict further waves and examine lineage behavior during SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Nature ; 592(7854): 438-443, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164876

ABSTRACT

Continued uncontrolled transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in many parts of the world is creating conditions for substantial evolutionary changes to the virus1,2. Here we describe a newly arisen lineage of SARS-CoV-2 (designated 501Y.V2; also known as B.1.351 or 20H) that is defined by eight mutations in the spike protein, including three substitutions (K417N, E484K and N501Y) at residues in its receptor-binding domain that may have functional importance3-5. This lineage was identified in South Africa after the first wave of the epidemic in a severely affected metropolitan area (Nelson Mandela Bay) that is located on the coast of the Eastern Cape province. This lineage spread rapidly, and became dominant in Eastern Cape, Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces within weeks. Although the full import of the mutations is yet to be determined, the genomic data-which show rapid expansion and displacement of other lineages in several regions-suggest that this lineage is associated with a selection advantage that most plausibly results from increased transmissibility or immune escape6-8.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , DNA Mutational Analysis , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Fitness , Humans , Immune Evasion , Models, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Selection, Genetic , South Africa/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Time Factors
16.
Infez Med ; 28(3): 302-311, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757657

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has created a global disaster by infecting millions of people and causing thousands of deaths across hundreds of countries. Currently, the infection is in its exponential phase in several countries and there is no sign of immediate relief from this deadly virus. At the same time, some "conspiracy theories" have arisen on the origin of this virus due to the lack of a "definite origin". To understand if this controversy is also reflected in scientific publications, here, we reviewed the key articles published at initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic (January 01, 2020 to April 30, 2020) related to the zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2 and the articles opposing the "conspiracy theories". We also provide an overview on the current knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 Spike as well as the Coronavirus research domain. Furthermore, a few important points related to the "conspiracy theories" such as "laboratory engineering" or "bioweapon" aspects of SARS-CoV-2 are also reviewed. In this article, we have only considered the peer-reviewed publications that are indexed in PubMed and other official publications, and we have directly quoted the authors' statements from their respective articles to avoid any controversy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Engineering/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Selection, Genetic , Animals , Biohazard Release , Biological Warfare Agents , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Dissent and Disputes , Eutheria/classification , Eutheria/virology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Zoonoses/virology
17.
PeerJ ; 8: e9446, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated a likely scenario of COVID-19 spreading in Brazil through the complex airport network of the country, for the 90 days after the first national occurrence of the disease. After the confirmation of the first imported cases, the lack of a proper airport entrance control resulted in the infection spreading in a manner directly proportional to the amount of flights reaching each city, following the first occurrence of the virus coming from abroad. METHODOLOGY: We developed a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model divided in a metapopulation structure, where cities with airports were demes connected by the number of flights. Subsequently, we further explored the role of the Manaus airport for a rapid entrance of the pandemic into indigenous territories situated in remote places of the Amazon region. RESULTS: The expansion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus between cities was fast, directly proportional to the city closeness centrality within the Brazilian air transportation network. There was a clear pattern in the expansion of the pandemic, with a stiff exponential expansion of cases for all the cities. The more a city showed closeness centrality, the greater was its vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: We discussed the weak pandemic control performance of Brazil in comparison with other tropical, developing countries, namely India and Nigeria. Finally, we proposed measures for containing virus spreading taking into consideration the scenario of high poverty.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL