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J Med Virol ; 94(1): 161-172, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544335


Detailed information on intrahost viral evolution in SARS-CoV-2 with and without treatment is limited. Sequential viral loads and deep sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 from the upper respiratory tract of nine hospitalized children, three of whom were treated with remdesivir, revealed that remdesivir treatment suppressed viral load in one patient but not in a second infected with an identical strain without any evidence of drug resistance found. Reduced levels of subgenomic RNA during treatment of the second patient, suggest an additional effect of remdesivir on viral replication. Haplotype reconstruction uncovered persistent SARS-CoV-2 variant genotypes in four patients. These likely arose from within-host evolution, although superinfection cannot be excluded in one case. Although our dataset is small, observed sample-to-sample heterogeneity in variant frequencies across four of nine patients suggests the presence of discrete viral populations in the lung with incomplete population sampling in diagnostic swabs. Such compartmentalization could compromise the penetration of remdesivir into the lung, limiting the drugs in vivo efficacy, as has been observed in other lung infections.

Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Viral , Female , Haplotypes , Humans , Infant , Lung/virology , Male , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Virus Replication/drug effects
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(6): 772-776, 2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072399


We describe the adaptive coping strategies required in the management of a heterogeneous group of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pediatric patients. The diverse range of presentations, presenting in distinct phenotypic waves, exemplified the importance of preparedness for the unknown. Lessons learned will be essential in planning for a likely second wave of SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals, Pediatric , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Humans , Male , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , United Kingdom/epidemiology