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1.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1995955

ABSTRACT

: Objective This sequential, prospective meta-analysis (sPMA) sought to identify risk factors among pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19 for adverse outcomes related to: disease severity, maternal morbidities, neonatal mortality and morbidity, adverse birth outcomes. Data sources We prospectively invited study investigators to join the sPMA via professional research networks beginning in March 2020. Study eligibility criteria Eligible studies included those recruiting at least 25 consecutive cases of COVID-19 in pregnancy within a defined catchment area. Study appraisal and synthesis methods We included individual patient data from 21 participating studies. Data quality was assessed, and harmonized variables for risk factors and outcomes were constructed. Duplicate cases were removed. Pooled estimates for the absolute and relative risk of adverse outcomes comparing those with and without each risk factor were generated using a two-stage meta-analysis. Results We collected data from 33 countries and territories, including 21,977 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy or postpartum. We found that women with comorbidities (pre-existing diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease) versus those without were at higher risk for COVID-19 severity and pregnancy health outcomes (fetal death, preterm birth, low birthweight). Participants with COVID-19 and HIV were 1.74 times (95% CI: 1.12, 2.71) more likely to be admitted to the ICU. Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy were at higher risk of ICU admission (RR 5.53, 95% CI: 2.27, 13.44), ventilation (RR 9.36, 95% CI: 3.87, 22.63), and pregnancy-related death (RR 14.10, 95% CI: 2.83, 70.36). Pre-pregnancy obesity was also a risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes including ICU admission (RR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.26,2.60), ventilation (RR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.20,3.51), any critical care (RR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.28,2.77), and pneumonia (RR 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18,2.33). Anemic pregnant women with COVID-19 also had increased risk of ICU admission (RR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.11) and death (RR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.15, 4.81). Conclusion We found that pregnant women with comorbidities including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were at increased risk for severe COVID-19-related outcomes, maternal morbidities, and adverse birth outcomes. We also identified several less commonly-known risk factors, including HIV infection, pre-pregnancy underweight, and anemia. Although pregnant women are already considered a high-risk population, special priority for prevention and treatment should be given to pregnant women with these additional risk factors.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 835830, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902993

ABSTRACT

CD8+ T cells have key protective roles in many viral infections. While an overall Th1-biased cellular immune response against SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated, most reports of anti-SARS-CoV-2 cellular immunity have evaluated bulk T cells using pools of predicted epitopes, without clear delineation of the CD8+ subset and its magnitude and targeting. In recently infected persons (mean 29.8 days after COVID-19 symptom onset), we confirm a Th1 bias (and a novel IL-4-producing population of unclear significance) by flow cytometry, which does not correlate to antibody responses against the receptor binding domain. Evaluating isolated CD8+ T cells in more detail by IFN-γ ELISpot assays, responses against spike, nucleocapsid, matrix, and envelope proteins average 396, 901, 296, and 0 spot-forming cells (SFC) per million, targeting 1.4, 1.5, 0.59, and 0.0 epitope regions respectively. Nucleocapsid targeting is dominant in terms of magnitude, breadth, and density of targeting. The magnitude of responses drops rapidly post-infection; nucleocapsid targeting is most sustained, and vaccination selectively boosts spike targeting. In SARS-CoV-2-naïve persons, evaluation of the anti-spike CD8+ T cell response soon after vaccination (mean 11.3 days) yields anti-spike CD8+ T cell responses averaging 2,463 SFC/million against 4.2 epitope regions, and targeting mirrors that seen in infected persons. These findings provide greater clarity on CD8+ T cell anti-SARS-CoV-2 targeting, breadth, and persistence, suggesting that nucleocapsid inclusion in vaccines could broaden coverage and durability.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States , Vaccination
3.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896493

ABSTRACT

We urgently need answers to basic epidemiological questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant and postpartum women and its effect on their newborns. While many national registries, health facilities, and research groups are collecting relevant data, we need a collaborative and methodologically rigorous approach to better combine these data and address knowledge gaps, especially those related to rare outcomes. We propose that using a sequential, prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is the best approach to generate data for policy- and practice-oriented guidelines. As the pandemic evolves, additional studies identified retrospectively by the steering committee or through living systematic reviews will be invited to participate in this PMA. Investigators can contribute to the PMA by either submitting individual patient data or running standardized code to generate aggregate data estimates. For the primary analysis, we will pool data using two-stage meta-analysis methods. The meta-analyses will be updated as additional data accrue in each contributing study and as additional studies meet study-specific time or data accrual thresholds for sharing. At the time of publication, investigators of 25 studies, including more than 76,000 pregnancies, in 41 countries had agreed to share data for this analysis. Among the included studies, 12 have a contemporaneous comparison group of pregnancies without COVID-19, and four studies include a comparison group of non-pregnant women of reproductive age with COVID-19. Protocols and updates will be maintained publicly. Results will be shared with key stakeholders, including the World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health (MNCAH) Research Working Group. Data contributors will share results with local stakeholders. Scientific publications will be published in open-access journals on an ongoing basis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1523-1524, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892585

ABSTRACT

Varicella zoster virus reactivation after COVID-19 vaccination has been reported in older or immunocompromised adults. We report zoster meningitis from live-attenuated varicella vaccine reactivation in an immunocompetent child after COVID-19 vaccination. This type of case is rare; COVID-19 and varicella vaccines remain safe and effective for appropriate recipients in the pediatric population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Herpes Zoster , Meningitis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccination
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338392

ABSTRACT

Despite the robust immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, emerging data reveal enhanced neutralizing antibody and T cell cross-reactivity among individuals that previously experienced COVID-19, pointing to a hybrid immune advantage with infection-associated immune priming. Beyond neutralizing antibodies and T cell immunity, mounting data point to a potential role for additional antibody effector functions, including opsinophagocytic activity, in the resolution of symptomatic COVID-19. Whether hybrid immunity modifies the Fc-effector profile of the mRNA vaccine-induced immune response remains incompletely understood. Thus, here we profiled the SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral immune response in a group of individuals with and without prior COVID-19. As expected, hybrid Spike-specific antibody titers were enhanced following the primary dose of the mRNA vaccine, but were similar to those achieved by naïve vaccinees after the second mRNA vaccine dose. Conversely, Spike-specific vaccine-induced Fc-receptor binding antibody levels were higher after the primary immunization in individuals with prior COVID-19, and remained higher following the second dose compared to naïve individuals, suggestive of a selective improvement in the quality, rather than the quantity, of the hybrid humoral immune response. Thus, while the magnitude of antibody titers alone may suggest that any two antigen exposures – either hybrid immunity or two doses of vaccine alone - represent a comparable prime/boost immunologic education, we find that hybrid immunity offers a qualitatively improved antibody response able to better leverage Fc effector functions against conserved regions of the virus.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1166-1173, 2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sentiments of vaccine hesitancy and distrust in public health institutions have complicated the government-led coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine control strategy in the United States. As the first to receive the vaccine, COVID-19 vaccine attitudes among frontline workers are consequential for COVID-19 control and public opinion of the vaccine. METHODS: In this study, we used a repeated cross-sectional survey administered at 3 time points between 24 September 2020 and 6 February 2021 to a cohort of employees of the University of California, Los Angeles Health and the Los Angeles County Fire Department. The primary outcome of interest was COVID-19 vaccination intent and vaccine uptake. RESULTS: Confidence in COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine uptake rose significantly over time. At survey 1, confidence in vaccine protection was 46.4% among healthcare workers (HCWs) and 34.6% among first responders (FRs); by survey 3, this had risen to 90.0% and 75.7%, respectively. At survey 1, about one-third of participants intended to receive a vaccine as soon as possible. By survey 3, 96.0% of HCWs and 87.5% of FRs had received a COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes toward vaccine uptake increased over the study period, likely a result of increased public confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, targeted communications, a COVID-19 winter surge in Los Angeles County, and ease of access from employer-sponsored vaccine distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Vaccination
7.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Genomic RNA of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been detected in the breast milk of lactating women, but its pathological significance has remained uncertain due to the small size of prior studies. METHODS: Breast milk from 110 lactating women was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (285 samples) and viral culture (160 samples). Those containing SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA (vRNA) were examined for the presence of subgenomic RNA (sgRNA), a putative marker of infectivity. RESULTS: Sixty-five women had a positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test, 9 had symptoms but negative diagnostic tests, and 36 symptomatic women were not tested. SARS-CoV-2 vRNA was detected in the milk of 7 (6%) women with either a confirmed infection or symptomatic illness, including 6 of 65 (9%) women with a positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test. Infectious virus was not detected in any culture and none had detectable sgRNA. In control experiments, infectious SARS-CoV-2 could be cultured after addition to breastmilk despite several freeze-thaw cycles, as it occurs in the storage and usage of human milk. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be found infrequently in the breastmilk after recent infection, but we found no evidence that breastmilk contains an infectious virus or that breastfeeding represents a risk factor for transmission of infection to infants. IMPACT: This article goes beyond prior small studies to provide evidence that infectious SARS-CoV-2 is not present in the milk of lactating women with recent infection, even when SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected. Recent SARS-CoV-2 infection or detection of its RNA in human milk is not a contraindication to breastfeeding.

8.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(11): 100453, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521606

ABSTRACT

While pregnancy increases the risk for severe COVID-19, the clinical and immunological implications of COVID-19 on maternal-fetal health remain unknown. Here, we present the clinical and immunological landscapes of 93 COVID-19 mothers and 45 of their SARS-CoV-2-exposed infants through comprehensive serum proteomics profiling for >1,400 cytokines of their peripheral and cord blood specimens. Prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory immune activation. Pregnant women with severe COVID-19 show increased inflammation and unique IFN-λ antiviral signaling, with elevated levels of IFNL1 and IFNLR1. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection re-shapes maternal immunity at delivery, altering the expression of pregnancy complication-associated cytokines, inducing MMP7, MDK, and ESM1 and reducing BGN and CD209. Finally, COVID-19-exposed infants exhibit induction of T cell-associated cytokines (IL33, NFATC3, and CCL21), while some undergo IL-1ß/IL-18/CASP1 axis-driven neonatal respiratory distress despite birth at term. Our findings demonstrate COVID-19-induced immune rewiring in both mothers and neonates, warranting long-term clinical follow-up to mitigate potential health risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Inflammation , Proteomics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Pregnancy , Serum/metabolism , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506037

ABSTRACT

Two mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are globally authorized as a two-dose regimen. Understanding the magnitude and duration of protective immune responses is vital to curbing the pandemic. We enrolled 461 high-risk health services workers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and first responders in the Los Angeles County Fire Department (LACoFD) to assess the humoral responses in previously infected (PI) and infection naïve (NPI) individuals to mRNA-based vaccines (BNT162b2/Pfizer- BioNTech or mRNA-1273/Moderna). A chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay was used to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Spike in vaccinees prior to (n = 21) and following each vaccine dose (n = 246 following dose 1 and n = 315 following dose 2), and at days 31-60 (n = 110) and 61-90 (n = 190) following completion of the 2-dose series. Both vaccines induced robust antibody responses in all immunocompetent individuals. Previously infected individuals achieved higher median peak titers (p = 0.002) and had a slower rate of decay (p = 0.047) than infection-naïve individuals. mRNA-1273 vaccinated infection-naïve individuals demonstrated modestly higher titers following each dose (p = 0.005 and p = 0.029, respectively) and slower rates of antibody decay (p = 0.003) than those who received BNT162b2. A subset of previously infected individuals (25%) required both doses in order to reach peak antibody titers. The biologic significance of the differences between previously infected individuals and between the mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 vaccines remains uncertain, but may have important implications for booster strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Academic Medical Centers , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , California/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Responders , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoassay , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Universities
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1166-1173, 2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sentiments of vaccine hesitancy and distrust in public health institutions have complicated the government-led coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine control strategy in the United States. As the first to receive the vaccine, COVID-19 vaccine attitudes among frontline workers are consequential for COVID-19 control and public opinion of the vaccine. METHODS: In this study, we used a repeated cross-sectional survey administered at 3 time points between 24 September 2020 and 6 February 2021 to a cohort of employees of the University of California, Los Angeles Health and the Los Angeles County Fire Department. The primary outcome of interest was COVID-19 vaccination intent and vaccine uptake. RESULTS: Confidence in COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine uptake rose significantly over time. At survey 1, confidence in vaccine protection was 46.4% among healthcare workers (HCWs) and 34.6% among first responders (FRs); by survey 3, this had risen to 90.0% and 75.7%, respectively. At survey 1, about one-third of participants intended to receive a vaccine as soon as possible. By survey 3, 96.0% of HCWs and 87.5% of FRs had received a COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes toward vaccine uptake increased over the study period, likely a result of increased public confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, targeted communications, a COVID-19 winter surge in Los Angeles County, and ease of access from employer-sponsored vaccine distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Vaccination
11.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279811

ABSTRACT

Studies of two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines suggested that they yield ∼95% protection from symptomatic infection at least short-term, but important clinical questions remain. It is unclear how vaccine-induced antibody levels quantitatively compare to the wide spectrum induced by natural SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccine response kinetics and magnitudes in persons with prior COVID-19 compared to virus-naïve persons are not well-defined. The relative stability of vaccine-induced versus infection-induced antibody levels is unclear. We addressed these issues with longitudinal assessments of vaccinees with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of anti-RBD antibodies. SARS-CoV-2-naïve individuals achieved levels similar to mild natural infection after the first vaccination; a second dose generated levels approaching severe natural infection. In persons with prior COVID-19, one dose boosted levels to the high end of severe natural infection even in those who never had robust responses from infection, increasing no further after the second dose. Antiviral neutralizing assessments using a spike-pseudovirus assay revealed that virus-naïve vaccinees did not develop physiologic neutralizing potency until the second dose, while previously infected persons exhibited maximal neutralization after one dose. Finally, antibodies from vaccination waned similarly to natural infection, resulting in an average of ∼90% loss within 90 days. In summary, our findings suggest that two doses are important for quantity and quality of humoral immunity in SARS-CoV-2-naïve persons, while a single dose has maximal effects in those with past infection. Antibodies from vaccination wane with kinetics very similar to that seen after mild natural infection; booster vaccinations will likely be required.

12.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(7): 747-752, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A majority of studies evaluating the risk of vertical transmission and adverse outcomes in pregnancies with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are mostly based on third-trimester infections. There is limited data available on pregnancy sequelae of maternal infection in the first or second trimester. STUDY DESIGN: We present a patient with monochorionic-diamniotic twins that develops coronavirus disease 2019 infection at 15 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy is further complicated by stage II twin-twin transfusion syndrome. She undergoes laser ablation, which is complicated by development of a subchorionic hematoma. The patient then develops Escherichia coli bacteremia, resulting in septic shock and preterm labor followed by previable delivery at 21 weeks of gestation. Amniotic fluid and placenta were negative for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: This case of SARS-CoV-2 argues against transplacental transmission after a second-trimester infection but brings attention to the possible downstream complications that may arise following early infection. KEY POINTS: · Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is not evident after a second-trimester infection.. · Antepartum coronavirus disease 2019 may cause vascular placental changes and placental insufficiency.. · SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a maternal hypercoagulable state with adverse perinatal outcomes..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Escherichia coli Infections , Fetofetal Transfusion , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Shock, Septic , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Escherichia coli Infections/complications , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Female , Fetofetal Transfusion/diagnosis , Fetofetal Transfusion/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Placenta/diagnostic imaging , Placenta/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Twin , Premature Birth/etiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Shock, Septic/etiology , Twins, Monozygotic , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods
14.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(6): 1117-1125, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation, symptomology, and disease course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy. METHODS: The PRIORITY (Pregnancy CoRonavIrus Outcomes RegIsTrY) study is an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort study of people in the United States who are pregnant or up to 6 weeks postpregnancy with known or suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We analyzed the clinical presentation and disease course of COVID-19 in participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and reported symptoms at the time of testing. RESULTS: Of 991 participants enrolled from March 22, 2020, until July 10, 2020, 736 had symptoms of COVID-19 at the time of testing; 594 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 142 tested negative in this symptomatic group. Mean age was 31.3 years (SD 5.1), and 37% will nulliparous. Ninety-five percent were outpatients. Participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2-infection were a geographically diverse cohort: 34% from the Northeast, 25% from the West, 21% from the South, and 18% from the Midwest. Thirty-one percent of study participants were Latina, and 9% were Black. The average gestational age at enrollment was 24.1 weeks, and 13% of participants were enrolled after pregnancy. The most prevalent first symptoms in the cohort of patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were cough (20%), sore throat (16%), body aches (12%), and fever (12%). Median time to symptom resolution was 37 days (95% CI 35-39). One quarter (25%) of participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection had persistent symptoms 8 or more weeks after symptom onset. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has a prolonged and nonspecific disease course during pregnancy and in the 6 weeks after pregnancy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04323839.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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