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1.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22281786

ABSTRACT

Background and aimsImmunocompromised patients have a reduced ability to generate antibodies after COVID-19 vaccination and are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, complications and mortality. Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab (Evusheld) is a monoclonal antibody combination which bind to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, preventing the virus entering human cells. The phase III PROVENT trial reported that immunocompromised patients given Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab had a significantly reduced risk of COVID-19 infection. However, PROVENT was conducted before the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron became prevalent. This systematic review provides an updated summary of real-world clinical evidence of Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab effectiveness in immunocompromised patients. MethodsTwo independent reviewers conducted PubMed and medRxiv searches for the period of 01/01/2021 to 01/10/2022. Clinical studies which reported the primary outcome of breakthrough COVID-19 infections after Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab administration were included in the review. COVID-19-related hospitalisations, ITU admissions and mortality were assessed as secondary outcomes. Clinical effectiveness was determined using the case-control clinical effectiveness methodology. The GRADE tool was used to ascertain the level of certainty for the primary outcome in each study. Results17 clinical studies were included, comprising 24,773 immunocompromised participants of whom 10,775 received Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab. Most studies reported clinical outcomes during the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron wave. Six studies compared a Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab intervention group to a control group. Overall, the clinical effectiveness of prophylactic Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab against COVID-19 breakthrough infection, hospitalisation and ITU admission were 40.47%, 69.23% and 87.89%, respectively. For prevention of all-cause and COVID-19-specifc mortality, overall clinical effectiveness was 81.29% and 86.36%, respectively. ConclusionsThere is a growing body of real-world evidence validating the original PROVENT phase III study regarding the clinical effectiveness of Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab as prophylaxis for immunocompromised patients, notably demonstrating effectiveness during the Omicron wave. This review demonstrates the clinical effectiveness of prophylactic Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab at reducing COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation, ITU admission and mortality for immunosuppressed individuals. It is important that ongoing larger-scale and better-controlled real world studies are initiated and evaluated to provide ongoing certainty of the clinical benefit of prophylactic antibody treatment for immunocompromised patients in the face of new variants.

2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22278576

ABSTRACT

BackgroundImmunocompromised patients may be at higher risk of mortality if hospitalised with COVID-19 compared with immunocompetent patients. However, previous studies have been contradictory. We aimed to determine whether immunocompromised patients were at greater risk of in-hospital death, and how this risk changed over the pandemic. MethodsWe included patients >=19yrs with symptomatic community-acquired COVID-19 recruited to the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK. We defined immunocompromise as: immunosuppressant medication preadmission, cancer treatment, organ transplant, HIV, or congenital immunodeficiency. We used logistic regression to compare the risk of death in both groups, adjusting for age, sex, deprivation, ethnicity, vaccination and co-morbidities. We used Bayesian logistic regression to explore mortality over time. FindingsBetween 17/01/2020 and 28/02/2022 we recruited 156,552 eligible patients, of whom 21,954 (14%) were immunocompromised. 29% (n=6,499) of immunocompromised and 21% (n=28,608) of immunocompetent patients died in hospital. The odds of in-hospital mortality were elevated for immunocompromised patients (adjOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.39-1.50, p<0.001). As the pandemic progressed, in-hospital mortality reduced more slowly for immunocompromised patients than for immunocompetent patients. This was particularly evident with increasing age: the probability of the reduction in hospital mortality being less for immunocompromised patients aged 50-69yrs was 88% for men and 83% for women, and for those >80yrs was 99% for men, and 98% for women. ConclusionsImmunocompromised patients remain at elevated risk of death from COVID-19. Targeted measures such as additional vaccine doses and monoclonal antibodies should be considered for this group. FundingNational Institute for Health Research; Medical Research Council; Chief Scientist Office, Scotland.

3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22277678

ABSTRACT

SUMMARYO_ST_ABSBackground & AimsC_ST_ABSVitamin D deficiency has been reported to associate with impaired development of antigen-specific responses following vaccination. We aimed to determine whether vitamin D supplements might boost immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. MethodsWe conducted three sub-studies nested within the CORONAVIT randomised controlled trial, which investigated effects of offering vitamin D supplements at a dose of 800 IU/day or 3200 IU/day vs. no offer on risk of acute respiratory infections, including COVID-19, in UK adults with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <75 nmol/L. Sub-study 1 (n=2808) investigated effects of vitamin D supplementation on risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection following two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Sub-study 2 (n=1853) investigated effects of vitamin D supplementation on titres of combined IgG, IgA and IgM (IgGAM) anti-Spike antibodies in eluates of dried blood spots collected after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Sub-study 3 (n=100) investigated effects of vitamin D supplementation on neutralising antibody and cellular responses in venous blood samples collected after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Results1945/2823 (69.3%) sub-study 1 participants received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca); the remainder received two doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer). Vitamin D supplementation did not influence risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection (800 IU/day vs. no offer: adjusted hazard ratio 1.28, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.84; 3200 IU/day vs. no offer: 1.17, 0.81 to 1.70). Neither did it influence IgGAM anti-Spike titres, neutralising antibody titres or IFN-{gamma} concentrations in supernatants of S peptide-stimulated whole blood. ConclusionsAmong adults with sub-optimal baseline vitamin D status, vitamin D replacement at a dose of 800 or 3200 IU/day did not influence protective efficacy or immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Clinical Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04579640.

4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22275865

ABSTRACT

Both infection and vaccination, alone or in combination, generate antibody and T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. However, the maintenance of such responses - and hence protection from disease - requires careful characterisation. In a large prospective study of UK healthcare workers (Protective immunity from T cells in Healthcare workers (PITCH), within the larger SARS-CoV-2 immunity & reinfection evaluation (SIREN) study) we previously observed that prior infection impacted strongly on subsequent cellular and humoral immunity induced after long and short dosing intervals of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccination. Here, we report longer follow up of 684 HCWs in this cohort over 6-9 months following two doses of BNT162b2 or AZD1222 (Oxford/AstraZeneca) vaccination and following a subsequent BNT162b2 booster vaccination. We make three observations: Firstly, the dynamics of humoral and cellular responses differ; binding and neutralising antibodies declined whereas T and memory B cell responses were maintained after the second vaccine dose. Secondly, vaccine boosting restored IgG levels, broadened neutralising activity against variants of concern including omicron BA.1, and further boosted T cell responses. Thirdly, prior infection maintained its impact driving larger as well as broader T cell responses compared to never-infected people - a feature maintained even after the third dose. In conclusion, broadly cross-reactive T cell responses are well maintained over time - especially in those with "hybrid" vaccine and infection-induced immunity - and may contribute to continued protection against severe disease.

5.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22271707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVESTo determine whether population-level implementation of a test-and- treat approach to correction of sub-optimal vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <75 nmol/L) influences risk of all-cause acute respiratory infection (ARI) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGNPhase 3 open-label randomised controlled trial (CORONAVIT) utilising trials-within-cohorts (TwiCs) methodology. SETTINGUnited Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS6200 adults aged 16 years or older, who were not already taking vitamin D supplements at baseline. INTERVENTIONSOffer of a postal finger-prick test of blood 25(OH)D concentration with provision of a 6-month supply of higher-dose vitamin D (3200 IU/day, n=1550) or lower-dose vitamin D (800 IU/day, n=1550) to those with blood 25(OH)D concentration <75 nmol/L, vs. no offer of testing or supplementation (n=3100). Follow-up was from 17th December 2020 to 16th June 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESThe primary outcome was the proportion of participants experiencing at least one doctor- or swab test-confirmed ARI of any cause. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of participants developing swab test-confirmed COVID-19. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. RESULTSOf 3100 participants offered 25(OH)D testing, 2958 (95.4%) accepted, and 2690 (86.8%) had 25(OH)D <75 nmol/L and were sent vitamin D supplements (1356 higher-dose, 1334 lower-dose). 76 (5.0%) vs. 87 (5.7%) vs. 136 (4.6%) participants in higher-dose vs. lower-dose vs. no offer groups experienced at least one ARI of any cause (odds ratio [OR] for higher-dose vs. no offer 1.09, 95% CI 0.82-1.46; lower-dose vs. no offer 1.26, 0.96-1.66). 45 (3.0%) vs. 55 (3.6%) vs. 78 (2.6%) participants in higher-dose vs. lower-dose vs. no offer groups developed COVID-19 (OR for higher-dose vs. no offer 1.13, 0.78-1.63; lower-dose vs. no offer 1.39, 0.98-1.97). CONCLUSIONSAmong adults with a high baseline prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status, implementation of a population-level test-and-treat approach to vitamin D replacement did not reduce risk of all-cause ARI or COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT04579640 SUMMARY BOXO_ST_ABSWhat is already known on this topic?C_ST_ABSVitamin D metabolites support innate immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory pathogens. Sub-optimal vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D <75 nmol/L) associates with increased susceptibility to all-cause acute respiratory infections (ARI) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Phase 3 randomised controlled trials of vitamin D to prevent COVID-19 have not yet reported. What this study addsThis phase 3 randomised controlled trial, including 6200 participants, shows that implementation of a population-level test-and-treat approach to oral vitamin D replacement at a dose of 800 IU or 3200 IU per day did not reduce risk of all-cause ARI or COVID-19 among adults with a high baseline prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status.

6.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22271697

ABSTRACT

Long-term SARS-CoV-2 infections in immunodeficient patients are an important source of variation for the virus but are understudied. Many case studies have been published which describe one or a small number of long-term infected individuals but no study has combined these sequences into a cohesive dataset. This work aims to rectify this and study the genomics of this patient group through a combination of literature searches as well as identifying new case series directly from the COG-UK dataset. The spike gene receptor binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domains (NTD) were identified as mutation hotspots. Numerous mutations associated with variants of concern were observed to emerge recurrently. Additionally a mutation in the envelope gene, - T30I was determined to be the most recurrent frequently occurring mutation arising in persistent infections. A high proportion of recurrent mutations in immunodeficient individuals are associated with ACE2 affinity, immune escape, or viral packaging optimisation. There is an apparent selective pressure for mutations which aid intra-host transmission or persistence which are often different to mutations which aid inter-host transmission, although the fact that multiple recurrent de novo mutations are considered defining for variants of concern strongly indicates that this potential source of novel variants should not be discounted.

7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22270930

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAntibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination vary for reasons that remain poorly understood. MethodsWe tested for presence of combined IgG, IgA and IgM (IgGAM) anti-spike antibodies before and after administration of two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (ChAdOx1, Oxford-AstraZeneca) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) in UK adults participating in a population-based longitudinal study who received their first dose of vaccine from December 15, 2020 to July 10, 2021. Information on sixty-six potential sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical, pharmacological and nutritional determinants of serological response to vaccination was captured using serial online questionnaires. We used logistic regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations between independent variables and risk of seronegativity following two vaccine doses. Participants who were seronegative after receiving two vaccine doses were offered an additional antibody test following subsequent administration of a booster dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) from September 23 to December 12, 2021. FindingsSerology results following two vaccine doses were available for 9,101 participants, of whom 5,770 (63.4%) received ChAdOx1 and 3,331 (36.6%) received BNT162b2. Anti-spike IgGAM was undetectable in 378 (4.2%) participants at a median of 8.6 weeks (IQR 6.4-10.7 weeks) after their second dose of vaccine. Seronegativity following two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was associated with administration of ChAdOx1 vs BNT162b2 (aOR 7.03, 95% CI 4.39-11.24), shorter interval between first and second vaccine doses (aOR 2.37, 1.06-5.26, for <6 weeks vs >10 weeks; aOR 1.59, 1.18-2.13, for 6-10 weeks vs >10 weeks), poorer self-assessed general health (aOR 3.33, 1.49-7.46, for poor vs excellent), immunodeficiencies (aOR 6.75, 2.63-17.35) and prescription of systemic immunosuppressants (aOR 3.76, 2.44-5.78). By contrast, pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity (aOR 0.16, 0.04-0.70, for symptomatic seropositives vs seronegatives) and supplemental vitamin D intake (aOR 0.73, 0.53-0.99) were associated with reduced risk of post-vaccination seronegativity. 247/378 (65.3%) of participants who were seronegative after two doses of ChAdOx1 vs BNT162b2 provided a third sample at a median of 7.8 weeks (IQR 5.8-10.4) after receiving a booster dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273: eight (3.2%) of them remained seronegative after three vaccine doses, all of whom either had a primary immunodeficiency or were taking systemic immunosuppressant drugs. InterpretationWe identify multiple determinants of antibody responses to two doses of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2, many of which are potentially modifiable. Booster doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 were highly effective in achieving seroconversion in those who failed to mount antibody responses following two doses of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2. Study registrationhttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04330599 FundingBarts Charity, Fischer Family Trust, The Exilarchs Foundation, DSM Nutritional Products, Health Data Research UK Research in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSWe searched PubMed, medRxiv, and Google Scholar for papers published from January 1, 2020, to February 1, 2022, using the search terms (antibody OR humoral OR serologic* OR immunogenic*) AND (SARS-CoV-2 vaccine OR ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 coronavirus), with no language restrictions. Population-based studies investigating multiple potential determinants of vaccine immunogenicity in people with known pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 serostatus are lacking. Added value of this studyThis large population-based study, conducted in a population with known pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 serostatus, examines a comprehensive range of potential sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical, pharmacological and nutritional determinants of antibody responses to administration of two major SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (i.e., ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2), many of which have not previously been investigated. It is also the first population-based study to characterise antibody responses to booster doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in adults who were seronegative after their primary course of vaccination. Implications of all the available evidenceIncreased risk of seronegativity following two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was associated with administration of ChAdOx1 vs BNT162b2, shorter interval between first and second vaccine doses, poorer self-assessed general health, immunocompromise and SARS-CoV-2 seronegativity pre-vaccination. Regular intake of vitamin D supplements was associated with reduced risk of post-vaccination seronegativity. Randomised controlled trials are now needed to test for causality. Booster doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 were highly effective in achieving seroconversion in the majority of people who failed to mount antibody responses following a primary course of vaccination, the few exceptions being a subset of those with primary immunodeficiency or systemic immunosuppressant drugs.

8.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266297

ABSTRACT

Genome sequencing is a powerful tool for identifying SARS-CoV-2 variant lineages, however there can be limitations due to sequence drop-out when used to identify specific key mutations. Recently, Thermo Fisher Scientific have developed genotyping assays to help bridge the gap between testing capacity and sequencing capability to generate real-time genotyping results based on specific variants. Over a 6-week period during the months of April and May 2021, we set out to assess the Thermo Fisher TaqMan Mutation Panel Genotyping Assay, initially for three mutations of concern and then an additional two mutations of concern, against SARS-CoV-2 positive clinical samples and the corresponding COG-UK sequencing data. We demonstrate that genotyping is a powerful in-depth technique for identifying specific mutations, an excellent complement to genome sequencing and has real clinical health value potential allowing laboratories to report and action variants of concern much quicker.

9.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21259398

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have described RT-LAMP methodology for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swab and saliva samples. This study describes the validation of an improved sample preparation method for extraction free RT-LAMP and defines the clinical performance of four different RT-LAMP assay formats for detection of SARS-CoV-2 within a multisite clinical evaluation. Direct RT-LAMP was performed on 559 swabs and 86,760 saliva samples and RNA RT-LAMP on extracted RNA from 12,619 swabs and 12,521 saliva from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals across healthcare and community settings. For Direct RT-LAMP, overall diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) of 70.35% (95% CI 63.48-76.60%) on swabs and 84.62% (79.50-88.88%) on saliva was observed, with diagnostic specificity (DSp) of 100% (98.98-100.00%) on swabs and 100% (99.72-100.00%) on saliva when compared to RT-qPCR; analysing samples with RT-qPCR ORF1ab CT values of [≤]25 and [≤]33, DSe of 100% (96.34-100%) and 77.78% (70.99-83.62%) for swabs were observed, and 99.01% (94.61-99.97%) and 87.61% (82.69-91.54%) for saliva, respectively. For RNA RT-LAMP, overall DSe and DSp were 96.06% (92.88-98.12%) and 99.99% (99.95-100%) for swabs, and 80.65% (73.54-86.54%) and 99.99% (99.95-100%) for saliva, respectively. These findings demonstrate that RT-LAMP is applicable to a variety of use-cases, including frequent, interval-based testing of saliva with Direct RT-LAMP from asymptomatic individuals that may otherwise be missed using symptomatic testing alone.

10.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21256396

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have been associated with higher rate of transmission, and evasion of immunisation and antibody therapeutics. Variant sequencing is widely utilized in the UK. However, only 0.5% (~650k) of the 133 million cumulative positive cases worldwide were sequenced (in GISAID) on 08 April 2021 with 97% from Europe and North America and only ~0.25% (~320k) were variant sequences. This may be due to the lack of availability, high cost, infrastructure and expert staff required for sequencing. Public health decisions based on a non-randomised sample of 0.5% of the population may be insufficiently powered, and subject to sampling bias and systematic error. In addition, sequencing is rarely available in situ in a clinically relevant timeframe and thus, is not currently compatible with diagnosis and treatment patient care pathways. Therefore, we investigated an alternative approach using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping to detect the key single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased transmission and immune evasion in SARS-CoV-2 variants. MethodsWe investigated the utility of SARS-CoV-2 SNP detection with a panel of PCR-genotyping assays in a large data set of 640,482 SARS-CoV-2 high quality, full length sequences using a prospective in silico trial design and explored the potential impact of rapid in situ variant testing on the COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment patient pathway. ResultsFive SNPs were selected by screening the published literature for a reported association with increased transmission and / or immune evasion. 344881 sequences contained one or more of the five SNPs. This algorithm of SNPs was found to be able to identify the four variants of concern (VOCs) and sequences containing the E484K and L452R escape mutations. InterpretationThe in silico analysis suggest that the key mutations and variants of SARS-CoV-2 may be reliably detected using a focused algorithm of biologically relevant SNPs. This highlights the potential for rapid in situ PCR genotyping to compliment or replace sequencing or to be utilized instead of sequences in settings where sequencing is not feasible, accessible or affordable. Rapid detection of variants with in situ PCR genotyping may facilitate a more effective COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment patient pathway. FundingThe study was funded by Primer Design (UK), with kind contributions from all academic partners.

11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20248834

ABSTRACT

Birmingham University Turnkey laboratory is part of the Lighthouse network responsible for testing clinical samples under the UK government Test & Trace scheme. Samples are analysed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory samples using the Thermofisher TaqPath RT-QPCR test, which is designed to co-amplify sections of three SARS-CoV-2 viral genes. Since more recent information became available regarding the presence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (S-VoC), which can show a suboptimal profile in RT-QPCR tests such as the ThermoFisher TaqPath used at the majority of Lighthouse laboratories, we analysed recently published data for trends and significance of the S-gene dropout variant. Results showed that: O_LIthe population of S-gene dropout samples had significantly lower median Ct values of ORF and N-gene targets compared to samples where S-gene was detected C_LIO_LIon a population basis, S-gene dropout samples clustered around very low Ct values for ORF and N targets C_LIO_LIlinked Ct values for individual samples showed that a low Ct for ORF and N were clearly associated with an S-dropout characteristic C_LIO_LIwhen conservatively inferring relative viral load from Ct values, approximately 35% of S-dropout samples had high viral loads between 10 and 10,000-fold greater than 1 x 106, compared to 10% of S-positive samples. C_LI This analysis suggests that patients whose samples exhibit the S-dropout profile in the TaqPath test are more likely to have high viral loads at the time of sampling. The relevance of this to epidemiological reports of fast spread of the SARS-CoV-2 in regions of the UK is discussed.

12.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20237784

ABSTRACT

Lateral flow devices are quickly being implemented for use in large scale population surveillance programs for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United Kingdom. These programs have been piloted in city wide screening in the city of Liverpool, and are now being rolled out to support care home visits and the return home of University students for the Christmas break. Here we present data on the performance of Lateral Flow devices to test almost 8,000 students at the University of Birmingham between December 2nd and December 9th 2020. The performance is validated against almost 800 samples using PCR performed in the University Pillar 2 testing lab, and theoretically validated on thousands of Pillar 2 PCR testing results performed on low-prevalence care home testing samples. Our data shows that Lateral Flow Devices do not detect infections presenting with PCR Ct values over 29-30, meaning that only 3.2% (95% CI 0.6% to 15.6%) of total cases in the student population were detected, but that as many of 85% of cases tested in the Pillar 2 PCR lab would have been detected theoretically

13.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20164848

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a life-threatening disease occurring several weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. MIS-C has overlapping clinical features with Kawasaki Disease (KD), a rare childhood vasculitis. MIS-C therapy is largely based on KD treatment protocols but whether these diseases share underpinning immunological perturbations is unknown. We performed deep immune profiling on blood samples from healthy children and patients with MIS-C or KD. Acute MIS-C patients had highly activated neutrophils, classical monocytes and memory CD8+ T-cells; increased frequencies of B-cell plasmablasts and CD27-IgD-double-negative B-cells; and increased levels of pro-inflammatory (IL6, IL18, IP10, MCP1) but also anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL1-RA, sTNFR1, sTNFR2) cytokines. Increased neutrophil count correlated with inflammation,cardiac dysfunction and disease severity. Two days after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, MIS-C patients had increased CD163 expression on monocytes, expansion of a novel population of immature neutrophils, and decreased levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the blood accompanied by a transient increase in arginase in some patients. Our data show MIS-C and KD share substantial immunopathology and identify potential new mechanisms of action for IVIG, a widely used anti-inflammatory drug used to treat MIS-C, KD and other inflammatory diseases.

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