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1.
Food Biosci ; 50: 101977, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004071

ABSTRACT

The novel enveloped ß-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has offered a surprising health challenge all over the world. It develops severe pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Like SARS-COV-2, other encapsulated viruses like HIV, HSV, and influenza have also offered a similar challenge in the past. In this regard, many antiviral drugs are being explored with varying degrees of success to combat the associated pathological conditions. Therefore, upon scientific validation & development, these antiviral phytochemicals can attain a futuristic nutraceutical prospect in managing different encapsulated viruses. Houttuynia cordata (HC) is widely reported for activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. The major antiviral bioactive components of HC include essential oils (methyl n-nonyl ketone, lauryl aldehyde, capryl aldehyde), flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, hyperin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin), and alkaloids (norcepharadione B) & polysaccharides. HC can further be explored as a potential nutraceutical agent in the therapy of encapsulated viruses like HIV, HSV, and influenza. The review listed various conventional and green technologies that are being employed to extract potent phytochemicals with diverse activities from the HC. It was indicated that HC also inhibited molecular targets like 3C-like protease (3CLPRO) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of COVID-19 by blocking viral RNA synthesis and replication. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of HC have been evident in impeding complications from marketed drugs during antiviral therapies. The use of HC as a nutraceutical is localized within some parts of Southeast Asia. Further technological advances can establish it as a nutraceutical-based functional food against pathogenic enveloped viruses like COVID 19.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 112023, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347502

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the most recent coronaviruses, which has infected humans, and caused the disease COVID-19. The World Health Organization has declared COVID-19 as a pandemic in March 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 enters human hosts majorly via the respiratory tract, affecting the lungs first. In few critical cases, the infection progresses to failure of the respiratory system known as acute respiratory distress syndrome acute respiratory distress syndrome may be further associated with multi-organ failure and vasoplegic shock. Currently, the treatment of COVID-19 involves use of antiviral and anti-cytokine drugs. However, both the drugs have low efficacy because they cannot inhibit the production of free radicals and cytokines at the same time. Recently, some researchers have reported the use of methylene blue (MB) in COVID-19 management. MB has been used since a long time as a therapeutic agent, and has been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of other diseases. The additional advantage of MB is its low cost. MB is a safe drug when used in the dose of < 2 mg/kg. In this review, the applicability of MB in COVID-19 and its mechanistic aspects have been explored and compiled. The clinical studies have been explained in great detail. Thus, the potential of MB in the management of COVID-19 has been examined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning/methods , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 43(1): 1951291, 2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345688

ABSTRACT

The unending outburst of COVID-19 has reinforced the necessity of SARS-CoV-2 identification approaches for the prevention of infection transmission and the proper care of severe and critical patients. As there is no cure, a prompt and reliable diagnosis of SARS-CoV2 is vital to counter the spread and to provide adequate care and treatment for the infection. Currently, RT-PCR is a gold standard detection method for the qualitative and quantitative detection of viral nucleic acids. Besides, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is also a primarily used method for qualitative estimation of viral load. However, almost all the detection methods have their pros and cons in terms of specificity, accuracy, sensitivity, cost, time consumption, the need for sophisticated laboratories, and the requirement of skilled technical experts to carry out the detection tests. Thus, it is suggested to integrate different techniques to enhance the detection efficiency and accurateness for SARS-CoV2. This review focuses on preliminary, pre-confirmatory, and confirmatory methods of detection such as imaging techniques (chest-X-ray and chest- computed tomography), nucleic acid detection methods, serological assay methods, and viral culture and identification methods that are currently being employed to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection along with recent detection method and applicability for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , RNA, Viral , Radiography, Thoracic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 32(8): 1815-1826, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196926

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019 and 2020s, a wave of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) epidemics worldwide has catalyzed a new era of 'communicable infectious diseases'. However, the world is not currently prepared to deal with the growing burden of COVID-19, with the unexpected arrival of Hantavirus infection heading to the next several healthcare emergencies in public. Hantavirus is a significant class of zoonotic pathogens of negative-sense single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA). Hemorrhagic renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are the two major clinical manifestations. Till date, there is no effective treatments or vaccines available, public awareness and precautionary measures can help to reduce the spread of hantavirus disease. In this study, we outline the epidemiology, virology, clinical aspects, and existing HFRS and HCPS management approaches. This review will give an understanding of virus-host interactions and will help for the early preparation and effective handling of further outbreaks in an ever-changing environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hantavirus Infections , Hantavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hantavirus/genetics , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans
5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 883: 173375, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959749

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a newly emerged pathogen in December 2019, marked as one of the highly pathogenic Coronavirus, and altogether this is the third coronavirus attack that crossed the species barrier. As of 1st July 2020, it is spreading around 216 countries, areas or territories, and a total of 10,185,374 and 503,862 confirmed cases and death reports, respectively. The SARS-CoV-2 virus entered into the target cells by binding with the hACE2 receptors. Spike glycoprotein promotes the entry of the virus into host target cells. Literature reported a significant mutation in receptor binding sites and membrane proteins of the previous SARS-CoV to turned as SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for most dreadful pandemic COVID-19. These modifications may be the probable reason for the extreme transmission and pathogenicity of the virus. A hasty spread of COVID-19 throughout the world is highly threatening, but still, scientists do not have a proper therapeutic measure to fight with it. Scientists are endeavoring across the world to find effective therapy to combat COVID 19. Several drugs such as Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Ribavirin, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Favipiravir, Interferons, Bevacizumab, Azithromycin, etc. are currently under clinical trials. Vaccine development from various pharmaceutical companies and research institutes is under progress, and more than ten vaccine candidates are in the various phases of clinical trials. This review work highlighted the origin, emergence, structural features, pathogenesis, and clinical features of COVID-19. We have also discussed the in-line treatment strategies, preventive measures, and vaccines to combat the emergence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Respiratory Medicine ; : 106192, 2020.
Article | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-867095

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, when the whole world is waiting for Christmas and New Year, the physicians of Wuhan, China, are astounded by clusters of patients suffering from pneumonia from unknown causes. The pathogen isolated from the respiratory epithelium of the patients is similar to previously known coronaviruses with some distinct features. The disease was initially called nCoV-2019 or SARS-nCoV-2 and later termed as COVID-19 by WHO. The infection is rapidly propagating from the day of emergence, spread throughout the globe and now became a pandemic which challenged the competencies of developed nations in terms of health care management. As per WHO report, 216 countries are affected with SARS-CoV-19 by August 5, 2020 with 18, 142, 718 confirmed cases and 691,013 deaths reports. Such huge mortality and morbidity rates are truly threatening and calls for some aggressive and effective measures to slow down the disease transmission. The scientists are constantly engaged in finding a potential solution to diagnose and treat the pandemic. Various FDA approved drugs with the previous history of antiviral potency are repurposed for COVID-19 treatment. Different drugs and vaccines are under clinical trials and some rapid and effective diagnostic tools are also under development. In this review, we have highlighted the current epidemiology through infographics, disease transmission and progression, clinical features and diagnosis and possible therapeutic approaches for COVID-19. The article mainly focused on the development and possible application of various FDA approved drugs, including chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, nefamostate mesylate, penciclovir, nitazoxanide, ribavirin etc., vaccines under development and various registered clinical trials exploring different therapeutic measures for the treatment of COVID-19. This information will definitely help the researchers to understand the in-line scientific progress by various clinical agencies and regulatory bodies against COVID-19.

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