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1.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22279903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDOver 20% of cases and 0.4% of deaths from Covid-19 occur in children. Following demonstration of safety and efficacy of the adjuvanted, recombinant spike protein vaccine NVX-CoV2373 in adults, the PREVENT-19 trial enrolled adolescents. METHODSSafety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 were evaluated in adolescents aged 12 to <18 years in an expansion of PREVENT-19, a phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in the United States. Participants were randomized 2:1 to two doses of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo 21 days apart, and followed for a median of 2 months after second vaccination. Primary end points were serologic non-inferiority of neutralizing antibody (NA) responses compared with young adults (18 to <26 years) in PREVENT-19, protective efficacy against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19, and assessment of reactogenicity/safety. RESULTSAmong 2,247 participants randomized between April-June 2021, 1,491 were allocated to NVX-CoV2373 and 756 to placebo. Post-vaccination, the ratio of NA geometric mean titers in adolescents compared to young adults was 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 1.7). Twenty Covid-19 cases (all mild) occurred: 6 among NVX-CoV2373 and 14 among placebo recipients (vaccine efficacy [VE]: 79.5%, 95% CI, 46.8 to 92.1). All sequenced viral genomes (11/20) were identified as Delta variant (Delta variant VE: 82.0% [95% CI: 32.4 to 95.2]). Reactogenicity was largely mild-to-moderate, transient, and more frequent in NVX-CoV2373 recipients and after the second dose. Serious adverse events were rare and evenly distributed between treatments. CONCLUSIONSNVX-CoV2373 was safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in the prevention of Covid-19 and those cases caused by the Delta variant in adolescents. (Funded by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health; PREVENT-19 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04611802).

2.
3D Print Med ; 8(1): 2, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has led to global shortages of ventilators and accessories. One solution to this problem is to split ventilators between multiple patients, which poses the difficulty of treating two patients with dissimilar ventilation needs. A proposed solution to this problem is the use of 3D-printed flow splitters and restrictors. There is little data available on the reliability of such devices and how the use of different 3D printing methods might affect their performance. METHODS: We performed flow resistance measurements on 30 different 3D-printed restrictor designs produced using a range of fused deposition modelling and stereolithography printers and materials, from consumer grade printers using polylactic acid filament to professional printers using surgical resin. We compared their performance to novel computational fluid dynamics models driven by empirical ventilator flow rate data. This indicates the ideal performance of a part that matches the computer model. RESULTS: The 3D-printed restrictors varied considerably between printers and materials to a sufficient degree that would make them unsafe for clinical use without individual testing. This occurs because the interior surface of the restrictor is rough and has a reduced nominal average diameter when compared to the computer model. However, we have also shown that with careful calibration it is possible to tune the end-inspiratory (tidal) volume by titrating the inspiratory time on the ventilator. CONCLUSIONS: Computer simulations of differential multi patient ventilation indicate that the use of 3D-printed flow splitters is viable. However, in situ testing indicates that using 3D printers to produce flow restricting orifices is not recommended, as the flow resistance can deviate significantly from expected values depending on the type of printer used. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.

3.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009618

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer and systemic anti-cancer treatment (SACT) have been identified as possible risk factors for infection and related severe illness associated with SARS-CoV-2 virus as a consequence of immune suppression. The Scottish COVID CAncer iMmunity Prevalence (SCCAMP) study aimed to characterise the incidence and outcomes of SARS-Cov-2 infection in patients undergoing active anticancer treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic and their antibody response following vaccination. Methods: Eligible patients were those attending secondary care for active anti-cancer treatment for a solid tumour. Blood samples were taken for total SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay (Siemens) at baseline and after 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 months. Data on COVID-19 infection, vaccination, cancer type, treatment and outcome (patient death) was obtained from routine electronic health records. Results: The study recruited 766 eligible participants between 28th May 2020 and 31st October 2021. During the study period there were 174 deaths (22%). The median age was 63 years, and 67% were female. Most received cytotoxic chemotherapy (79%), with the remaining 14% receiving immunotherapy and 7% receiving another form of anti-cancer therapy (radiotherapy, other systemic anti-cancer treatment). 48 (6.3%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR during the study period. The overall infection rate matched that of the local adult general population until May 2021, after which population levels appeared higher than the study population. Antibody testing detected additional evidence of infection prior to vaccination, taking the total number to 58 (7.6%). There was no significant difference in SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive test rates based on type of anti-cancer treatment. Mortality rates were similar between those who died within 90 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR and those with no positive PCR (10.4% vs 10.6%). Death from all causes was lowest among vaccinated patients, and of the patients who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR at any time, all of those who died during the study period were unvaccinated. Multivariate analysis correcting for age, gender, socioeconomic status, Charlson co-morbidity score and number of previous medications revealed that vaccination was associated with a significantly lower infection rate regardless of treatment with chemotherapy or immunotherapy with hazard ratios of 0.307 (95% CI 0.144-0.6548) or 0.314 (95% CI 0.041-2.367) in vaccinated patients respectively. Where antibody data was available, 96.3% of patients successfully raised SARSCoV-2 antibodies at a time point after vaccination. This was unaffected by treatment type. Conclusions: SCCAMP provides real-world evidence that patients with cancer undergoing SACT have a high antibody response and protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection following COVID-19 vaccination.

4.
Vaccines ; 10(9):1437, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2006269

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 serologic surveys estimate the proportion of the population with antibodies against historical variants, which nears 100% in many settings. New approaches are required to fully exploit serosurvey data. Using a SARS-CoV-2 anti-Spike (S) protein chemiluminescent microparticle assay, we attained a semi-quantitative measurement of population IgG titers in serial cross-sectional monthly samples of blood donations across seven Brazilian state capitals (March 2021–November 2021). Using an ecological analysis, we assessed the contributions of prior attack rate and vaccination to antibody titer. We compared anti-S titer across the seven cities during the growth phase of the Delta variant and used this to predict the resulting age-standardized incidence of severe COVID-19 cases. We tested ~780 samples per month, per location. Seroprevalence rose to >95% across all seven capitals by November 2021. Driven by vaccination, mean antibody titer increased 16-fold over the study, with the greatest increases occurring in cities with the highest prior attack rates. Mean anti-S IgG was strongly correlated (adjusted R2 = 0.89) with the number of severe cases caused by Delta. Semi-quantitative anti-S antibody titers are informative about prior exposure and vaccination coverage and may also indicate the potential impact of future SARS-CoV-2 variants.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 512, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The investigation of patient-reported outcomes and psycho-oncological interventions mainly focuses on psychological distress or psychopathology. However, the recognition of the equal importance of positive mental health (PMH) has increased lately. The PMH-scale is a brief questionnaire allowing to assess well-being in individuals in the general population and in patients. Previous studies evaluated the psychometric properties of the PMH-scale using classical test theory (CTT). This study is the first to investigate the PMH-scale in patients with cancer using item analysis according to the Rasch model. METHODS: In total, N = 357 cancer patients participated in the study. A Rasch analysis of the PMH-scale was conducted including testing of unidimensionality, local independence, homogeneity and differential item functioning (DIF) with regard to age, gender, type of cancer, the presence of metastases, psycho-oncological support, and duration of disease. Additionally, the ordering of the item thresholds as well as the targeting of the scale were investigated. RESULTS: After excluding one misfitting item and accounting for local dependence by forming superitems, a satisfactory overall fit to the Rasch model was established (χ2 = 30.34, p = 0.21). The new PMH-8 scale proved to be unidimensional, and homogeneity of the scale could be inferred. All items showed ordered thresholds, there was no further item misfit. DIF was found for age, but as the impact of DIF was not substantial, no adjustment related to the age-DIF had to be made. The Person Separation Index (PSI = 0.89) was excellent, indicating excellent discriminatory power between different levels of positive mental health. Overall, the targeting of the PMH-8 was good for the majority of the present sample. However, at both ends of the scale item thresholds are missing as indicated by a slight floor effect (1.4%) and a considerable ceiling effect (9.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of the analysis according to the Rasch model support the use of the revised PMH-scale in a psycho-oncological context.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Humans , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac238, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001400

ABSTRACT

Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir was recently granted emergency use authorization for mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019. Drug-drug interactions between ritonavir and tacrolimus are underappreciated by nontransplant providers. We describe 2 solid organ transplant recipients prescribed nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for outpatient use who developed tacrolimus toxicity requiring hospitalization and were managed with rifampin for toxicity reversal.

8.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis ; 21:S132-S133, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996792

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In Northern Ireland, the Public Health Agency fund an exercise referral programme "Healthwise" for patients over the age of 19. Currently there is no equivalent in NI for children. Our vision was to break down the barriers to exercise within the paediatric CF cohort and empower our service users to engage in more exercise. There is strong evidence to support that a change in lifestyle in childhood is more likely to be continued into adult life. We developed a partnership with Helping Hand, the children’s hospital charity, providing short-term gym access - "Commit to Fit". Methods: Service users were selected to participate based on decreased activity levels, socioeconomic circumstances and disease status with the aim of improving motivation and adherence to exercise. A local gym was identified and contact made to personal trainers through our physiotherapy outreach service. We provided general advice regarding CF and exercising, infection control and any relevant patient specific information. Baseline outcome measures included lung function, cycle ergometer exercise test, PAQ, CFQ-R questionnaire, and Kids screen 27 Health Questionnaire. Results: Fifteen participants started the programme at launch in 2019;9 completed, 2 dropped out, and 4 suspended due to COVID-19 restrictions. 100% of the 9 who completed the programme had improvements in their PAQ score. 88% maintained or improved their CFQ-R score.100% maintained or improved their percentage predicted in the cycle ergometer test. Conclusions: Results show improvements in exercise ability, participation levels and quality of life.This shows the value of promoting community exercise in the paediatric CF population. However, COVID-19 restrictions limited the recruitment of participants to the programme and the measurement of long-term health benefits. 2021/22 recruitment has restarted with 5 participants so far, andwe plan to followup with the initial group

9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013555, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open fractures of the major long bones are complex limb-threatening injuries that are predisposed to deep infection. Treatment includes antibiotics and surgery to debride the wound, stabilise the fracture and reconstruct any soft tissue defect to enable infection-free bone repair. There is a need to assess the effect of timing and duration of antibiotic administration and timing and staging of surgical interventions to optimise outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (risks and benefits) of the timing of antibiotic administration, wound debridement and the stages of surgical interventions in managing people with open long bone fractures of the upper and lower limbs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase and clinical trial registers in February 2021. We also searched conference proceedings and reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that recruited adults with open fractures of the major long bones, comparing: 1) timings of prophylactic antibiotic treatment, 2) duration of prophylactic antibiotic treatment, 3) timing of wound debridement following injury or 4) timing of the stages of reconstructive surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We aimed to collect data for the following outcomes: limb function, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), deep surgical site infection, delayed or non-union, adverse events (in the short- and long-term course of recovery), and resource-related outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: We included three RCTs of 613 randomised participants with 617 open fractures. Studies were conducted in medical and trauma centres in the USA and Kenya. Where reported, there was a higher proportion of men and a mean age of participants between 30 and 34 years old. Fractures were in the upper and lower limbs in one study, and were tibia fractures in two studies; where reported, these were the result of high-energy trauma such as road traffic accidents. No studies compared the timing of antibiotic treatment or wound debridement. Duration of prophylactic antibiotic treatment (1 study, 77 participants available for analysis) One study compared antibiotic treatment for 24 hours with antibiotic treatment for five days. We are very uncertain about the effects of different durations of antibiotic treatment on superficial infections (risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% CI 0.49 to 2.87, favours 5 day treatment; 1 study, 77 participants); this was very low-certainty evidence derived from one small study with unclear and high risks of bias, and with an imprecise effect estimate. This study reported no other review outcomes. Reconstructive surgery: timing of the stages of surgery (2 studies, 458 participants available for analysis) Two studies compared the timing of wound closure, which was completed immediately or delayed. In one study, the mean time of delay was 5.9 days; in the other study, the time of delay was not reported. We are very uncertain about the effects of different timings of wound closure on deep infections (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.80, favours immediate closure; 2 studies, 458 participants), delayed union or non-union (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.55, favours delayed closure; 1 study, 387 participants), or superficial infections (RR 6.45, 95% CI 0.35 to 120.43, favours delayed closure; 1 study, 71 participants); this was very low-certainty evidence. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for very serious risks of bias because both studies had unclear and high risks of bias. We also downgraded for serious imprecision because effect estimates were imprecise, including the possibility of benefits as well as harms, and very serious imprecision when the data were derived from single small study. These studies reported no other review outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We could not determine the risks and benefits of different treatment protocols for open long bone fractures because the evidence was very uncertain for the two comparisons and we did not find any studies addressing the other possible comparisons. Well-designed randomised trials with adequate power are needed to guide surgical and antibiotic treatment of open fractures, particularly with regard to timing and duration of antibiotic administration and timing and staging of surgery.


Subject(s)
Fractures, Open , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Debridement , Fractures, Open/surgery , Humans , Lower Extremity , Male
10.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(42): 717, 2020 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383842
11.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976741

ABSTRACT

Two randomized controlled trials demonstrated no clinical benefit of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for either post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) or early treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using data from these studies, we calculated time-weighted average change from baseline SARS-CoV-2 viral load and demonstrated that HCQ did not affect viral clearance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4416, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967601

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) have triggered infection waves. Oral antivirals such as molnupiravir promise to improve disease management, but efficacy against VOC delta was questioned and potency against omicron is unknown. This study evaluates molnupiravir against VOC in human airway epithelium organoids, ferrets, and a lethal Roborovski dwarf hamster model of severe COVID-19-like lung injury. VOC were equally inhibited by molnupiravir in cells and organoids. Treatment reduced shedding in ferrets and prevented transmission. Pathogenicity in dwarf hamsters was VOC-dependent and highest for delta, gamma, and omicron. All molnupiravir-treated dwarf hamsters survived, showing reduction in lung virus load from one (delta) to four (gamma) orders of magnitude. Treatment effect size varied in individual dwarf hamsters infected with omicron and was significant in males, but not females. The dwarf hamster model recapitulates mixed efficacy of molnupiravir in human trials and alerts that benefit must be reassessed in vivo as VOC evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cricetinae , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Ferrets , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Lung , Male
13.
EBioMedicine ; 83: 104196, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In late 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of concern (VoC) was reported with many mutations in the viral spike protein that were predicted to enhance transmissibility and allow viral escape of neutralizing antibodies. Within weeks of the first report of B.1.1.529, this VoC has rapidly spread throughout the world, replacing previously circulating strains of SARS-CoV-2 and leading to a resurgence in COVID-19 cases even in populations with high levels of vaccine- and infection-induced immunity. Studies have shown that B.1.1.529 is less sensitive to protective antibody conferred by previous infections and vaccines developed against earlier lineages of SARS-CoV-2. The ability of B.1.1.529 to spread even among vaccinated populations has led to a global public health demand for updated vaccines that can confer protection against B.1.1.529. METHODS: We rapidly developed a replicating RNA vaccine expressing the B.1.1.529 spike and evaluated immunogenicity in mice and hamsters. We also challenged hamsters with B.1.1.529 and evaluated whether vaccination could protect against viral shedding and replication within respiratory tissue. FINDINGS: We found that mice previously immunized with A.1-specific vaccines failed to elevate neutralizing antibody titers against B.1.1.529 following B.1.1.529-targeted boosting, suggesting pre-existing immunity may impact the efficacy of B.1.1.529-targeted boosters. Furthermore, we found that our B.1.1.529-targeted vaccine provides superior protection compared to the ancestral A.1-targeted vaccine in hamsters challenged with the B.1.1.529 VoC after a single dose of each vaccine. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that B.1.1.529-targeted vaccines may provide superior protection against B.1.1.529 but pre-existing immunity and timing of boosting may need to be considered for optimum protection. FUNDING: This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program, NIAID/NIH, Washington Research Foundation and by grants 27220140006C (JHE), AI100625, AI151698, and AI145296 (MG).

15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 46: 101360, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959480

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV-infection is known to aggravate the course of many infectious diseases, including COVID-19. International guidance recommends vaccination of HIV+ individuals against SARS-CoV-2. There is a paucity of data on epidemiological efficacy assessment of COVID-19 vaccines among HIV+. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of Sputnik V vaccine effectiveness in HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study to assess the effectiveness of the standard Sputnik V vaccination regimen in 24,423 HIV+ Moscow residents during spring - summer 2021, that included dominance of delta variant, with estimation of hospitalization and severe illness rates in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. Data were extracted from the Moscow anti-COVID-19 vaccination and COVID-19 incidence Registries. Findings: The data obtained indicate that Sputnik V epidemiological efficiency in the entire cohort of HIV+ on ART was 76·33%; in HIV+ with CD4+ ≥ 350 cells/µl, vaccine efficiency was 79·42%, avoiding hospitalization in 90·12% cases and protecting from the development of moderate or severe disease in 97·06%. For delta variant in this group the efficiency was 65·35%, avoiding the need for hospitalization in 75·77% cases and protecting from the development of moderate or severe disease in 93·05% of patients. There was a trend, although not statistically significant, of declining vaccine efficiency in immune-compromised individuals (CD4+ < 350 cells/µl). Interpretation: The study suggested epidemiological efficiency of immunization with Sputnik V in HIV+ ART-treated patients for the original and delta SARS-CoV-2 variants. Funding: Ministry of Health of Russia and Moscow Healthcare Department.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; : 157614, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956331

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic in December 2019, there have been global surges of single-use plastic use. Due to the importance of personal protective equipment (PPE) and sanitation items in protecting against virus transmission and from testing, facemasks, respirators, disposable gloves and disposable wet wipes have become global staples in households and institutions. Widespread use and insufficient infrastructure, combined with improper waste management have resulted in an emerging category of litter. With widespread presence in the environment, such items pose a direct threat to wildlife as animals can interact with them in a series of ways. We examined the scope of COVID-19 pandemic-related debris, including PPE and sanitation items, on wildlife from April 2020 to December 2021. We document the geographic occurrence of incidents, debris types, and consequences of incidents that were obtained from social media searches, unpublished reports from colleagues, and reports available from the citizen science database "Birds and Debris". There were 114 unique sightings of wildlife interactions with pandemic-related debris (38 from 2020 and 76 from 2021). Within the context of this dataset, most incidents involved birds (83.3 %), while fewer affected mammals (10.5 %), invertebrates (3.5 %), fish (1.8 %), and sea turtles (0.9 %). Sightings originated in 23 countries, and consisted mostly of entanglements (42.1 %) and nest incorporations (40.4 %). We verified sightings by contacting the original observers and were able to identify replicated sightings and increase the resolution of the data collected compared with previously published results. Due to the complexities associated with global use and accessibility of digital platforms, we likely underestimate the number of animals harmed by debris. Overall, the global scope of this study demonstrates that online and social media platforms are a valuable way to collect biologically relevant citizen science data and track rapidly emerging environmental challenges.

17.
J Mol Diagn ; 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936842

ABSTRACT

Amplicon-based sequencing methods have been central in characterizing the diversity, transmission, and evolution of SARS-CoV-2, but need to be rigorously assessed for clinical utility. Here, we validated the Swift Biosciences' SARS-CoV-2 Swift Normalase Amplicon Panels using remnant clinical specimens. High quality genomes meeting our established library and sequence quality criteria were recovered from positive specimens with 95% limit of detection of 40.08 SARS-CoV-2 copies/PCR reaction. Breadth of genome recovery ≥was evaluated across a range of Ct values (11.3 - 36.7, median 21.6). Out of 428 positive samples, 413 (96.5%) generated genomes with < 10% Ns, with a mean genome coverage of 13,545X ± SD 8,382X. No genomes were recovered from PCR-negative specimens (n = 30), or from specimens positive for non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses (n = 20). Compared to whole-genome shotgun metagenomic sequencing (n = 14) or Sanger sequencing for the spike gene (n = 11), pairwise identity between consensus sequences was 100% in all cases, with highly concordant allele frequencies (R2 = 0.99) between Swift and shotgun libraries. When samples from different clades were mixed at varying ratios, expected variants were detected even in 1:99 mixtures. When deployed as a clinical test, 268 tests were performed in the first 23 weeks with a median turnaround time of 11 days, ordered primarily for outbreak investigations and infection control.

18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22278278

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThere are reports of viral RNA and symptom rebound in people with COVID-19 treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. Since the natural course of viral and symptom trajectories of COVID-19 has not been well described, we evaluated the incidence of viral and symptom rebound in untreated outpatients with mild-moderate COVID-19. MethodsThe study population included 568 participants enrolled in the ACTIV-2/A5401 platform trial who received placebo. Anterior nasal swabs were collected for SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing on days 0-14, 21 and 28. Participants recorded the severity of 13 targeted symptoms daily from day 0 to 28. Viral rebound was defined as [≥]0.5 log10 viral RNA copies/mL increase and symptom rebound was defined as a 4-point total symptom score increase from baseline. Baseline was defined as study day 4 (primary analysis) or 8 days from symptom onset (secondary analysis). FindingsIn both the primary and secondary analyses, 12% of participants had viral rebound. Viral rebounders were older than non-rebounders (median 54 vs 47 years, P=0.04). Symptom rebound occurred in 27% of participants after initial symptom improvement and in 10% of participants after initial symptom resolution. The combination of high-level viral rebound to [≥]5.0 log10 RNA copies/mL and symptom rebound after initial improvement was observed in 1-2% of participants. InterpretationViral RNA rebound or symptom relapse in the absence of antiviral treatment is common, but the combination of high-level viral and symptom rebound is rare. FundingThis study was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ACTIV-2/A5401 ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04518410.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928683

ABSTRACT

The new Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, first identified in November 2021, is rapidly spreading all around the world. Omicron has become the dominant variant of SARS-CoV-2. There are many ongoing studies evaluating the effectiveness of existing vaccines. Studies on the neutralizing activity of vaccinated sera against the Omicron variant are currently being carried out in many laboratories. In this study, we have shown the neutralizing activity of sera against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant compared to the reference Wuhan D614G variant in individuals vaccinated with two doses of Sputnik V up to 6 months after vaccination and in individuals who experienced SARS-CoV-2 infection either before or after vaccination. As a control to our study we also measured neutralizing antibody titers in individuals vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2. The decrease in NtAb titers to the Omicron variant was 8.1-fold for the group of Sputnik V-vaccinated individuals. When the samples were stratified for the time period after vaccination, a 7.6-fold or 8.8-fold decrease in NtAb titers was noticed after up to 3 and 3-to-6 months after vaccination. We observed a 6.7- and 5-fold decrease in Sputnik V-vaccinated individuals experiencing asymptomatic or symptomatic infection, respectively. These results highlight the observation that the decrease in NtAb to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant compared to the Wuhan variant occurs for different COVID-19 vaccines in use, with some showing no neutralization at all, confirming the necessity of a third booster vaccination.

20.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927831

ABSTRACT

Rationale Although there is considerable interest in machine learning (ML) algorithms to improve patient care, implementation of these algorithms into practice has been limited. Our team developed and validated a deep learning algorithm to predict respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), including those with COVID-19. To help optimize implementation of this tool, we developed and disseminated a survey assessing ICU physician perspectives on the acceptability and feasibility of this tool at our institution. Methods We distributed an 8-item survey to 99 critical care trainees and faculty at our institution via email. The survey consisted of 6 multiple choice and 2 free response questions, with an ordinal scale of 1-5 used in perception-based questions. The survey was designed in accordance with international recommendations for web-based surveys. Our survey was reviewed for completeness by a team of critical care, machine learning, and implementation science experts. Data were collected over a 2- week period in May of 2021. This survey was anonymous and exempt from IRB review. Results Fifty-three critical care physicians (53.5% of providers contacted) started the survey, and of these, 88.7% (47/53) completed the survey. Fifty-nine percent (n=31) of respondents were attendings, 36% (n=19) fellows, and 3.7% (n=2) residents. Baseline knowledge of ML was low (mean= 2.40/5), with only 7.5% (n=4) of respondents rating their knowledge as a 4 or 5. Fifteen percent (n=8) had knowingly used an ML-based tool in their clinical practice. Confidence in predicting the need for mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19 (mean=3.57/5) was slightly lower than for respiratory failure due to all other causes (mean=3.89/5). Overall willingness to utilize an ML-based algorithm was favorable (mean=3.32/5). Factors most likely to increase likelihood of utilization were “high quality evidence that it outperformed trained clinicians” (mean=4.28/5), “transparency of the data utilized” (mean= 4.13/5), and “limited workflow interruption” (mean=4.09/5). Shared concerns from participants included “alarm fatigue” and “workflow interruption.” Conclusion The results suggest that ICU physicians have had limited exposure to ML-based tools, but feel such a tool would be beneficial in the context of predicting need for mechanical ventilation in ICU patients and those with COVID-19. Evidence of the tool's efficacy and data transparency were high priorities for respondents, and there was concern over workflow interruptions. This survey provided a baseline assessment of physician acceptance of a novel ML-based tool, which will be crucial in optimizing its implementation into clinical practice at our institution.

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