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1.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(23):15735, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2123670

ABSTRACT

Studies reported post-COVID-19 fatigue in the general population, but not among pregnant women. Our objectives were to determine prevalence, duration, and risk factors of post-viral fatigue among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2. This study involved 588 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy or delivery in Brazil. Three groups were investigated: G1 (n = 259, symptomatic infection during pregnancy);G2 (n = 131, positive serology at delivery);G3 (n = 198, negative serology at delivery). We applied questionnaires investigating fatigue at determined timepoints after infection for G1, and after delivery for all groups;fatigue prevalence was then determined. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI of the risk of remaining with fatigue in G1. Overall fatigue prevalence in G1 at six weeks, three months and six months were 40.6%, 33.6%, and 27.8%, respectively. Cumulative risk of remaining with fatigue increased over time, with HR of 1.69 (95% CI: 0.89-3.20) and 2.43 (95% CI: 1.49-3.95) for women with moderate and severe symptoms, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed cough and myalgia as independent risk factors in G1. Fatigue prevalence was significantly higher in G1 compared to G2 and G3. Post-viral fatigue prevalence is higher in women infected during pregnancy;fatigue's risk and duration increased with the severity of infection.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 667, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779627

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic placed an unprecedented overload on healthcare system globally. With all medical resources being dedicated to contain the spread of the disease, the pandemic may have impacted the burden of other infectious diseases such as dengue, particularly in countries endemic for dengue fever. Indeed, the co-occurrence of COVID-19 made dengue diagnosis challenging because of some shared clinical manifestations between the two pathogens. Furthermore, the sudden emergence and novelty of this global public health crisis has forced the suspension or slow-down of several research trials due to the lack of sufficient knowledge on how to handle the continuity of research trials during the pandemic. We report on challenges we have faced during the COVID-19 pandemic and measures that were implemented to continue the iDEM project (intervention for Dengue Epidemiology in Malaysia). METHODS: This randomized controlled trial aims to assess the effectiveness of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) on the incidence of dengue in urban Malaysia by combining: targeted outdoor residual spraying (TORS), deployment of auto-dissemination devices (ADDs), and active community engagement (CE). Our operational activities started on February 10, 2020, a few weeks before the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain the spread of COVID-19 in Malaysia. RESULTS: The three main issues affecting the continuity of the trial were: ensuring the safety of field workers during the interventions; ensuring the planned turnover of TORS application and ADD deployment and services; and maintaining the CE activities as far as possible. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the pandemic has created monumental challenges, we ensured the safety of field workers by providing complete personal protective equipment and regular COVID-19 testing. Albeit with delay, we maintained the planned interval time between TORS application and ADDs services by overlapping the intervention cycles instead of having them in a sequential scheme. CE activities continued remotely through several channels (e.g., phone calls and text messages). Sustained efforts of the management team, significant involvement of the Malaysian Ministry of Health and a quick and smart adaptation of the trial organisation according to the pandemic situation were the main factors that allowed the successful continuation of our research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: ISRCTN-81915073 . Date of registration: 17/04/2020, 'Retrospectively registered'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 127, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The city of Manaus, north Brazil, was stricken by a second epidemic wave of SARS-CoV-2 despite high seroprevalence estimates, coinciding with the emergence of the Gamma (P.1) variant. Reinfections were postulated as a partial explanation for the second surge. However, accurate calculation of reinfection rates is difficult when stringent criteria as two time-separated RT-PCR tests and/or genome sequencing are required. To estimate the proportion of reinfections caused by Gamma during the second wave in Manaus and the protection conferred by previous infection, we identified anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody boosting in repeat blood donors as a mean to infer reinfection. METHODS: We tested serial blood samples from unvaccinated repeat blood donors in Manaus for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using two assays that display waning in early convalescence, enabling the detection of reinfection-induced boosting. Donors were required to have three or more donations, being at least one during each epidemic wave. We propose a strict serological definition of reinfection (reactivity boosting following waning like a V-shaped curve in both assays or three spaced boostings), probable (two separate boosting events) and possible (reinfection detected by only one assay) reinfections. The serial samples were used to divide donors into six groups defined based on the inferred sequence of infection and reinfection with non-Gamma and Gamma variants. RESULTS: From 3655 repeat blood donors, 238 met all inclusion criteria, and 223 had enough residual sample volume to perform both serological assays. We found 13.6% (95% CI 7.0-24.5%) of all presumed Gamma infections that were observed in 2021 were reinfections. If we also include cases of probable or possible reinfections, these percentages increase respectively to 22.7% (95% CI 14.3-34.2%) and 39.3% (95% CI 29.5-50.0%). Previous infection conferred a protection against reinfection of 85.3% (95% CI 71.3-92.7%), decreasing to respectively 72.5% (95% CI 54.7-83.6%) and 39.5% (95% CI 14.1-57.8%) if probable and possible reinfections are included. CONCLUSIONS: Reinfection by Gamma is common and may play a significant role in epidemics where Gamma is prevalent, highlighting the continued threat variants of concern pose even to settings previously hit by substantial epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Donors , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Reinfection , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Lancet Regional Health. Americas ; 5:100119-100119, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652110

ABSTRACT

Background Brazil is one of the countries worst affected by the COVID-19 pandemic with over 20 million cases and 557,000 deaths reported by August 2021. Comparison of real-time local COVID-19 data between areas is essential for understanding transmission, measuring the effects of interventions, and predicting the course of the epidemic, but are often challenging due to different population sizes and structures. Methods We describe the development of a new app for the real-time visualisation of COVID-19 data in Brazil at the municipality level. In the CLIC-Brazil app, daily updates of case and death data are downloaded, age standardised and used to estimate the effective reproduction number (Rt). We show how such platforms can perform real-time regression analyses to identify factors associated with the rate of initial spread and early reproduction number. We also use survival methods to predict the likelihood of occurrence of a new peak of COVID-19 incidence. Findings After an initial introduction in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states in early March 2020, the epidemic spread to northern states and then to highly populated coastal regions and the Central-West. Municipalities with higher metrics of social development experienced earlier arrival of COVID-19 (decrease of 11·1 days [95% CI:8.9,13.2] in the time to arrival for each 10% increase in the social development index). Differences in the initial epidemic intensity (mean Rt) were largely driven by geographic location and the date of local onset. Interpretation This study demonstrates that platforms that monitor, standardise and analyse the epidemiological data at a local level can give useful real-time insights into outbreak dynamics that can be used to better adapt responses to the current and future pandemics. Funding This project was supported by a Medical Research Council UK (MRC-UK) -São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) CADDE partnership award (MR/S0195/1 and FAPESP 18/14389-0)

5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256566, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adequate testing is critically important for control of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Antibody testing is an option for case management and epidemiologic studies, with high specificity and variable sensitivity. However, characteristics of local populations may affect performance of these tests. For this reason, the National Institute of Health (INS) and regulatory agencies in Colombia require verification of diagnostic accuracy of tests introduced to the Colombian market. METHODS: We conducted a validation study of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 test for qualitative detection of IgG using the Abbott Architect i2000SR. Participants and retrospective samples were included from patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, age ≥18 years, and ≥8 days elapsed since initiation of symptoms. Pre-pandemic plasma samples (taken before October 2019) were used as controls. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity and agreement (kappa) of the Abbott IgG test compared to the gold standard (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The overall sensitivity was 83.1% (95% CI: 75.4-100). Sensitivity among patients with ≥14 days since the start of symptoms was 85.7%, reaching 88% in samples collected from patients with COVID-19 symptoms onset >60 days. Specificity was 100% and the kappa index of agreement was 0.804 (95% CI: 0.642-0.965). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show high sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott IgG test in a Colombian population, which meet the criteria set by the Colombian INS to aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19. Data from our patient groups also suggest that IgG response is detectable in a high proportion of individuals (88.1%) during the first two months following onset of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247255, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The force of infection, or the rate at which susceptible individuals become infected, is an important public health measure for assessing the extent of outbreaks and the impact of control programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present Bayesian methods for estimating force of infection using serological surveys of infections which produce a lasting immune response, accounting for imperfections of the test, and uncertainty in such imperfections. In this estimation, the sensitivity and specificity can either be fixed, or belief distributions of their values can be elicited to allow for uncertainty. We analyse data from two published serological studies of dengue, one in Colombo, Sri Lanka, with a single survey and one in Medellin, Colombia, with repeated surveys in the same individuals. For the Colombo study, we illustrate how the inferred force of infection increases as the sensitivity decreases, and the reverse for specificity. When 100% sensitivity and specificity are assumed, the results are very similar to those from a standard analysis with binomial regression. For the Medellin study, the elicited distribution for sensitivity had a lower mean and higher variance than the one for specificity. Consequently, taking uncertainty in sensitivity into account resulted in a wide credible interval for the force of infection. CONCLUSIONS: These methods can make more realistic estimates of force of infection, and help inform the choice of serological tests for future serosurveys.


Subject(s)
Dengue/blood , Dengue/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Serologic Tests , Humans , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042745, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite most cases not requiring hospital care, there are limited community-based clinical data on COVID-19. METHODS: The Corona São Caetano programme is a primary care initiative providing care to all residents with COVID-19 in São Caetano do Sul, Brazil. It was designed to capture standardised clinical data on community COVID-19 cases. After triage of potentially severe cases, consecutive patients presenting to a multimedia screening platform between 13 April and 13 May 2020 were tested at home with SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR; positive patients were followed up for 14 days with phone calls every 2 days. RT-PCR-negative patients were offered additional SARS-CoV-2 serology testing to establish their infection status. We describe the clinical, virological and natural history features of this prospective population-based cohort. FINDINGS: Of 2073 suspected COVID-19 cases, 1583 (76.4%) were tested by RT-PCR, of whom 444 (28.0%, 95% CI 25.9 to 30.3) were positive; 604/1136 (53%) RT-PCR-negative patients underwent serology, of whom 52 (8.6%) tested SARS-CoV-2 seropositive. The most common symptoms of confirmed COVID-19 were cough, fatigue, myalgia and headache; whereas self-reported fever (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.4 to 3.9), anosmia (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.6 to 4.4) and ageusia (OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.3 to 3.8) were most strongly associated with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis by RT-PCR or serology. RT-PCR cycle thresholds were lower in men, older patients, those with fever and arthralgia and closer to symptom onset. The rates of hospitalisation and death among 444 RT-PCR-positive cases were 6.7% and 0.7%, respectively, with older age and obesity more frequent in the hospitalised group. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 presents in a similar way to other mild community-acquired respiratory diseases, but the presence of fever, anosmia and ageusia can assist the specific diagnosis. Most patients recovered without requiring hospitalisation with a low fatality rate compared with other hospital-based studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Primary Health Care/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cohort Studies , Cough/etiology , Cough/physiopathology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Fever/etiology , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Young Adult
8.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(8): 856-865, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690410

ABSTRACT

The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Brazil on 25 February 2020. We report and contextualize epidemiological, demographic and clinical findings for COVID-19 cases during the first 3 months of the epidemic. By 31 May 2020, 514,200 COVID-19 cases, including 29,314 deaths, had been reported in 75.3% (4,196 of 5,570) of municipalities across all five administrative regions of Brazil. The R0 value for Brazil was estimated at 3.1 (95% Bayesian credible interval = 2.4-5.5), with a higher median but overlapping credible intervals compared with some other seriously affected countries. A positive association between higher per-capita income and COVID-19 diagnosis was identified. Furthermore, the severe acute respiratory infection cases with unknown aetiology were associated with lower per-capita income. Co-circulation of six respiratory viruses was detected but at very low levels. These findings provide a comprehensive description of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil and may help to guide subsequent measures to control virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
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