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1.
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 7(9):241, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2033125

ABSTRACT

Background: The greatest challenges are imposed on the overall capacity of disease management when the cases reach the maximum in each wave of the pandemic. Methods: The cases and deaths for the four waves of COVID-19 in 119 countries and regions (CRs) were collected. We compared the mortality across CRs where populations experience different economic and healthcare disparities. Findings: Among 119 CRs, 117, 112, 111, and 55 have experienced 1, 2, 3, and 4 waves of COVID-19 disease, respectively. The average mortality rates at the disease turning point were 0.036, 0.019. 0.017, and 0.015 for the waves 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Among 49 potential factors, income level, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and school enrollment are positively correlated with the mortality rates in the first wave, but negatively correlated with the rates of the rest of the waves. Their values for the first wave are 0.253, 0.346 and 0.385, respectively. The r value for waves 2, 3, and 4 are −0.310, −0.293, −0.234;−0.263, −0.284, −0.282;and −0.330, −0.394, −0.048, respectively. In high-income CRs, the mortality rates in waves 2 and 3 were 29% and 28% of that in wave 1;while in upper-middle-income CRs, the rates for waves 2 and 3 were 76% and 79% of that in wave 1. The rates in waves 2 and 3 for lower-middle-income countries were 88% and 89% of that in wave 1, and for low-income countries were 135% and 135%. Furthermore, comparison among the largest case numbers through all waves indicated that the mortalities in upper- and lower-middle-income countries is 65% more than that of the high-income countries. Interpretation: Conclusions from the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic do not apply to the following waves. The clinical outcomes in developing countries become worse along with the expansion of the pandemic.

2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982295

ABSTRACT

The 2019 outbreak of corona virus disease began from Wuhan (China), transforming into a leading pandemic, posing an immense threat to the global population. The WHO coined the term nCOVID-19 for the disease on 11th February, 2020 and the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses named it SARS-CoV-2, on account of its similarity with SARS-CoV-1 of 2003. The infection is associated with fever, cough, pneumonia, lung damage, and ARDS along with clinical implications of lung opacities. Brief understanding of the entry target of virus, i.e., ACE2 receptors has enabled numerous treatment options as discussed in this review. The manuscript provides a holistic picture of treatment options in COVID-19, such as non-specific anti-viral drugs, immunosuppressive agents, anti-inflammatory candidates, anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, antibodies and anti-parasitic, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, anti-retroviral, vitamins and hormones, JAK inhibitors, and blood plasma therapy. The text targets to enlist the investigations conducted on all the above categories of drugs, with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic, to accelerate their significance in hindering the disease progression. The data collected primarily targets recently published articles and most recent records of clinical trials, focusing on the last 10-year database. The current review provides a comprehensive view on the critical need of finding a suitable treatment for the currently prevalent COVID-19 disease, and an opportunity for the researchers to investigate the varying possibilities to find and optimized treatment approach to mitigate and ameliorate the chaos created by the pandemic worldwide.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982294

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic of 2019 has already exerted an enormous impact. For over a year, the worldwide pandemic has ravaged the whole globe, with approximately 250 million verified human infection cases and a mortality rate surpassing 4 million. While the genetic makeup of the related pathogen (SARS-CoV-2) was identified, many unknown facets remain a mystery, comprising the virus's origin and evolutionary trend. There were many rumors that SARS-CoV-2 was human-borne and its evolution was predicted many years ago, but scientific investigation proved them wrong and concluded that bats might be the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and pangolins act as intermediary species to transmit the virus from bats to humans. Airborne droplets were found to be the leading cause of human-to-human transmission of this virus, but later studies showed that contaminated surfaces and other environmental factors are also involved in its transmission. The evolution of different SARS-CoV-2 variants worsens the condition and has become a challenge to overcome this pandemic. The emergence of COVID-19 is still a mystery, and scientists are unable to explain the exact origin of SARS-CoV-2. This review sheds light on the possible origin of SARS-CoV-2, its transmission, and the key factors that worsen the situation.

4.
J Pers Med ; 12(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957372

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and chronic kidney disease (CKD) share similarity in sex bias and key genes in the disease pathway of sex difference. We investigated the sex difference of molecular pathways of four key players of these two diseases using an existing large set of whole genome expression profiles from the kidneys of female and male mouse models. Our data show that there is little to no correlation at the whole genome expression level between female and male mice among these four genes. There are considerable sex differences among genes in upstream regulation, Ace2 complex interaction, and downstream pathways. Snap25 and Plcb4 may play important roles in the regulation of the expression level of Adam17, Tmprss2, and Cd146 in females. In males, Adh4 is a candidate gene for the regulation of Adam17, while Asl, Auts2, and Rabger1 are candidates for Tmprss2. Within the Ace2 complex, Cd146 directly influences the expression level of Adam17 and Ace2 in the female, while in the male Adam potentially has a stronger influence on Ace2 than that of Tmprss2. Among the top 100 most related genes, only one or two genes from four key genes and 11 from the control B-Actin were found to be the same between sexes. Among the top 10 sets of genes in the downstream pathway of Ace2, only two sets are the same between the sexes. We concluded that these known key genes and novel genes in CKD may play significant roles in the sex difference in the CKD and COVID-19 disease pathways.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 832: 154770, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When the COVID-19 case number reaches a maximum in a country, its capacity and management of health system face greatest challenge. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on data of turning points for cases and deaths for the first three waves of COVID-19 in countries with more than 5000 cumulative cases, as reported by Worldometers and WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. We compared the case fatality rates (CFRs) and time lags (in unit of day) between the turning points of cases and deaths among countries in different development stages and potential influence factors. As of May 10, 2021, 106 out of 222 countries or regions (56%) reported more than 5000 cases. Approximately half of them have experienced all the three waves of COVID-19 disease. The average mortality rate at the disease turning point was 0.038 for the first wave, 0.020 for the second wave, and 0.023 for wave 3. In high-income countries, the mortality rates during the first wave are higher than that of the other income levels. However, the mortality rates during the second and third waves of COVID-19 were much lower than those of the first wave, with a significant reduction from 5.7% to 1.7% approximately 70%. At the same time, high-income countries exhibited a 2-fold increase in time lags during the second and the third waves compared to the first wave, suggesting that the periods between the cases and deaths turning point extended. High rates in the first wave in developed countries are associated to multiple factors including transportation, population density, and aging populations. In upper middle- and lower middle-income countries, the decreasing of mortality rates in the second and third waves were subtle or even reversed, with increased mortality during the following waves. In the upper and lower middle-income countries, the time lags were about 50% of the durations observed from high-income countries. INTERPRETATION: Economy and medical resources affect the efficiency of COVID-19 mitigation and the clinical outcomes of the patients. The situation is likely to become even worse in the light of these countries' limited ability to combat COVID-19 and prevent severe outcomes or deaths as the new variant transmission becomes dominant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Income , Population Density , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(28): 42404-42432, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872658

ABSTRACT

The human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus; the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Natural products, secondary metabolites show positive leads with antiviral and immunotherapy treatments using genomic studies in silico docking. In addition, it includes the action of a mechanism targeting the SARS-CoV-2. In this literature, we aimed to evaluate the antiviral movement of the NT-VRL-1 unique terpene definition to Human coronavirus (HCoV-229E). The effects of 19 hydrolysable tannins on the SARS-CoV-2 were therefore theoretically reviewed and analyzed utilising the molecular operating surroundings for their C-Like protease 3CLpro catalytic dyad residues Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (MOE 09). Pedunculagin, tercatan, and castalin were detected as interacting strongly with SARS-receptor Cov-2's binding site and catalytic dyad (Cys145 and His41). SARS-CoV-2 methods of subunit S1 (ACE2) inhibit the interaction of the receiver with the s-protein once a drug molecule is coupled to the s-protein and prevent it from infecting the target cells in alkaloids. Our review strongly demonstrates the evidence that natural compounds and their derivatives can be used against the human coronavirus and serves as an area of research for future perspective.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(26): 38657-38672, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729363

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a serious respiratory infection caused by a beta-coronavirus that is closely linked to SARS. Hypoxemia is a symptom of infection, which is accompanied by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Augmenting supplementary oxygen may not always improve oxygen saturation; reversing hypoxemia in COVID-19 necessitates sophisticated means to promote oxygen transfer from alveoli to blood. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been shown to inhibit the multiplication of the respiratory coronavirus, a property that distinguishes it from other vasodilators. These findings imply that NO may have a crucial role in the therapy of COVID-19, indicating research into optimal methods to restore pulmonary physiology. According to clinical and experimental data, NO is a selective vasodilator proven to restore oxygenation by helping to normalize shunts and ventilation/perfusion mismatches. This study examines the role of NO in COVID-19 in terms of its specific physiological and biochemical properties, as well as the possibility of using inhaled NO as a standard therapy. We have also discussed how NO could be used to prevent and cure COVID-19, in addition to the limitations of NO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Administration, Inhalation , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide , Oxygen
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311595

ABSTRACT

In view of the fact that the 2019-nCoV has spread to most countries in the world, it is necessary to make scientific and well-founded predictions of the current pandemic situation caused by the virus worldwide, which are conducive to public, social and government responses that mitigate and appropriately address the pandemic. We collected data from provinces with more than 200 cases in China and from eight other countries. Our analyses showed that the disease duration has no correlation with the number of patients, with r = 0.184. The number of deaths was not correlated to the disease duration, with r = 0.242. However, a positive correlation between the days of disease duration and infection rate, with a r = 0.626. Furthermore, there is a strong positive correlation between the disease duration and total death rate, with a r = 0.707. Using death rate of first 25 days, we obtained a positive relationship with a r value of 0.597. Based on the data from first 25 days, the minimum and maximum days of COVID-19 pandemic duration of eight countries was estimated between days of 37 and 114 days.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 808: 152072, 2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550061

ABSTRACT

The combat against the Corona virus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), has created a chaos among the healthcare institutions and researchers, in turn accelerating the dire need to curtail the infection spread. The already established entry mechanism, via ACE2 has not yet successfully aided in the development of a suitable and reliable therapy. Taking in account the constant progression and deterioration of the cases worldwide, a different perspective and mechanistic approach is required, which has thrown light onto the cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) transmembrane protein, as a novel route for SARS-CoV-2 entry. Despite lesser affinity towards COVID-19 virus, as compared to ACE2, this receptor provides a suitable justification behind elevated blood glucose levels in infected patients, retarded COVID-19 risk in women, enhanced susceptibility in geriatrics, greater infection susceptibility of T cells, infection prevalence in non-susceptible human cardiac pericytes and so on. The manuscript invokes the title role and distribution of CD147 in COVID-19 as an entry receptor and mediator of endocytosis-promoted entry of the virus, along with the "catch and clump" hypothesis, thereby presenting its Fundamental significance as a therapeutic target for potential candidates, such as Azithromycin, melatonin, statins, beta adrenergic blockers, ivermectin, Meplazumab etc. Thus, the authors provide a comprehensive review of a different perspective in COVID-19 infection, aiming to aid the researchers and virologists in considering all aspects of viral entry, in order to develop a sustainable and potential cure for the 2019 COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Basigin , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Cell Differentiation , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(6): 8109-8125, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540257

ABSTRACT

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide that is produced by the lymphoid cells and plays a major role in immunological functions for controlling the homeostasis of the immune system. VIP has been identified as a potent anti-inflammatory factor, in boosting both innate and adaptive immunity. Since December 2019, SARS-Cov-2 was found responsible for the disease COVID-19 which has spread worldwide. No specific therapies or 100% effective vaccines are yet available for the treatment of COVID-19. Drug repositioning may offer a strategy and several drugs have been repurposed, including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and tocilizumab. This paper describes the main pharmacological properties of synthetic VIP drug (Aviptadil) which is now under clinical trials. A patented formulation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), named RLF-100 (Aviptadil), was developed and finally got approved for human trials by FDA in 2001 and in European medicines agency in 2005. It was awarded Orphan Drug Designation in 2001 by the US FDA for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome and for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in 2005. Investigational new drug (IND) licenses for human trials of Aviptadil was guaranteed by both the US FDA and EMEA. Preliminary clinical trials seem to support Aviptadil's benefit. However, such drugs like Aviptadil in COVID-19 patients have peculiar safety profiles. Thus, adequate clinical trials are necessary for these compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide , Drug Combinations , Humans , Phentolamine , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430776

ABSTRACT

The worldwide transmission of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a deadly or devastating disease is known to affect thousands of people every day, many of them dying all over the planet. The main reason for the massive effect of COVID-19 on society is its unpredictable spread, which does not allow for proper planning or management of this disease. Antibiotics, antivirals, and other prescription drugs, necessary and used in therapy, obviously have side effects (minor or significant) on the affected person, there are still not clear enough studies to elucidate their combined effect in this specific treatment, and existing protocols are sometimes unclear and uncertain. In contrast, it has been found that nutraceuticals, supplements, and various herbs can be effective in reducing the chances of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but also in alleviating COVID-19 symptoms. However, not enough specific details are yet available, and precise scientific studies to validate the approved benefits of natural food additives, probiotics, herbs, and nutraceuticals will need to be standardized according to current regulations. These alternative treatments may not have a direct effect on the virus or reduce the risk of infection with it, but these products certainly stimulate the human immune system so that the body is better prepared to fight the disease. This paper aims at a specialized literary foray precisely in the field of these "cures" that can provide real revelations in the therapy of coronavirus infection.

12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(40): 55925-55951, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397042

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization with rapid spread across 216 countries. COVID-19 pandemic has left its imprints on various health systems globally and caused immense social and economic disruptions. The scientific community across the globe is in a quest for digging the effective treatment for COVID-19 and exploring potential leads from traditional systems of healthcare across the world too. Ayurveda (Indian traditional system of medicine) has a comprehensive aspect of immunity through Rasayana which is a rejuvenation therapy. Here we attempt to generate the potential leads based on the classical text from Ayurveda in general and Rasayana in particular to develop effective antiviral and/or immunomodulator for potential or adjunct therapy in SARS-CoV-2. The Rasayana acts not only by resisting body to restrain or withstand the strength, severity or progression of a disease but also by promoting power of the body to prevent the manifestation of a disease. These Rasayana herbs are common in practice as immunomodulator, antiviral and protectives. The studies on Rasayana can provide an insight into the future course of research for the plausible development of effective management of COVID-19 by the utilization and development of various traditional systems of healthcare. Keeping in view the current pandemic situation, there is an urgent need of developing potential medicines. This study proposes certain prominent medicinal plants which may be further studied for drug development process and also in clinical setup under repurposing of these herbs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40308-40310, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326845

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 585115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285300

ABSTRACT

The complexity of COVID-19 and variations in control measures and containment efforts in different countries have caused difficulties in the prediction and modeling of the COVID-19 pandemic. We attempted to predict the scale of the latter half of the pandemic based on real data using the ratio between the early and latter halves from countries where the pandemic is largely over. We collected daily pandemic data from China, South Korea, and Switzerland and subtracted the ratio of pandemic days before and after the disease apex day of COVID-19. We obtained the ratio of pandemic data and created multiple regression models for the relationship between before and after the apex day. We then tested our models using data from the first wave of the disease from 14 countries in Europe and the US. We then tested the models using data from these countries from the entire pandemic up to March 30, 2021. Results indicate that the actual number of cases from these countries during the first wave mostly fall in the predicted ranges of liniar regression, excepting Spain and Russia. Similarly, the actual deaths in these countries mostly fall into the range of predicted data. Using the accumulated data up to the day of apex and total accumulated data up to March 30, 2021, the data of case numbers in these countries are falling into the range of predicted data, except for data from Brazil. The actual number of deaths in all the countries are at or below the predicted data. In conclusion, a linear regression model built with real data from countries or regions from early pandemics can predict pandemic scales of the countries where the pandemics occur late. Such a prediction with a high degree of accuracy provides valuable information for governments and the public.

15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(28): 36967-36983, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245724

ABSTRACT

The microbiome is a term that usually refers to the community of various microorganisms that inhabit/live inside human/animal bodies or on their skin. It forms a complex ecosystem that includes trillions of commensals, symbiotics, and even pathogenic microorganisms. The external environment, diet, and lifestyle are the major determinants influencing the microbiome's composition and vitality. Recent studies have indicated the tremendous influence of the microbiome on health and disease. Their number, constitution, variation, and viability are dynamic. All these elements are responsible for the induction, development, and treatment of many health disorders. Serious diseases such as cancer, metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and even psychological disorders such as schizophrenia are influenced directly or indirectly by microbiota. In addition, in the last few weeks, accumulating data about the link between COVID-19 and the microbiota were published. In the present work, the role of the microbiome in health and disease is discussed. A deep understanding of the exact role of microbiota in disease induction enables the prevention of diseases and the development of new therapeutic concepts for most diseases through the correction of diet and lifestyle. The present review brings together evidence from the most recent works and discusses suggested nutraceutical approaches for the management of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Animals , Diet , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40515-40532, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242812

ABSTRACT

The world has never been prepared for global pandemics like the COVID-19, currently posing an immense threat to the public and consistent pressure on the global healthcare systems to navigate optimized tools, equipments, medicines, and techno-driven approaches to retard the infection spread. The synergized outcome of artificial intelligence paradigms and human-driven control measures elicit a significant impact on screening, analysis, prediction, and tracking the currently infected individuals, and likely the future patients, with precision and accuracy, generating regular international and national data on confirmed, recovered, and death cases, as the current status of 3,820,869 infected patients worldwide. Artificial intelligence is a frontline concept, with time-saving, cost-effective, and productive access to disease management, rendering positive results in physician assistance in high workload conditions, radiology imaging, computational tomography, and database formulations, to facilitate availability of information accessible to researchers all over the globe. The review tends to elaborate the role of industry 4.0 technology, fast diagnostic procedures, and convolutional neural networks, as artificial intelligence aspects, in potentiating the COVID-19 management criteria and differentiating infection in SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative groups. Therefore, the review successfully supplements the processes of vaccine development, disease management, diagnosis, patient records, transmission inhibition, social distancing, and future pandemic predictions, with artificial intelligence revolution and smart techno processes to ensure that the human race wins this battle with COVID-19 and many more combats in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40445-40459, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085643

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a challenging public health catastrophe worldwide. The newly emerged disease spread in almost all countries and infected 100 million persons worldwide. The infection is not limited to the respiratory system but involves various body systems and may lead to multiple organ failure. Tissue degenerative changes result from direct viral invasion, indirect consequences, or through an uncontrolled immune response. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads to the brain via hematogenous and neural routes accompanied with dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier. The involvement of the central nervous system is now suspected to be among the main causes of death. The present review discusses the historical background of coronaviruses, their role in previous and ongoing pandemics, the way they escape the immune system, why they are able to spread despite all undertaken measures, in addition to the neurological manifestations, long-term consequences of the disease, and various routes of viral introduction to the CNS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Open Med (Wars) ; 16(1): 134-138, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058322

ABSTRACT

While countries are in a hurry to obtain SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, we are concerned with the availability of vaccine and whether a vaccine will be available to all in need. We predicted three possible scenarios for vaccine distributions and urge an international united action on the worldwide equitable access. In case the international community does not reach a consensus on how to distribute the vaccine to achieve worldwide equitable access, we call for a distribution plan that includes the employees in international transportation industries and international travelers to halt the disease transmission and promote the recovery of the global economy.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40431-40444, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030736

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected the entire world with its infectious spread and mortality rate. The severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are characterized by hypoxia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In the absence of any specific treatment, just the preventive and supportive care options are available. Therefore, much focus is given to assess the available therapeutic options not only to avoid acute respiratory failure and hypoxia but also to reduce the viral load to control the severity of the disease. The antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is among the much-discussed drugs for the treatment and management of COVID-19 patients. This article reviews the therapeutic potential of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 based on the available in vitro and clinical evidence, current status of registered HCQ-based clinical trials investigating therapeutic options for COVID-19, and environmental implications of HCQ.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40424-40430, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030492

ABSTRACT

Currently, 2019-nCoV has spread to most countries of the world. Understanding the environmental factors that affect the spread of the disease COVID-19 infection is critical to stop the spread of the disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether population density is associated with the infection rate of the COVID-19. We collected data from official webpages of cities in China and in the USA. The data were organized on Excel spreadsheets for statistical analyses. We calculated the morbidity and population density of cities and regions in these two countries. We then examined the relationship between morbidity and other factors. Our analysis indicated that the population density in cities in Hubei province where the COVID-19 was severe was associated with a higher percentage of morbidity, with an r value of 0.62. Similarly, in the USA, the density of 51 states and territories is also associated with morbidity from COVID-19 with an r value of 0.55. In contrast, as a control group, there is no association between the morbidity and population density in 33 other regions of China, where the COVID-19 epidemic is well under control. Interestingly, our study also indicated that these associations were not influenced by the first case of COVID-19. The rate of morbidity and the number of days from the first case in the USA have no association, with an r value of - 0.1288. Population density is positively associated with the percentage of patients with COVID-19 infection in the population. Our data support the importance of such as social distancing and travel restriction in the prevention of COVID-19 spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Humans , Physical Distancing , Population Density , SARS-CoV-2
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